Secret HistoryS

Blue Planet

Huge 4,000-year-old fortification discovered in Saudi Arabia

© Khaybar Longue Durée Archaeological Project, M. Bussy & G. Charloux.Reconstruction of the fort at Khaybar.
Archaeologists have found a massive ancient fortification enclosing the Khaybar Oasis in the North Arabian Desert. It is one of the two largest fortifications in Saudi Arabia.

Oases in the region have been settled by human populations for 4,000-5,000 years. An oasis is a small patch of vegetation in the desert. Fed by sources of freshwater such as underground rivers and high water tables mean these areas can become vibrant, lush sanctuaries for plant and animal life.

Human-built aquifers and channels can help irrigate these areas making them suitable for long-term settlement.

Comment: And there's evidence in Iraq showing that its people had a seriously sophisticated understanding of the science of water: Ancient Sumerians invented water flumes thousands of years earlier than previously thought

Comment: Evidently it was built to protect something from potential attack by invaders. Which corresponds to evidence elsewhere that not only did societies become more warlike, and this was then followed the collapse of Bronze Age societies across the planet: Other discoveries at Khaybar:

Snowflake Cold

UK's deadliest snow in history that killed 90,000 people, froze seas and saw food prices soar

A shimmering wall of ice on one of the waterfalls on the Brecon Beacons in 1963
A shimmering wall of ice on one of the waterfalls on the Brecon Beacons in 1963
Dubbed the 'Big Freeze', the snowstorm of 1962 lasted three perilous months and took the lives of thousands of Brits as food prices soared and transport stopped running

The UK is facing its worst snowstorm in over a decade - but it still won't compare to the record-breaking Big Freeze when almost 90,000 excess winter deaths were reported.

Countless forecasting sites are warning Brits to prepare for winter weather hazards over the coming weeks, with blanketing snow and harsh overnight frosts expected across the country. The Met Office has refused to put exact figures on how much snow will come down, and where it will land, though the national weather agency predicts an "increasing risk" later in the week.

Exacta Weather forecaster James Madden believes the snow risk is greater than any year since 2010 and predicts the cold spell "will hold out for an extended period". "As well as the risk of snow, we will see harsh overnight frosts and the coldest temperatures dipping as low as -15C in the coldest parts of the country over the coming week," he told GB News.

But it will be nothing compared to the horror of 1962 and 1963 - the snowstorm that lasted for three solid months and claimed the lives of thousands. Temperatures plunged to -22C; planes, trains, lorries, and cars were grounded; schools were closed and people were trapped in their own homes as rivers, lakes, and even the sea froze over.


Laser mapping reveals oldest Amazonian cities, built 2500 years ago

Neighborhoods, farms, and roads are 1000 years older than previous discoveries.

Lidar Map
© ANTOINE DORISON AND STÉPHEN ROSTAINA lidar map of the city of Kunguints in the Ecuadorian Amazon reveals ancient streets lined with houses.
Archaeologists once believed the ancient Amazon rainforest was an inhospitable place, sparsely populated by bands of hunter-gatherers. But the remains of enormous earthworks, pyramids, and roads from Bolivia to Brazil discovered over the past 2 decades have proved conclusively that the Amazon was home to large, complex societies long before European colonizers arrived. Now, there's evidence that another human society — the oldest yet — left its mark on the region: A dense network of interconnected cities, now hidden beneath the forest in Ecuador's Upano Valley, has been revealed by the laser mapping technology called lidar. The settlements, described today in Science, are at least 2500 years old, more than 1000 years older than any other known complex Amazonian society.

Lidar, which allows researchers to see through forest cover and reconstruct the ancient sites below, "is revolutionizing our understanding of the Amazon in pre-Columbian times," says Carla Jaimes Betancourt, an archaeologist at the University of Bonn who wasn't involved in the new work. Finding such an ancient urban network in the Upano Valley highlights the long-unrecognized diversity of ancient Amazonian cultures, which archaeologists are just beginning to be able to reconstruct.

Stéphen Rostain, an archaeologist at CNRS, France's national research agency, began excavating in the Upano Valley nearly 30 years ago. His team focused on two large settlements, called Sangay and Kilamope, and found mounds organized around central plazas, pottery decorated with paint and incised lines, and large jugs holding the remains of the traditional maize beer chicha. Radiocarbon dates showed the Upano sites were occupied from around 500 B.C.E. to between 300 C.E. and 600 C.E. "I knew that we had a lot of mounds, a lot of structures," Rostain says. "But I didn't have a complete overview of the region."


The British empire's gnostic revival of scientific paganism and a new world religion

ehret header
[The following is a sequel to Sir Henry Kissinger: Midwife to New Babylon]
"We had run up against the Judeo-Christian commitment to one God, one religion, one reality, that has cursed Europe for centuries and America since our founding days. Drugs that open the mind to multiple realities inevitably lead to a polytheistic view of the universe. We sensed that the time for a new humanist religion based on intelligence, good natured pluralism and scientific paganism had arrived."

-Dr. Timothy Leary (recounting Aldous Huxley's 1960 demand for a new world religion)
The Science of History: Pregnant Moments vs Linear Chronologies

The study of history can be approached from a number of directions, and using a number of diverse assumptions... but not all of them are equal, and some are extremely destructive.

Some people believe that history is simply associating events onto a linear time line and then adding creative writing to explain away causes of those events. Others presume that history is divided by "ages" with the "causes" of each event explained away by the age in which they occur. Others presume that the events across ages are caused by a never-ending class struggle of rich vs poor while others presume no causality exists behind the events on a time line except for raw hunger, greed or stupidity.

Over the years, I have come to the conclusion that history is best understood as a living process shaped by 1) ideas of good and evil, 2) decisions to act according to those ideas whether right or wrong, and 3) the freedom to embrace error, corruption and lies which often wear the clothing of truth.

When those false ideas are permitted to shape the cultural standards of what is considered "normal" for too long, decay across all spectrums of life can be found.

Comment: See Matt Ehret's prequel: Sir Henry Kissinger: Midwife to New Babylon


Only a Fool Invades Russia?

Putin Looking at Russia Geography
© Armstrong EconomicsRussia Geography
Golden Gate Kiev, Ukraine.
© Armstrong EconomicsGolden Gate Kiev, Ukraine.
Let's get something straight. There have been countless attempts to conquer Russia, and they have all failed over the course of 1,000 years - yea - 1,000 years! The invaders encountered different incarnations of Russians as well. There were the Ancient Rus, the Moscow Tsardom, the Russian Empire, and most recently, the Soviet Union. The enemies have also come in different flavors, like ice cream. There has been a Northern military state, an Eastern empire invasion, and the more recent famous invasions of Hitler and Napoleon. Every single one of them has failed to conquer Russia except one - the Mongols.

The Mongols invaded under the grandson of Genghis Khan. He invaded Russia around the
Ivan III 1485 1505 AR Denga
© Armstrong EconomicsIvan III 1485 1505 AR Denga.
1220s-1230s. The Rus were divided into tribes. Like Julius Caesar understood when he invaded Gaul, divide and conquer. The Mongol warriors succeeded because the various Russian princes at that time were competing against one another in a perpetual rivalry for the Kievan throne. Thus, the lands of Rus' were plundered, and in 1240, Kiev fell. Russian princes were forced to subjugate to the Tatar-Mongol khans. Indeed, there is still a Tatr population living in Crimea to this day. What is left of the Rus fortifications, the Golden Gate, is all that remains standing in Kiev.

In 1380, Moscow prince Dmitry Donskoy famously defeated the Tatar army at the Kulikovo field. Russia was born one hundred years later in 1480 when they were free of the Mongols, and he became the first Grand Prince of Moscow, Ivan III ( 1440-1505). If I actually listed every failed attempt to invade Russia ever since, I think that would require a book. The Mongols were used to the cold, unlike the Europeans.

© Armstrong EconomicsBattle of Poltava 1709.


Ancient Balkan genomes trace the rise and fall of Roman Empire's frontier, reveal Slavic migrations to southeastern Europe

© Ilija Mikić.Exceptionally rich sarcophagus found at Viminacium in which a man of local descent and a woman of Anatolian descent were buried. It features several gold and silver objects including two gold earrings, a silver mirror, a silver brooch and 151 gold beads.
A multidisciplinary study has reconstructed the genomic history of the Balkan Peninsula during the first millennium of the common era, a time and place of profound demographic, cultural and linguistic change. The team has recovered and analyzed whole genome data from 146 ancient people excavated primarily from Serbia and Croatia — more than a third of which came from the Roman military frontier at the massive archaeological site of Viminacium in Serbia — which they co-analyzed with data from the rest of the Balkans and nearby regions.

The work, published in the journal Cell, highlights the cosmopolitanism of the Roman frontier and the long-term consequences of migrations that accompanied the breakdown of Roman control, including the arrival of people speaking Slavic languages. Archaeological DNA reveals that despite nation-state boundaries that divide them, populations in the Balkans have been shaped by shared demographic processes.

"Archaeogenetics is an indispensable complement to archaeological and historical evidence. A new and much richer picture comes into view when we synthesize written records, archaeological remains like grave goods and human skeletons, and ancient genomes", said co-author Kyle Harper, a historian of the ancient Roman world at the University of Oklahoma.


Monumental discovery gives significant insights into Roman Empire's transition from paganism to Christianity

inside walls of an Imperial Cult temple
© Photo by Douglas Boin.An aerial photo of what Douglas Boin, Ph.D., believes to be the inside walls of an Imperial Cult temple. This temple immediately became what Boin calls the largest evidence ever of the Imperial Cult in both fourth-century Italy and the late Roman Empire.
Douglas Boin, Ph.D., a professor of history at Saint Louis University, made a major announcement at the annual meeting of the Archeological Institute of America, revealing he and his team discovered an ancient Roman temple that adds significant insights into the social change from pagan gods to Christianity within the Roman Empire.

"We found three walls of a monumental structure that evidence suggests belonged to a Roman temple that dates to Constantine's period," Boin said. "It dates to the fourth century AD and it would be a remarkable addition to the landscape of this corner of Italy. It will significantly aid in the understanding of the ancient town, the ancient townscape and city society in the later Roman Empire because it shows the continuities between the classical pagan world and early Christian Roman world that often get blurred out or written out of the sweeping historical narratives."

Boin, Dr. Letizia Ceccarelli, Politecnico di Milano, and the rest of the excavation team made the monumental discovery over the summer. Boin, an expert in ancient Roman and its religious transitions, had been digging in the town of Spello, the famous medieval hilltop city about 20 minutes from Assisi and 2.5 hours north of Rome. Boin selected the town based on a rescript of a 4th century letter from Emperor Constantine to the townspeople regarding a religious holiday.

This rescript, which was discovered in the 18th century, allowed the people of Spello to celebrate a religious festival in their hometown rather than travel a great distance to another festival. However, in order to do so, the town was told it must erect a temple to Constantine's divine ancestors, the Flavian family, and worship them, showcasing how multicultural Roman society was at the time.

"There was a remarkable religious continuity between the Roman world and the early Christian world," Boin said. "Things didn't change overnight. Before our find, we never had a sense that there were actual physical, religious sites associated with this late 'imperial cult practice.' But because of the inscription and its reference to a temple, Spello offered a very tantalizing potential for a major discovery of an Imperial cult underneath a Christian ruler."


Lead sling bullet inscribed with the name 'Julius Caesar' found in Spain

Lead Bullet
© Stile arte
An ancient lead bullet "signed" by Julius Caesar and recently found in a Spanish agricultural field allows us to enrich our knowledge of the complex chessboard of municipal alliances during the civil war which supposedly brought the general who had subdued Gaul. The projectile ( pictured ) is shaped like an acorn, with pointed ends. It measures 4.5 centimeters long, 2 centimeters wide and 1.7 centimeters high. It weighs 71.1 grams. And it bears two inscriptions, in relief.

The discovery and study of the bullet were presented during a press conference held in recent hours by the municipality of Baena, in Andalusia. Why Baena? Because two writings appear on the bullet: Cesare - CAES (ar), in the inscription - and Ipsca - IPSCA, in the inscription -, a Roman city that stood on the border of what is now the territory of Baena.

The lead acorn was found 19 kilometers from Baena, in the countryside of Montilla, a Spanish municipality of around 23 thousand inhabitants, located in the autonomous community of Andalusia. The town is located at an average height of 372 meters above sea level and 49 kilometers from Cordoba. The terrible final clash of the civil war probably took place in his campaigns - the battle of Munda - which brought Julius Caesar here against the sons of Pompey, in 45 BC

Municipal military forces also took part in this huge battle, taking sides on one side or the other. The bullet found bears - associated - the name of Ipsca, precisely - and that - abbreviated - of Julius Caesar. Lead has now torn a veil, opening the scenario to new discoveries, to the knowledge of new alliances, strengthening the hypothesis relating to the place where the final clash between Caesar and Pompey's sons took place, in that fateful spring of 45 BC. Not only . The finding also opens a discussion relating to the most ancient roots of the term sponsorship, i.e. financing and aid for unity of purpose, support from a third party for self-promotion. Ultimately the lead acorn represents all of this.

Comment: For fascinating insight into who Caesar really was, see: And check out SOTT radio's:


The FBI-tainted Whitmer 'kidnap plot' you've heard next to nothing about

© APDemocratic Governor Gretchen Whitmer • Michigan • 2020
In a fiery exchange last month, CNN anchorwoman Abby Phillip told GOP presidential candidate Vivek Ramaswamy that there was "no evidence" to support his claim that federal agents abetted protesters at the Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

Ramaswamy shot back that the FBI conspicuously has never denied that law enforcement agents were on duty in the crowd. He argued that federal officials have repeatedly "lied" to the American people about not only that investigation but one that has gotten much less attention: the alleged failed plot to kidnap and kill Democratic Gov. Gretchen Whitmer of Michigan in 2020.

"It was entrapment," Ramaswamy said. "FBI agents putting them up to a kidnapping plot that we were told was true but wasn't."

His zeroing in on the Michigan case highlighted an uncharacteristic development in contemporary politics, where progressives vigorously defend law enforcement power while conservatives view it with deep suspicion. Further, Ramaswamy's linking of Jan. 6 and the Whitmer plot resonated with many on the right who want similarities between the two episodes exposed to the general public, especially the FBI's reliance on informants and other paid operatives.

On Oct. 8, 2020, Whitmer announced the shocking arrests of several men accused of planning to kidnap and possibly assassinate her. The case produced alarming headlines just weeks before Election Day; Democrats, including Whitmer, used news of the plot to blame Trump for inciting violence.

Comment: Complex FBI machinations created the prototype for January 6 at the US Capitol.


'Mysterious' inscription on ancient sphinx is deciphered, revealing 'unusual' message

Sphinx Statue
© Photo from the journal Mediterranean Archaeology and ArchaeometryAfter puzzling experts for over 100 years, an inscription on an ancient sphinx has now been deciphered, according to a new study.
A message etched into an ancient sphinx has proven to be, well, sphinx-like. The "mysterious" inscription has long been an enigma, puzzling scholars for over a century.

But now, it's finally been deciphered, revealing a brief, but "unusual" poem, according to a study published Dec. 30 in the journal Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry.

Dating to the third century, the bronze sphinx statue originated from Dacia, a Roman province that largely corresponds to modern-day Romania.

Taking the form of a winged lion, "the sphinx was perceived by the original creators and users of the artifact as a representation of a mythical deity that they honored and worshiped," Peter Revesz, the study author and professor at the University of Nebraska, told McClatchy News.

After being discovered in the 19th century, the statue was stolen from a European count sometime around 1848, Revesz said.

While it was never recovered, a detailed drawing of the sphinx remained. In the drawing, the inscription — composed of a handful of characters — can be seen on the base of the statue. For decades, scholars examined the drawing, attempting to decode the inscription. However, they were unsuccessful, perhaps because — in an "unusual" break from ancient norms — it reads from left to right.