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Thu, 23 Nov 2017
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An update: Sunspots ala CyclicCatastrophism

© NAOJ/Nagoya University/JAXA
Fig. 1 Fifty years of constant Sun observation.
This post is a response to "Variation of the Solar Microwave Spectrum in the Last Half Century", Masumi Shimojo et al. Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848, Number 1.

The abstract states:
"... we found that the microwave spectra at the solar minima of Cycles 20-24 agree with each other. These results show that the average atmospheric structure above the upper chromosphere in the quiet-Sun has not varied for half a century, and suggest that the energy input for atmospheric heating from the sub-photosphere to the corona have not changed in the quiet-Sun despite significantly differing strengths of magnetic activity in the last five solar cycles."
See Figure 1 above.

Arrow Up

Eruption at Agung volcano, Bali

© Darren Whiteside / Reuters
Tens of thousands of people have fled their homes in Bali over the past months, fearing an inevitable Mount Agung volcanic eruption, which on Tuesday, finally spewed ash as high as 700 meters into the Indonesian sky.

The volcano on the Indonesian resort island erupted at 5:05pm Tuesday, the National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) announced, urging residents to "remain calm" and to stay away from areas within 7.5-kilometer radius of the volcano.

However, despite the high volcanic activity, flights in and out of Bali are continuing as usual. "Tourism in Bali is also still safe," the BNPB said while asking tourists to stay away from Mount Agung.

Comment: See also:


Volcanoes are erupting all over the place right now. Scientists have figured out why: A minute slowdown in the planet's rotation

The Earth seems to have been smoking a lot recently. Volcanoes are erupting in Iceland, Hawaii, Indonesia, Ecuador and Mexico right now. Others, in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea, erupted recently but seem to have calmed down. Many of these have threatened homes and forced evacuations. But among their spectators, these eruptions raise this question: Is there such a thing as a season for volcanic eruptions?

While volcanoes may not have "seasons" as we know them, scientists have started to discern intriguing patterns in their activity.

Eruptions caused by a shortened day

The four seasons are caused by the Earth's axis of rotation tilting toward and away from the sun. But our planet undergoes another, less well-known change, which affects it in a more subtle way, perhaps even volcanically.

Due to factors like the gravitational pull of the sun and moon, the speed at which the Earth rotates constantly changes. Accordingly the length of a day actually varies from year to year. The difference is only in the order of milliseconds. But new research suggests that this seemingly small perturbation could bring about significant changes on our planet - or more accurately, within it.

Comment: Finally, some government-approved scientists have 1.) noticed the increase in volcanic activity, and 2.) connected it with a minute slowdown in planetary rotation.

It needs to be further explained, however, that the 'seasonal' changes to patterns of erupting volcanoes marry with 'seasonal' changes to patterns of other climatological, seismic and cosmic phenomena. There aren't just more volcanoes erupting now. There are more earthquakes now. There is more precipitation now. There is more snow now. There are stronger storms now. There is more methane outgassing now. There is more heat coming up from the oceans now. There are more meteor fireballs now. There are more comets in the solar system now. There are more cosmic rays reaching Earth now.

Etcetera, etcetera.

All of it is inter-related, which is why climatology alone cannot explain what is going on. Only a (truly) multi-disciplinary approach - one that is disinterested in biased assumptions that improve chances of receiving grants - can account for all the observation data.

SOTT.net has been saying for years that a slowdown in the planet's rotation can account for much of what has unfolded in terms of global planetary and climate chaos in the last decade or so. The question is: what is causing the planet's rotation to slow down? It cannot simply be "factors like the gravitational pull of the sun and moon" because the same thing is happening to other planets in the solar system!


Yellow alert issued for Öræfajökull volcano in Iceland as new caldera forms

© Ágúst J. Magnússon
The new caldera can be seen clearly on this image.
A new caldera, measuring a diameter of one kilometre has been formed in this last week in Öræfajökull glacier, a caldera spotted via satellite images of the glacier.

Iceland's volcanoes may be ready to blow

According to the Iceland Met Office this caldera shows increased activity in Öræfajökull which is located in Vatnajökull, Iceland's largest glacier.

A great sulphuric stench has emanated from the river Kvíá last week.

Increased seismic activity has occurred in the area in recent months, activity which has subsided in recent days. The volcano hasn't erupted since 1727. There are still no signs of an imminent eruption states an announcement from the Met Office. However, the safety code has been put up to yellow.


Popocatepetl volcano spews plume of ash into the sky near Mexico City

© Emmanuel Flores / AFP
A huge plume of smoke rises into the air following the eruption of Mexico's Popocatepetl.
Footage of the moment the Popocatepetl volcano erupts, spewing a huge plume of ash into the air near Mexico City, has been posted online.

Popocatepetl, meaning 'smoking mountain' in Aztec, erupted three times in the space of 24 hours across Thursday and Friday. The ash, described as "moderate" and "light" by civil protection authorities, fell over the nearby towns of Tétela del Volcán and Ocuituco, according to El Sol de Cuautla.

The stratovolcano, which annexes both Popocatepetl and the dormant volcano Iztaccihuatl, has been emitting ash since the beginning of this month, with explosions detected at various times over the last 10 days, according to the Global Volcanism Program.


Shallow 5.0 magnitude earthquake recorded off Bali near active Mount Agung volcano

Earthquake strike near Mount Agung
An earthquake measuring 5.0 magnitude on the richter scale was detected in Bali near Mount Agung on Thursday morning.

The quake's epicenter was in the sea, 11 kilometers east of Karangasem, at a depth of 10 kilometers at 5:54am local time, according to data from the Bali Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG).

The earthquake did not trigger a tsunami warning.

The epicenter was about 12 to 13 kilometers from the summit of Mount Agung, Bali's rumbling volcano that is currently on level III "standby" the second highest alert level for an eruption. Agung has been on standby since Oct. 29 after previously being on level IV "danger" for five weeks.


Popocatepetl Volcano drops ash on central Mexico towns

Popocatepetl Volcano
Central Mexico's Popocatepetl Volcano scattered ash on two nearby towns on Saturday, following a series of minor eruptions.

The National Disaster Prevention Center (Cenapred), which monitors volcanic activity, said some 200 "low-intensity exhalations and three explosions" had taken place starting early Friday and ending early Saturday.

The last eruption, at 6:08 a.m., led to "a slight drop of ash" in the towns of Yecapixtla and Zacualpan, both in central Morelos state.

Located just 60 km south of the capital Mexico City, Popo, as the volcano is commonly known, has been off limits to mountain climbers since the long dormant volcano became active again in 1994.

Its last major eruption was in 1947.

Source: Xinhua

Comment: For more on volcano activity and research visit our dedicated topic pages here.


Warning issued amid seismic activity at Mount Lokon in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

© Lucky Pransiska
Mount Lokon in Tomohon, North Sulawesi, in this undated file photo.
Local authorities have prohibited residents and visitors from coming within a 1.5-kilometer radius from the crater of Mount Lokon in Tomohon, North Sulawesi, amid increased volcanic activity.

The volcano had shown increased seismic activity marked by tremors since Thursday, said Farid, the head of Lokon's monitoring post.

Authorities have issued a waspada (Level II) alert level for the volcano.

"The tremors from Mt. Lokon suggest that gas and magma are migrating, which means pressure has been accumulating," Farid said on Saturday.

The Lokon monitoring post has been coordinating with the Tomohon Disaster Management Agency (BPBD) since Friday in taking preventive measures.


Alert up as Mayon Volcano shows 'abnormal behavior' in the Philippines

Mayon volcano
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) raised Alert Level 1 over Mayon Volcano in Albay province after it recorded 25 volcanic earthquakes on Monday and the sulfur-dioxide (SO2) emission went significantly higher than the standard measurement.

In its latest bulletin, Phivolcs said the quakes that rocked the volcano on Monday and the spewing of an above normal SO2 gas signify the volcano remains restive. SO2 emission was measured at 633 tons, which is significantly higher than the standard measurement of 500 per day

The volcanic quakes brings to 91 the total number of quakes that jolted Mount Mayon for the past two days.

When asked about the increasing SO2 emission, Phivolcs volcanologist Ed Laguerta said the abnormal emission could either be due to steam degassing or magma pressure beneath the volcano vent.

Snowflake Cold

Future volcanic eruptions could cause more climate cooling

Major volcanic eruptions in the future have the potential to affect global temperatures and precipitation more dramatically than in the past because of climate change, according to a new study led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).

The study authors focused on the cataclysmic eruption of Indonesia's Mount Tambora in April 1815, which is thought to have triggered the so-called "year without a summer" in 1816. They found that if a similar eruption occurred in the year 2085, temperatures would plunge more deeply, although not enough to offset the future warming associated with climate change. The increased cooling after a future eruption would also disrupt the water cycle more severely, decreasing the amount of precipitation that falls globally.

The reason for the difference in climate response between 1815 and 2085 is tied to the oceans, which are expected to become more stratified as the planet warms, and therefore less able to moderate the climate impacts caused by volcanic eruptions.