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Fri, 24 Mar 2017
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Volcanoes


Telescope

Planetary scientists are discovering volcanoes everywhere they look

© NASA
Jupiter’s moon Io is the most volcanically active place in the solar system thanks to a rough tug from mighty Jupiter that warps the planet’s interior structure.
Our closest planetary neighbor shares a surprising feature with Earth: volcanoes. A new study, published February 1st in the journal Science Advances, revealed interesting new details about the volcanic history of Mars. Thomas Lapen, first author of the paper and Professor of Geology at the University of Houston, told Astronomy that their analysis of Martian meteorites showed that volcanic activity on Mars has been ongoing since at least 2.4 to 0.15 billion years ago—and likely continues today.

Given that the meteorites Lapen and his group studied came from a single ejection site on Mars, they reveal over 2 billion years of stacked lava flows, Lapen said. The discovery could help scientists decipher more about how often volcanoes erupted on Mars, as well as time periods when they were most active.

Lapen explained that the type of volcanic activity that occurs on Mars is called basaltic volcanism, which is similar to the type of volcanism seen, for example, in volcanoes in Hawaii. These types of volcanoes produce fluid lava and are rarely explosive.

But Mars isn't the only extraterrestrial body with volcanoes. Volcanoes—in various forms—are also found on other planets, moons, and even asteroids. Take, for instance, Jupiter's moon Io, which has active volcanoes that spew gas and melted rock, or Venus, which is covered with over 1,000 volcanoes, according to NASA. It's not yet determined whether these venusian volcanoes are active or not.

Fire

Ten people injured after Italy's Etna crater explodes

Ten people were injured Thursday by an explosion from one of the craters of Etna which is currently active, local sources said. None are in serious condition, the sources said. Six of them will be taken to hospitals in Catania and Acireale. The explosion took place on Etna's Belvedere near Nicolosi when lava touched the snow on the volcano's peak, sparking a so-called "phreatic explosion" at an altitude of 2,700 metres, sources said.

Pyroclastic material sent flying like shrapnel hit a group of trekkers.

Etna, Europe's tallest active volcano, has shown lava spouts and ash plumes in recent days.


Comment: Further reading: Is something strange happening deep inside the Earth?
Why are "giant fountains of lava" suddenly pouring out of some of the most dangerous volcanoes on the entire planet, and why are so many long dormant volcanoes suddenly roaring back to life? The spectacular eruption of Mt. Etna in Italy is making headlines all over the world, but it is far from alone. According to Volcano Discovery, 35 major volcanoes either are erupting right now or have just recently erupted, and dozens of others are stirring. So what is causing this upsurge in volcanic activity? Is something strange happening inside the Earth?



Info

Earth's past volcanic eruptions revealed

© Dinodia Photos/Getty
India’s Western Ghats mountains contain igneous rock deposited 66 million years ago by a volcanic eruption in the Deccan Traps.
Enormous volcanoes vomited lava over the ancient Earth much more often than geologists had suspected. Eruptions as big as the biggest previously known ones happened at least 10 times in the past 3 billion years, an analysis of the geological record shows.

Such eruptions are linked with some of the most profound changes in Earth's history. These include the biggest mass extinction, which happened 252 million years ago when volcanoes blanketed Siberia with molten rock and poisonous gases.

"As we go back in time, we're discovering events that are every bit as big," says Richard Ernst, a geologist at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada, and Tomsk State University in Russia, who led the work. "These are magnificent huge things."

Knowing when and where such eruptions occurred can help geologists to pinpoint ore deposits, reconstruct past supercontinents and understand the birth of planetary crust. Studying this type of volcanic activity on other planets can even reveal clues to the geological history of the early Earth.

Ernst presented the findings this month to an industry consortium that funded the work (see 'Earth's biggest eruptions'). He expects to make the data public by the end of the year, through a map from the Commission for the Geological Map of the World in Paris.

Bizarro Earth

3-hour volcanic eruption in Alaska threatens villages with ash

© Wikipedia
An Alaskan volcano experienced its largest eruption to date and created a large ash cloud. For the past several months, Bogoslof Volcano has had minor eruptions, but the most recent was its strongest, sending ashes 35,000 feet above sea level.

Residents of the Aleutian Islands are under ash advisory after Bogoslof Island's volcano had its strongest recorded eruption Tuesday night. The National Weather Service warned that the fishing communities could see a trace amount of ash following the powerful eruption.

This isn't the first time the volcano has erupted. Tuesday was the 36th recorded eruption over the last three months, with the next most recent one occurring February 19, CNBC reported. However, the length of the eruption and intensity were unexpected.

"It was the most significant event for the entire eruption," US Geological Survey geologist Kristi Wallace told CNBC.

Arrow Up

Powerful eruption of Bezymianny volcano, Russia; ash ejected up to 10 km (33,000 feet)

© KB GS RAS
Bezymianny eruption on March 9, 2017.
A powerful eruption took place at Bezymianny volcano, Kamchatka, Russia around 03:00 UTC on March 9, 2017. The Aviation Color Code was first raised to Orange, then to Red.

Tokyo VAAC said at 03:42 UTC, that an eruption at Bezymianny at 03:00 UTC sent ash up to 10 km (33 000 feet) extending N-NW.

According to satellite data by KVERT, ash plume at the height about 7 km (23 000 feet) a.s.l. drifts for about 112 km (70 miles) to the northwest from the volcano, KVERT said at 05:11 UTC. The width of ash plume is about 14 km (8.7 miles). Strong gas-steam activity of the volcano continues, it said.

Strong ash explosions up to 15 km (49 200 feet) a.s.l. could occur at any time. Ongoing activity could affect international and low-flying aircraft.

Based on KB GS RAS (Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Services, Russian Academy of Sciences) data, KVERT noted that seismicity at Bezymianny began to increase on November 18, 2016. The temperature of a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images increased on December 5, and then significantly increased on December 13, which was likely caused by lava-dome extrusion. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

Arrow Up

Huge new lava outbreak at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (VIDEO)

© Tropical Visions Video, Paradise Helicopters / BigIslandNow.com
A huge new outbreak just above the pali to the south of the Kilauea's 61g flow is sending many lava streams downslope, Tropical Visions videographer Mick Kalber and the Paradise Helicopters crew reported after an overflight on March 2, 2017.

"Truly an amazing amount of activity," Kalber said.

Kilauea's current Aviation Color Code is at Orange, Volcano Alert Level is at Watch, AVO reported late March 7.

The episode 61g lava flow from Puʻu ʻŌʻō is entering the ocean at Kamokuna and is feeding surface flows on and above the pali, and on the coastal plain, inland from the ocean entry, but these lava flows pose no threat to nearby communities at this time. The summit is deflating, and the lava lake was 33 m (~108 feet) below the Overlook crater rim on the morning of March 7 (local time).

Summit tremor continues to fluctuate in response to variations in lava lake spattering. Average daily summit sulfur dioxide emission rates were about 3 000 metric tons/day last week, the most recent time when conditions permitted measurements. After a brief increase, seismicity in the upper East Rift Zone has returned to typical levels over the past day, with just a few small earthquakes.


Comment: There has been increased activity at Hawaii's Kilauea volcano in recent months: Volcanoes are erupting across the planet with 35 currently active which prompts the question: Is something strange happening deep inside the Earth?


Fire

Massive eruption at Mount Etna in 1669 killed thousands


Mount Etna
The biggest eruption in Mount Etna's history began on 8th March 1669, causing horrifying devastation to the island of Sicily.

Mount Vesuvius may be Italy's most infamous volcano, thanks in large part to its cataclysmic eruption in 79 CE, yet Etna is the country's most active. Records document eruptions by the massive volcano dating as far back as 1500 BCE. In the last hundred years alone 73 eruptions have been recorded there.

Etna is an ominous sight on the Sicilian skyline, towering above the city of Catania with a peak some 3,300 metres above sea level. The volcano is the result of the meeting of the European and African tectonic plates, stresses of the continents' collision forcing one under the other and causing a subduction zone.

On 8th March 1669 Etna started rumbling. A series of eruptions over the following weeks would see an estimated 20,000 people killed by the volcano.

Attention

Bogoslof volcano erupts again, sends ash cloud over Aleutians

© Andy Dietrick / Alaska Volcano Observatory
Bogoslof volcano ashfall in Unalaska, January 31, 2017.
An Alaska volcano that's been active since mid-December has erupted again with an ash cloud that could threaten airliners.

The Alaska Volcano Observatory says Bogoslof (BOH-gohs-lawf) Volcano in the Aleutian Islands started erupting at 10:36 p.m. Tuesday and sent up an ash cloud to 35,000 feet.

The eruption was marked by seismic activity and lightning that subsided about 1:30 a.m. Wednesday.

Ash can harm and stop jet engines. Ash from southwest Alaska volcanos is a threat to airliners operating between North America and Asia when a cloud rises above 20,000 feet.

Comment: See also: Volcanoes are erupting across the planet; 35 currently active


Fireball

SOTT Earth Changes Summary - February 2017: Extreme Weather, Planetary Upheaval, Meteor Fireballs

Februrary 2017 continued on as January started. Massive flooding in California due to "atmospheric rivers" dumping large amounts of rain on coastal areas and snow on the Sierra Nevada. The snow melt from this caused further flooding in Nevada. Eastern Canada also experienced record snowfall, as did Iran, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan and Japan.

Wildfires broke out in Eastern Australia and New Zealand while record rainfall inundated Western Australia. Major flooding also hit several South American nations including Chile, Peru and Colombia.

There are at least 30 active volcanoes around the world right now, including a really impressive one in Guatemala. Massive earth cracks opened in Pakistan and Italy.

These are just some of the chaotic events we present in this month's Sott 'Earth Changes' video compilation.


Attention

Volcanoes are erupting across the planet; 35 currently active

Already the climate change has raised concern among the people. Now the recent news of volcanoes erupting all over the world is baffling and may make things even more serious. Italy's Mount Etna as of late erupted with a large amount of magma amid what is presently its second emission in the most recent year. Mount Etna is been referred to as Europe's greatest and most capable spring of gushing lava, and its emission represents a peril to air activity and conceivably the encompassing towns and homes on the lower inclines of the well of lava.

Despite the fact that Mount Etna is the most recent fountain of liquid magma to stand out as truly newsworthy, there are various different emissions happening everywhere throughout the world. There has been news about volcanic eruptions from all over the planet. India's only volcano is dynamic again after having been dormant for 150 years, and four of Iceland's fundamental volcanoes are speculated to erupt soon. As indicated by Volcano Discovery, 35 volcanoes are either as of now ejecting at this moment or just as of late emitted everywhere throughout the world. There are significantly more volcanoes with eruption notices and huge amounts of different volcanoes that are dynamic, which means they could, in fact, emit at any moment.

Comment: Is there something much bigger happening on our planet? Earth Changes and the Human Cosmic Connection: The Secret History of the World - Book 3