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Tibetans Lived in Himalayas Year-Round Up to 12,600 Years Ago

© Zhijun Wang
Chusang likely was a permanent settlement, as travel to and from the area would have been difficult.
Thousands of years ago, people living on the high mountains of the Tibetan plateau waded into a steamy hot spring, leaving behind footprints in the soft mud. These footprints, which were discovered in 1998, have proved invaluable to modern-day researchers, who recently dated them to between 7,400 and 12,600 years ago.

Based on earlier analyses of other human sites, it was thought that the plateau's earliest permanent human residents had settled there no earlier than 5,200 years ago, the researchers said. But these newfound dates make the ancient Tibetan site of Chusang the oldest permanent base of people on the Tibetan plateau, they said.

Older known human camps do exist in the region, dating to between 9,000 and 15,000 years ago, but they were likely short-term, seasonal sites, the researchers said.

"Chusang is special because you have these human footprints in this carbonate mud," said study co-lead researcher Michael Meyer, an assistant professor of geology at the University of Innsbruck in Austria. "[The footprints] are hardened, so they were able to stay there for thousands or tens of thousands of years."

Comment: Related articles:


Archaeology

Cave discovery in France reveals ancient man-made rock structure featuring rings and mounds

In February 1990, thanks to a 15-year-old boy named Bruno Kowalsczewski, footsteps echoed through the chambers of Bruniquel Cave for the first time in tens of thousands of years.

The cave sits in France's scenic Aveyron Valley, but its entrance had long been sealed by an ancient rockslide. Kowalsczewski's father had detected faint wisps of air emerging from the scree, and the boy spent three years clearing away the rubble. He eventually dug out a tight, thirty-meter-long passage that the thinnest members of the local caving club could squeeze through. They found themselves in a large, roomy corridor. There were animal bones and signs of bear activity, but nothing recent. The floor was pockmarked with pools of water. The walls were punctuated by stalactites (the ones that hang down) and stalagmites (the ones that stick up).

Some 336 meters into the cave, the caver stumbled across something extraordinary—a vast chamber where several stalagmites had been deliberately broken. Most of the 400 pieces had been arranged into two rings—a large one between 4 and 7 metres across, and a smaller one just 2 metres wide. Others had been propped up against these donuts. Yet others had been stacked into four piles. Traces of fire were everywhere, and there was a mass of burnt bones.

These weren't natural formations, and they weren't the work of bears. They were built by people.

Che Guevara

Fidel: My 100 hours with Castro

Fidel is dead, but he is immortal. Few people have known the glory of entering into the realm of legend and history during their lifetime. Fidel is one of these people. He belonged to a generation of legendary fighters - Nelson Mandela, Patrice Lumumba, Amílcar Cabral, Che Guevara, Camilo Torres, Turcios Lima, Ahmed Ben Barka - who, in pursuit of an ideal of justice, threw themselves into political action in the 1950s, with the aim and the hope of changing an unequal, discriminatory world, marked by the onset of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and United States.

During that period, people across half of the world, in Vietnam, Algeria, Guinea-Bissau, were rising up. At that time, a large part of humanity was still under infamous colonial rule. Almost all of Africa and a good part of Asia were dominated, subjugated, by the old empires of the West. Meanwhile, Latin American nations, which had theoretically achieved independence over a century and a half before, continued to be exploited by privileged minorities, subjected to social and ethnic discrimination, and often marked by harsh dictatorships, backed by Washington.

Dig

Discovery of 3,500-year-old Greek tomb calls into question our most basic ideas about the roots of Western civilization

© Myrto Papadopoulos
The warrior was buried in an olive grove outside the acropolis of Pylos. Though archaeologist Carl Blegen explored the olive grove in the 1960s, he did not find anything.
The recent discovery of the grave of an ancient soldier is challenging accepted wisdom among archaeologists.

They had been digging for days, shaded from the Greek sun by a square of green tarpaulin slung between olive trees. The archaeologists used picks to break the cream-colored clay, baked as hard as rock, until what began as a cluster of stones just visible in the dirt became four walls in a neat rectangle, sinking down into the earth. Little more than the occasional animal bone, however, came from the soil itself. On the morning of May 28, 2015, the sun gave way to an unseasonable drizzle. The pair digging that day, Flint Dibble and Alison Fields, waited for the rain to clear, then stepped down into their meter-deep hole and got to work. Dibble looked at Fields. "It's got to be soon," he said.

The season had not started well. The archaeologists were part of a group of close to three dozen researchers digging near the ancient Palace of Nestor, on a hilltop near Pylos on the southwest coast of Greece. The palace was built in the Bronze Age by the Mycenaeans—the heroes described in Homer's epic poems—and was first excavated in the 1930s. The dig's leaders, Jack Davis and Sharon Stocker, husband-and-wife archaeologists from the University of Cincinnati, in Ohio, had hoped to excavate in a currant field just downslope from the palace, but Greek bureaucracy and a lawyers' strike kept them from obtaining the necessary permits. So they settled, disappointed, on a neighboring olive grove. They cleared the land of weeds and snakes and selected a few spots to investigate, including three stones that appeared to form a corner. As the trench around the stones sank deeper, the researchers allowed themselves to grow eager: The shaft's dimensions, two meters by one meter, suggested a grave, and Mycenaean burials are famous for their breathtakingly rich contents, able to reveal volumes about the culture that produced them. Still, there was no proof that this structure was even ancient, the archaeologists reminded themselves, and it might simply be a small cellar or shed.

Fire

Ridiculously Massive: The list of governments the USA has overthrown since WWII

© counterpunch.org
As the US main stream media continues to push the "fake news" narrative about Russian hacker/Putin/Wikileaks connection, aimed at subverting the US election, or American democracy, or crushing Hillary Clinton's Presidential campaign, or helping Donald Trump's Presidential campaign...f**k it, I have lost track as to what the entire US establishment is claiming Russia did or sought to do with these mystery hacks.

Anyway, here is an appropriate reminder as to who is throwing giant stones inside of a giant glass house.

Courtesy of Zerohedge, and an entire Wikipedia page dedicated to US involvement in overthrowing foreign governments. Here are just the examples since World War II (* indicates successful ouster of a government).

SOTT Logo Radio

The Truth Perspective: Giants on Record with Jim Vieira and Hugh Newman

Hidden in local archives and dusty Smithsonian reports are accounts that are all but forgotten to North American historians and scientists: accounts of giant (7 to 9 feet tall) skeletons discovered all across the country, many buried under earthen mounds. Some photographs still exist, but curiously, the skeletons do not.

On today's episode of the Truth Perspective we interview Jim Viera and Hugh Newman, authors of Giants on Record: America's Hidden History, Secrets in the Mounds and the Smithsonian Files. We discuss their research: the archaeological finds, the implications for our views on human history, and the nature of the apparent cover-up.

You can find Jim and Hugh's Facebook page here, and Hugh's website here.

Running Time: 01:27:55

Download: OGG, MP3


Listen live, chat, and call in to future shows on the SOTT Radio Network!


Map

Turkey opens Nevsehir underground city never before seen by the public

© Sputnik/ Alena Palazhchenko
The underground city of Nevsehir in the central part of Turkey was discovered in 2014 after excavation. It will soon be opening its doors for tourists from all over the world. RIA Novosti correspondent Alena Palachzhencko visited the city and met with archaeologists working on restorations.

Nevsehir is the capital of the province where the world-famous historic district of Cappadocia is situated. Nevsehir in itself has never been a tourist destination. Many tourists who come to Cappadocia usually do not stop here but go a little further, into the depths of the bizarre tuff landscape such as the Goreme, Urgup or Gülşehir.

Nevsehir, in general is a fairly traditional modern Turkish city. It is friendly, green, hilly and quiet. It also has some tourist attractions such as the Damat Ibrahim mosque complex which has now been turned into a public library.

Comment: For more on these fascinating structures:


Footprints

The Expulsion of the Germans: The Largest Forced Migration in History

© Unknown
In December 1944 Winston Churchill announced to a startled House of Commons that the Allies had decided to carry out the largest forced population transfer — or what is nowadays referred to as "ethnic cleansing" — in human history.

Millions of civilians living in the eastern German provinces that were to be turned over to Poland after the war were to be driven out and deposited among the ruins of the former Reich, to fend for themselves as best they could. The Prime Minister did not mince words. What was planned, he forthrightly declared, was "the total expulsion of the Germans... For expulsion is the method which, so far as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting."

The Prime Minister's revelation alarmed some commentators, who recalled that only eighteen months previously his government had pledged: "Let it be quite clearly understood and proclaimed all over the world that we British will never seek to take vengeance by wholesale mass reprisals against the general body of the German people."

Comment: "...may not be repeated."

The millions fleeing Iraq, Libya, Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, Afghanistan and Syria may not be 'forced' to relocate in the systematic way ethnic Germans were back then, but when NATO blows your country apart, the result is effectively the same.


Info

Priceless treasures discovered at Minoan capital Knossos

© Tornos News
The greatness of Knossos grows as new evidence suggests that an ancient Aegean city not only recovered but also flourished following the collapse of the Bronze Age.
The latest discoveries on Crete at the site of the ancient city of Knossos suggest that the capital of Minoan Civilization was far larger and more impacting than experts believed.

Scientists already knew that Knossos was Europe's oldest city and ruled over the massive trade empire during the Bronze age, nevertheless, new evidence suggests that the Minoans may have actually survived into the Iron Age.

Europe's oldest city, the majestic site of the Greek Bronze Age, was the seat of power of the mythological King Minos and the home of the enigmatic labyrinth. Also linked to far reaching legends like Daedalus and son Icarus, the Minoan palace and the Minoans were also considered to be the sons and daughters of Atlantic by the ancients. This civilization is widely acclaimed as the birthplace for all western civilization and, when the mainland Greeks came out of the Stone Age, the Minoans managed a maritime empire across the entire Mediterranean basin and beyond. When Rome was not even so much as an idea, Minoans built the first paved roads.

Even though the ancient city was previously thought to have perished around 1200 B.C. after the volcanic eruption of Thera on Santorini, new artifacts discovered by a team led by a University of Cincinnati assistant professor of classics, Antonis Kotsonas, suggest that it was much larger and richer than was previously thought.

According to a press release on Kotsonas' work, "recent fieldwork at the ancient city of Knossos on the Greek island of Crete finds that during the early Iron Age (1100 to 600 BC), the city was rich in imports and was nearly three times larger than what was believed from earlier excavations.

Info

Virtual reality helps researchers recreate the lost sounds of Stonehenge


Stonehenge
There are many questions surrounding the ancient stone circle of Stonehenge but might sound help in the search for answers?

Thomas Hardy said it had a strange "musical hum". Tess of the d'Urvbervilles ends at Stonehenge and features the "sound". Modern-day druids also say they experience something special when they gather at Stonehenge and play instruments within the stone circle.

However, Stonehenge is a ruin. Whatever sound it originally had 3,000 years ago has been lost but now, using technology created for video games and architects, Dr Rupert Till of the University of Huddersfield has - with the help of some ancient instruments - created a virtual sound tour of Stonehenge as it would have sounded with all the stones in place.

Arriving at 07:00 on a decidedly chilly January morning, I was sceptical. Dr Till had arrived with a horn, a drum and some sticks to try to show me that, even in its partially deconstructed state, there was still a distinctive echo.