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Mon, 23 Jan 2017
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Secret History


Turkey opens Nevsehir underground city never before seen by the public

© Sputnik/ Alena Palazhchenko
The underground city of Nevsehir in the central part of Turkey was discovered in 2014 after excavation. It will soon be opening its doors for tourists from all over the world. RIA Novosti correspondent Alena Palachzhencko visited the city and met with archaeologists working on restorations.

Nevsehir is the capital of the province where the world-famous historic district of Cappadocia is situated. Nevsehir in itself has never been a tourist destination. Many tourists who come to Cappadocia usually do not stop here but go a little further, into the depths of the bizarre tuff landscape such as the Goreme, Urgup or Gülşehir.

Nevsehir, in general is a fairly traditional modern Turkish city. It is friendly, green, hilly and quiet. It also has some tourist attractions such as the Damat Ibrahim mosque complex which has now been turned into a public library.

Comment: For more on these fascinating structures:


The Expulsion of the Germans: The Largest Forced Migration in History

© Unknown
In December 1944 Winston Churchill announced to a startled House of Commons that the Allies had decided to carry out the largest forced population transfer — or what is nowadays referred to as "ethnic cleansing" — in human history.

Millions of civilians living in the eastern German provinces that were to be turned over to Poland after the war were to be driven out and deposited among the ruins of the former Reich, to fend for themselves as best they could. The Prime Minister did not mince words. What was planned, he forthrightly declared, was "the total expulsion of the Germans... For expulsion is the method which, so far as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting."

The Prime Minister's revelation alarmed some commentators, who recalled that only eighteen months previously his government had pledged: "Let it be quite clearly understood and proclaimed all over the world that we British will never seek to take vengeance by wholesale mass reprisals against the general body of the German people."

Comment: "...may not be repeated."

The millions fleeing Iraq, Libya, Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, Afghanistan and Syria may not be 'forced' to relocate in the systematic way ethnic Germans were back then, but when NATO blows your country apart, the result is effectively the same.


Priceless treasures discovered at Minoan capital Knossos

© Tornos News
The greatness of Knossos grows as new evidence suggests that an ancient Aegean city not only recovered but also flourished following the collapse of the Bronze Age.
The latest discoveries on Crete at the site of the ancient city of Knossos suggest that the capital of Minoan Civilization was far larger and more impacting than experts believed.

Scientists already knew that Knossos was Europe's oldest city and ruled over the massive trade empire during the Bronze age, nevertheless, new evidence suggests that the Minoans may have actually survived into the Iron Age.

Europe's oldest city, the majestic site of the Greek Bronze Age, was the seat of power of the mythological King Minos and the home of the enigmatic labyrinth. Also linked to far reaching legends like Daedalus and son Icarus, the Minoan palace and the Minoans were also considered to be the sons and daughters of Atlantic by the ancients. This civilization is widely acclaimed as the birthplace for all western civilization and, when the mainland Greeks came out of the Stone Age, the Minoans managed a maritime empire across the entire Mediterranean basin and beyond. When Rome was not even so much as an idea, Minoans built the first paved roads.

Even though the ancient city was previously thought to have perished around 1200 B.C. after the volcanic eruption of Thera on Santorini, new artifacts discovered by a team led by a University of Cincinnati assistant professor of classics, Antonis Kotsonas, suggest that it was much larger and richer than was previously thought.

According to a press release on Kotsonas' work, "recent fieldwork at the ancient city of Knossos on the Greek island of Crete finds that during the early Iron Age (1100 to 600 BC), the city was rich in imports and was nearly three times larger than what was believed from earlier excavations.


Virtual reality helps researchers recreate the lost sounds of Stonehenge

There are many questions surrounding the ancient stone circle of Stonehenge but might sound help in the search for answers?

Thomas Hardy said it had a strange "musical hum". Tess of the d'Urvbervilles ends at Stonehenge and features the "sound". Modern-day druids also say they experience something special when they gather at Stonehenge and play instruments within the stone circle.

However, Stonehenge is a ruin. Whatever sound it originally had 3,000 years ago has been lost but now, using technology created for video games and architects, Dr Rupert Till of the University of Huddersfield has - with the help of some ancient instruments - created a virtual sound tour of Stonehenge as it would have sounded with all the stones in place.

Arriving at 07:00 on a decidedly chilly January morning, I was sceptical. Dr Till had arrived with a horn, a drum and some sticks to try to show me that, even in its partially deconstructed state, there was still a distinctive echo.


Archaeologists investigate mounds in Burkina Faso

Krakow, Poland — Science & Scholarship in Poland reports that a team of Polish researchers has been investigating archaeological sites in northern Burkina Faso, an area inhabited by the Kurumba people for the past several hundred years. The researchers found flint tools on the surface of the ground that could range in age from 15,000 to 50,000 years old. "This is one of the oldest known traces of human presence in this country," said Krzysztof Rak of Jagiellonian University.
© K. Rak
The team also examined the remains of a settlement known as Damfelenga Dangomde, which was abandoned in the late nineteenth century, when the Kurumba people moved to their current capital of Pobé-Mengao. The site is likely to have been inhabited before the arrival of the Kurumba. The team also identified a necropolis near the Damfelenga Dangomde tell that had been thought to be the remains of an ancient village. "The mounds of stone and earth that we have studied are approximately 1,300 years old," Rak said.

Comment: Archaeologists find more than 30 burial mounds and tombs dating back to II-I centuries BC in the Yardimli region of Azerbaijan

Blue Planet

Hunters lived on Tibetan plateau thousands of years earlier than thought

Intrepid hunter-gatherers may have lived permanently in the cold, harsh environment of the oxygen-starved Tibetan Plateau at least 7,400 years ago — nearly 4,000 years earlier than researchers had thought.

The claim, made by archaeologists who have re-examined ancient hand- and footprints at a site in central Tibet, could shed light on how and why humans moved to live at high altitudes. And it fits with genetic studies suggesting that Tibetan people began to acquire physiological adaptations to help them cope with reduced atmospheric oxygen levels around the same time. But some researchers say the evidence is too scanty to confirm such early year-round habitation on the plateau.
© Mark Aldenderfer
One of the human handprints at Chusan, on the Tibetan plateau; the prints have been dated to between 7,400 and 12,700 years ago.
With an average elevation of 4.5 kilometres, the air on the Tibetan Plateau has around half the oxygen present at sea level. "It's the ultimate test for human survival and adaptation in extreme environments," says Mark Aldenderfer, an archaeologist at the University of California in Merced, and a co-author of the new study, published on 5 January in Science1.

2 + 2 = 4

Before the Nobel Prize, rich patrons and nobles funded scientific discoveries

Galileo presents an experiment to a Medici patron
While the Nobel Prizes are 115 years old, rewards for scientific achievement have been around much longer. As early as the 17th century, at the very origins of modern experimental science, promoters of science realized the need for some system of recognition and reward that would provide incentive for advances in the field.

Before the prize, it was the gift that reigned in science. Precursors to modern scientists - the early astronomers, philosophers, physicians, alchemists and engineers - offered wonderful achievements, discoveries, inventions and works of literature or art as gifts to powerful patrons, often royalty. Authors prefaced their publications with extravagant letters of dedication; they might, or they might not, be rewarded with a gift in return. Many of these practitioners worked outside of academe; even those who enjoyed a modest academic salary lacked today's large institutional funders, beyond the Catholic Church. Gifts from patrons offered a crucial means of support, yet they came with many strings attached.

Comment: Let's be honest, so do most research grants.

Comment: As much as there was a marked progression in helping scientists to gain recognition and find avenues for publishing their works that did not depend on rich donors or patrons to satisfy, these institutions also later became corrupt and ponerized. The 'religion of science' was born. The halls of science, which were once about discovery and progress, ended up becoming dogmatic and rigid in their thinking, where new ideas and challenging the old beliefs became akin to heresy.


Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin - 1917 and its lessons for 2017

© Peter Otsup / Sputnik
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin
If, as my fellow Op-Edger John Wight stated recently, 'seismic' was the only word to describe 2016 - what on earth can we say about 1917? This was the year of not one, but two, Russian Revolutions.

It also saw the US break with isolationism and enter the First World War - and the Balfour Declaration - which eventually led to the establishment of the state of Israel.

The dramatic events of one hundred years ago still shape our world today. It's important therefore that we relive the year and study it closely, as there's much we can learn from it - and in particular from the year's most influential personality.

If Donald Trump was the Person of the Year in 2016, there's no doubting who the key figure in 1917 was: Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known as Lenin. The bearded Marxist from Simbirsk began the year in exile, living with his wife in a bedsit at No 14 Spiegelgasse in Zurich, Switzerland, and ended it as the leader of the world's first communist state.


'Sicilian Stonehenge' discovered by amateur archaeologists

© Giuseppe La Spina
Italian archaeologists have found an intriguing Stonehenge-like "calendar rock" in Sicily.

Featuring a 3.2-foot diameter hole, the rock formation marked the beginning of winter some 5,000 years ago.

The holed Neolithic rock was discovered Nov. 30, 2016 on a hill near a prehistoric necropolis six miles from Gela, on the southern coast of Sicily, by a team who was surveying some World War II-era bunkers.

"It appeared clear to me that we were dealing with a deliberate, man-made hole," archaeologist Giuseppe La Spina told Seeker. "However, we needed the necessary empirical evidence to prove the stone was used as a prehistoric calendar to measure the seasons."

Using a compass, cameras and a video camera mounted to a GPS-equipped drone, La Spina and colleagues carried out a test in December at the winter solstice. The idea was to find out if the rising sun at solstice aligned with the distinct hole in the rock feature. According to La Spina, the experiment was "a total success."

"At 7:32 am the sun shone brightly through the hole with an incredible precision," La Spina said. "It was amazing."

The 23-foot high holed stone would have marked a turning point of the year and the seasons, anticipating some hard and cold time ahead. The moment likely had a ritual importance. In fact, further investigation of the area revealed the site was a sacred place at the end of the third millennium BC.


Ancient Cross and Menorah Carvings Found Side by Side

© Sa'ar Ganor, Israel Antiquities Authority
Engravings of a seven-armed menorah (left) and a cross were carved thousands of years ago in a cave in southern Israel.
Engravings of a cross and a menorah carved thousands of years ago were recently found in a cave in Israel, according to the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA). Though the two figures were etched close together on a cistern wall, they were likely created hundreds of years apart, the archaeologists said.

Hikers unexpectedly came upon the ancient carvings while exploring subterranean passages in southern Israel. Archaeologists with the IAA dated the menorah carving to the second century A.D. and the cross to the fourth century A.D. The menorah, which has seven arms and three legs, represents the traditional candelabra that stood in the Second Temple in Jerusalem, IAA experts said in a statement.

The discovery of two side-by-side symbols associated with Judaism and Christianity, respectively, coincides with a rare overlap of the Hanukkah and Christmas holidays in 2016, with the first night of Hanukkah falling on Christmas Eve. Such an alignment has happened only four times since 1900 — in 1902, 1940, 1978 and 2016, Vox.com reported.

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