paris protest 2023
© Twitter/Anonyme Citoyen
Protesters gather at Place d'Italie in Paris during a demonstration against the French government's pension reform plan on January 31, 2023.
French protesters launched a new push Tuesday to pressure President Emmanuel Macron into dropping a pension reform plan, with hundreds of thousands taking to the streets in bigger crowds than those seen on the previous day of rallies on January 19.

Union-led protesters came out for mass demonstrations for the second time in less than two weeks, challenging Macron's plan to raise the age of retirement from 62 to 64, a flagship reform of his second mandate.

Half a million people were protesting on Tuesday afternoon in Paris alone, the main CGT union said, higher than the figure of 400,000 it gave for the last day of rallies on January 19. Paris police put the figure for Tuesday's protest at 87,000.

The CGT said 2.8 million were protesting nationwide. The French police put the figure at more than 1.2 million.

Comment: Government figures routinely estimate at least half the number in attendance, probably because the establishment would prefer that these protests appear less popular than they are.

Whilst there's sufficient data elsewhere to support the higher estimate given by the union, another rather revealing piece of data is that in a recent poll 52% of French citizens said that they supported a 'social explosion' of protests against the government, and it wasn't just because of the pension reforms.

france protest 2023

Screenshot of planned protests
Polls show a majority of the French oppose the president's measures - and analysts say maintaining public support for the strikes will be crucial to unions' chances of forcing a U-turn.

A police source said the authorities were bracing for up to 1.2 million people to take to the streets nationwide, which would exceed the 1.1 million who came out on January 19.

The last time Macron wanted to change the pensions system, during the winter of 2019-2020, France saw its biggest strikes since 1968. Covid soon made that upheaval seem quaint, and prompted Macron to shelve his plans. But Macron was re-elected in April 2022 after promising to re-introduce these reforms, then put them to parliament earlier this month. And now the opposition appears to be even bigger than before: France's biggest and most moderate major union, the CFDT, has joined the strike action after declining to act the previous time.

But Macron has shown no sign of stepping back, insisting on Monday that the reform was "essential".

Transport worker Arnaud Roure, 47, was among those marching.

"Ladies and gentlemen from the government, you are wearing people down, you are sucking up all the resources we had left," he said. "You are attacking our bread."

'My job is hard'

The first marches had started in the morning in other parts of the country, with several prominent opposition politicians taking part.

"Mr Macron is certain to lose," said Jean-Luc Melenchon, a figurehead for the far left and former presidential candidate, as he marched in the southern port city of Marseille.

The most controversial part of the overhaul is hiking the minimum retirement age, but it also calls for more years worked to qualify for a full pension.

"I don't want to work longer," said Sylvie Dieppois, 56, a kitchen helper near Rouen in western France. "My job is hard and even at 62 I will be exhausted."

Dominique, 59, retail supervisor said, "I've already had surgery on both shoulders to deal with tendonitis caused by all the repetitive movements and the heavy loads. This work only gets harder as you get older. I find it a lot more difficult than I did twenty years ago to carry loads; even my knees are starting to give way now."

"From the age of 50 onwards, you get bad knees, a bad back, carpal tunnel, damaged ligaments - you name it," said Jean a bricklayer.

France has lowest retirement age

France has the lowest qualifying age for a state pension among major European economies.

Comment: So? It's not a race to the bottom. Over in the UK the current proposed pension age would mean at least one region of the country would die before they could qualify to receive it.

Millions had to find alternative means of transport Tuesday, work from home or take time off to look after their school-age children, with workers in transport and education sectors among those staging walkouts.

"This is about more than pensions, it is about what kind of society we want," 59-year-old university professor Martine Beugnet told AFP.

Paris metro and suburban rail services were severely restricted, as was intercity travel.

A union source told AFP that 36.5 percent of staff at railway operator SNCF had stopped work, a figure down from 46.3 percent on January 19.

Around a quarter of all nursery and primary school teachers were on strike, according to the education ministry. In middle and high schools, more than half of teachers had stopped work, a teachers' union said.

France's oil industry was mostly paralysed, with the CGT union at energy giant TotalEnergies reporting between 75 and 100 percent of workers on strike.

Comment: Note the oil workers were also striking just a week ago; and various other professions, including doctors, have also been intermittently protesting or on strike over the last 2 months, and so comparing today's numbers with those of January 19 does not accurately reflect the situation; as the poll further below confirms.

Almost two out of 10 civil servants were striking by midday, the authorities said, down from 28 percent on January 19.

'Get young people involved'

High school and university students also joined the movement, with a few dozen students at the prestigious Sciences-Po university occupying its main building overnight.

"It's important to get young people involved in the pensions debate," student Jean-Baptiste Bonnet said.

Even a prison, in the southwestern city of Nimes, was blocked by protesting staff, a union source said.

Sixty-one percent of French people support the protest movement, a poll by the OpinionWay survey group showed on Monday -- a rise of three percentage points from January 12.

"The more French people find out about the reform, the less they support it," said Frederic Dabi, a prominent pollster at the Ifop institute.

"This is not good at all for the government."

The government has said the changes are necessary to guarantee the future financing of the pension system, which is forecast to tip into deficit in the next few years.

But opponents point out that the system is not in trouble, insisting pension spending is not out of control. The government has signalled there could be wiggle room on some of the suggested measures, but not on the age limit. Macron's centrist allies, short of an absolute majority in parliament, will need votes from conservatives to push through the new legislation.

Comment: It's highly likely that the bill will pass, because less popular bills have passed of late. However this careless move by the government, along with what will likely be an increasingly brutal response from the state's security apparatus, could also be the last straw for many and just what is needed to alert others to the very dim future they're facing: Photographer has testicle amputated after police club him during rally in Paris, 1 million people marched across France


Laurent Berger, head of the moderate CFDT union, said that "the people disagree strongly with the project, and that view is gaining ground"

It would be "a mistake" for the government to ignore the mobilisation, he warned.

Communist party leader Fabien Roussel called Borne's remark "a provocation", saying the prime minister was "blinkered" and her government "inflexible".

Marine Le Pen, leader of the far-right National Rally, repeated her opposition to the government's "unjust and brutal" plans.

Unions and the government both see Tuesday's protests as a major test.