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Earthquakes

Seismograph

Study claims 2017 earthquake off Mexico broke through an entire tectonic plate

mexico earthquake map
© USGS
Map of shaking intensity around the epicenter of the September 8, 2017 magnitude 8.2 earthquake

Magnitude 8.2 in Mexico involved more fault movement than thought possible


September 2017 saw a pair of weird earthquakes in Mexico. A magnitude 8.2 on September 8 just offshore the state of Chiapas was followed by a magnitude 7.1 on September 19-this time much closer to Mexico City, causing considerable destruction there. While the two earthquakes were not connected, they were the same type of earthquake, which is unusual in the region.

Mexico's western coast is a tectonic plate boundary, where the oceanic plate collides with and dives beneath the continent. That means that earthquakes along that boundary are typically the result of compressive force that squeezes rock to slide up the plane of the fault. Both September earthquakes were the result of stretching, however, which is almost as much of a head-scratcher as finding that part of your car's engine was pulled apart during a head-on crash.

The explanation here is that as the oceanic plate disappears beneath the continent, it sinks downward into the mantle. First of all, the bending of the plate downward causes stretching, just as the skin over your elbow has to stretch. Second, the sinking plate pulls downward as it "hangs" from the part of the plate that is still up at the surface-another stretching force. Occasional earthquakes within this bending, sinking plate can reflect that stretching.

A new study led by the University of Oregon's Diego Malgar found something even weirder, though. Counter to what we thought possible, the fault seems to have broken clean through the entire tectonic plate.

Seismograph

'Rumbles and a boom: 3.1 earthquake rattles western Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia earthquakeand boom
© The Weather Network
A 3.1 magnitude earthquake shook parts of western Nova Scotia on Saturday morning.

Earthquakes Canada reports that the quake occurred just off the coast in the area of Mavillette, N.S., near Meteghan, at 10:32 a.m.

Tina Helprin, who lives in Saulnierville Station, said she was sitting in her rocking chair in the kitchen when the quake happened.

"All of a sudden in the distance we heard like a rumble, like if it was going to be thunder and it rolled for like two or three seconds and then there was a loud boom and then it rolled again. It finished with another rumble of about two or three seconds," she said.

Helprin said the entire house shook and her border collie, Cree, ran up to her, "petrified."

Bizarro Earth

Adapt 2030 Ice Age Report: More signs that Earth's weather is now affected by the sun

Calgary record snow
© YouTube/Adapt 2030 (screen capture)
A volcanic eruption follows the earthquake and tsunami on Sulawesi Island in Indonesia. Crops destroyed by all time record snows across Alberta, Canada. All time means the old records broken by 5X and daily & monthly totals fell in both September and October 2018. The Eddy Grand Solar Minimum continues to intensify.


Comment: Some related articles include:


Attention

High levels of seismic activity reported at Grenada's Kick 'em Jenny underwater volcano

Kick 'Em Jenny volcano
© Wiki
A sonar image of the Kick 'Em Jenny volcano.
The University of the West Indies Seismic Research Center (UWI SRC) on Tuesday reported there have been high levels of seismic activity at the Kick 'em Jenny underwater volcano in the past few days.

Grenada's National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) said in a statement that since the episode began on the afternoon of September 30, several events have taken place. The largest of those occurred on Monday at 3:24 a.m., 3:35 a.m. and 3:56 a.m. of magnitudes 3.5, 3.5 and 3.3 respectively.

The UWI SRC said it is currently analysing the data and will update further after complete processing,

NaDMA has informed marine interests and the general public that the threat level at the volcano, located about five miles north of Grenada, remains at yellow, so the exclusion zone of 1.5 kilometres must continue to be observed.

The yellow alert means "the volcano is restless: seismicity and/or fumarolic activity are above the historical level, or other unusual activity has been observed, or can be expected without warning".

Comment: Scientists say Grenada's Kick'em Jenny underwater volcano poses dangerous tsunami risk to US coast


Camcorder

Eerie liquefaction and lateral slide phenomena captured on film during deadly Sulawesi earthquake

Indonesia earthquake and tsunami
© Reuters
Indonesia earthquake and tsunami: The initial quake struck as evening prayers were about to begin in the world's biggest Muslim majority country.
Dramatic footage has emerged from the city of Palu on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, with buildings collapsing as the ground slides beneath them.

The phenomenon, known as soil liquefaction, is thought to have occurred as a result of the recent 7.5 magnitude earthquake, which also triggered a devastating tsunami. The death toll has already passed 1,200 and is expected to rise further.

Soil liquefaction can occur in saturated loose soil that is suddenly shaken - for example by an earthquake.

"When soil is saturated, the space between individual particles is completely filled with water," said Dr Stavroula Kontoe of Imperial College London. "Seismic shaking increases the water pressure between the soil particles; the particles can lose contact with each other which in turn leads to an overall loss of soil strength and stiffness."

Comment: Two more videos have emerged that appear to show lateral spreads occurring during, or immediately after, the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake. These are remarkable, and truly terrifying, recordings.

The first is somewhat shaky, but remarkable for showing large structures in motion, including a transmission tower:



It seems reasonably likely that this is a lateral spread type landslide, perhaps associated with a quick clay or dynamic liquefaction process.

The second video is perhaps more clear in terms of process, and is equally dramatic. The absolute terror of those involved is obvious.

This second video captures the aftermath of the earthquake well, and in particular the stunned disbelief of those involved in the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake.


Source: Landslide Blog - Lateral spreads from the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake

The Guardian has published a second video with new footage of the tsunami hitting and the liquefaction process, including video footage of that process produced from satellite imagery:


For more on the deadly Sulawesi earthquake, tsunami and - as if that wasn't enough - the volcanic eruption that followed, see: And for more on the increasing incidents of landslides, rockfalls and sinkholes, see:


Seismograph

Death toll from Indonesia earthquake and tsunami tops 1,200 as desperation mounts for survivors

Sulawesi quake damage
© Ulet Ifansasti/Getty Images
A boy stands in front of a stranded ship after a deadly tsunami struck the area in Donggala, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Rescue teams yet to reach many affected areas, leading to fears of rising casualties


Desperation exploded into anger on Tuesday in the town closest to the epicentre of the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit parts of Sulawesi island four days ago, with residents of Palu begging Indonesia's president to help them as hungry survivors crawled into stores and grabbed boxes of food.

"Pay attention to Donggala, Mr Jokowi. Pay attention to Donggala," yelled one resident in footage broadcast on local television, referring to President Joko "Jokowi" Widodo. "There are still a lot of unattended villages here."

Most of the attention so far has focused on Palu, the biggest affected city, which is home to 380,000 people and sustained considerable damage.

The confirmed death toll was raised to 1,234 on Tuesday afternoon, but national disaster agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho said at a news conference in Jakarta that the communities of Sigi and Balaroa have not been counted yet, meaning the toll is likely to rise.

Donggala and other outlying areas have received little help largely because of impassable roads.

Donggala's administration head Kasman Lassa said residents should take only food staples from shops.


Comment: See also: Major 7.5 earthquake & devastating tsunami ravage Indonesia's Sulawesi island, Death toll reaches 832, prisoners escape - UPDATES

Meanwhile more dramatic videos of the tragedy have emerged:






Seismograph

Earthquake swarm in monster volcano Bárðarbunga, Iceland

One of the cauldrons in the ice cap of Vatnajökull
© Tómas Guðbjartsson
One of the cauldrons in the ice cap of Vatnajökull above the monster volcano Bárðarbunga.
A sharp earthquake swarm was detected in the Bárðarbunga caldera early morning today, Monday. A 3.0 magnitude quake, with an epicenter 7.6 km (4.7 mi) east of Bárðarbunga peak, on the eastern edge of the caldera of the central volcano, at a depth of 3.4 km (2.1 miles) was detected at 6:09 in the morning. Half a dozen smaller aftershocks were detected.

The Bárðarbunga system has been showing increasing levels of activity for the past year or so, following the 2014-15 Holuhraun eruption at the northern edge of the system.

Seismograph

Powerful aftershocks strike Indonesia days after deadly earthquake & tsunami

Indonesia quake damage

Antara Foto / Muhammad Adimaja via Reuters
A series of powerful aftershocks, ranging between 5 and 6 in magnitude, have rattled Indonesia just days after a deadly earthquake and tsunami wreaked havoc across the island of Sulawesi, killing hundreds.

The most powerful 6.0 aftershock, according to the USGS, was recorded off Sumba Island, some 30km southwest of Nggongi at a depth of 10km, after at least four other jolts, measuring between 5.0 and 5.9, shook the region. There were no immediate tsunami alerts or reports of casualties or damage.

The country's National Agency for Disaster Countermeasure meanwhile measured the most powerful jolt at 6.3 magnitude, emphasizing that no tsunami was expected following the aftershocks.

A devastating 7.4 earthquake hit the region of Sulawesi on Friday, triggering a huge destructive tsunami. So far, 844 have been confirmed dead with the death toll expected to climb.


The government is still struggling with the scale of destruction, with locals becoming desperate to receive food and other emergency supplies.

Seismograph

Major 7.5 earthquake & devastating tsunami ravage Indonesia's Sulawesi island, Death toll reaches 832, prisoners escape - UPDATES

Comment: Update Sunday 30 September 2018

The affected area is apparently bigger than originally reported. There have been around 170 aftershocks. The death toll from the tsunami alone may run into the thousands...


indonesia sulawesi earthquake

indonesia earthquake
© Antara Foto/Reuters
Hundreds are confirmed dead following the earthquake and tsunami.
indonesia earthquake
© Antara Foto/Reuters
A bridge collapsed at the mouth of the bay in Palu.

earthquake in Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia
© Antara Foto/BNBP / Reuters
A shopping center heavily damaged following an earthquake in Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia September 28, 2018
Scores of people have been killed in Indonesia's Sulawesi island, struck by a 7.7-magnitude quake, which triggered a tsunami that swept through two coastal towns. Dozens of houses have been flattened, burying victims under rubble.

Harrowing images have come from Indonesia, showing the scale of destruction that the Sulawesi quake inflicted on the towns of Palu and Donggala, located close to the epicenter of the quake that wrought havoc on the island on Friday afternoon.

The quake severely damaged roads, rending some of them impassable.


Comment: Indonesia earthquake: Powerful shallow 7.5-magnitude quake strikes east of Borneo - one of 6.1 hit 3 hours earlier

UPDATE: RT on 29th Sept. reports:
The disaster claimed the lives of some 384 people and left around 500 injured after the tsunami hit the coastline with 3-meter (10 foot) high waves, the spokesman of Indonesia's National Disaster Mitigation Agency said on Saturday.

He added that the number of victims may further rise. The announced death toll only includes the data from Palu, but the casualties in nearby Donggala Regency are currently unknown.

Harrowing images have come from Indonesia, showing the scale of destruction that the Sulawesi quake inflicted on the towns of Palu and Donggala, located close to the epicenter of the quake that wrought havoc on the island on Friday afternoon.

Earlier this year, a series of powerful earthquakes hit Lombok in Indonesia, killing more than 550 people on the tourist island and neighboring Sumbawa. Some 1,500 people were injured and about 400,000 residents were displaced after their homes were destroyed.

UPDATE: Sky News on 30th Sept. reports:
The death toll from Indonesia's earthquake and tsunami disaster has risen to 832, officials have confirmed.

The national disaster mitigation agency warned the figure could climb higher as the affected area on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi is bigger than initially thought.

Many people were reported trapped in the rubble of buildings brought down in the 7.5 magnitude earthquake which struck on Friday and triggered tsunami waves as high as six metres (20 feet).

Almost all the deaths have been recorded in Palu, two days after the waves slammed into the city of 350,000.

Eleven deaths had been recorded in the nearby region of Donggala to the the north of Palu, agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho said.

An aerial view of part of the city destroyed by an earthquake and tsunami in Palu

An aerial view of part of the city destroyed by an earthquake and tsunami in Palu

"The death is believed to be still increasing since many bodies were still under the wreckage while many have not able to be reached," he said.

He added that the access to Donggala, as well as the towns of Sigi and Boutong, is limited and there are no comprehensive reports from those areas.

The new toll comes after Indonesian vice-president Jusuf Kalla said the final number of dead could be in the "thousands".

Risa Kusuma, a 35-year-old mother comforting her feverish baby boy at an evacuation centre in Palu, said: "Every minute an ambulance brings in bodies.

"Clean water is scarce. The minimarkets are looted everywhere."

Hundreds of stricken people have been looting supermarkets and petrol stations amid an acute shortage of water, food and fuel.

Residents were seen scrambling over broken glass and through broken-down barricades at a supermarket in the centre and making off with plastic bin bags full of goods including nappies, crisps and gas canisters.

Residents outside a badly damaged shopping mall following Friday's tsunami in Palu
© Antara Foto/Rolex Malaha via REUTERS
Residents outside a badly damaged shopping mall following Friday's tsunami in Palu
One man shouted: "There has been no aid, we need to eat. We don't have any other choice, we must get food."

Rescuers have been trying to reach trapped victims in collapsed buildings after the tsunami hit the two central Indonesian cities - sweeping away buildings with massive waves.

People could be heard calling out from the eight-story Roa-Roa Hotel which toppled in the disaster.

"I can still hear the voices of the survivors screaming for help while inspecting the compound," said Muhammad Syaugi, the head of Indonesia's search and rescue agency.

The previous official death toll from the earthquake and tsunami was reported at 405, with all fatalities coming from Palu.
Drone footage shows the damage after the earthquake and tsunami:


As the death toll soars frantic search and rescue operations continue:



Oct. 1: RT reports
over a thousand prisoners are missing from detention facilities:
More than 1,000 prisoners escaped from devastated detention facilities after an earthquake and tsunami struck Indonesia. The death toll of the disaster is expected to reach 2,000 as rescue operations continue. A powerful quake hit the region of Sulawesi on Friday, triggering a huge tsunami and wreaking havoc across communities. Indonesia's Directorate General of Corrections said that inmates escaped from three over-capacity detention facilities.

According to reports, between 1,200 to 1,400 prisoners are now missing from jails. Ministry of Justice official Sri Puguh Utami said the prisoners had run for their lives "because they feared they would be affected by the earthquake."



Seismograph

Powerful earthquake of magnitude 6.6 occurs in Fiji islands region

graph
A powerful earthquake of magnitude 6.6 occured in the Fiji islands region on Sunday. The earthquake occured 260 kilometres north-northeast (NNE) of Ndoi Island. There was no report of casualties or damage. An initial reading by USGS put the quake at a magnitude of 6.8, but that was revised downward. Further details were awaited.

Earlier this month, the Pacific island was rocked by a magnitude 7.8 earthquake. A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Indonesia's Sulawesi island on Friday. At least 832 people lost their lives in the natural disaster.