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CIA released documents: US planned to deliver Falkland Islands to Argentina, airlift Brit islanders to Scotland

© PA
Steel helmets left by Argentine armed forces who surrendered at Goose Green to British troops.
Secret CIA documents show the US had plans to either give the Falkland Islands to Argentina and repatriate the islanders to Scotland or allow them become Argentine citizens because the spy agency thought the UK would lose the 1982 war.

The papers, called 'Solution to the Falkland Islands Crisis,' appear to the show the intelligence agency felt the UK had seriously underestimated the capabilities of the Argentine military when the two countries fought a short but savage war over the South Atlantic archipelago. The documents comprise just a few pages of 12 million formerly-classified internal papers published by the CIA this week.

The Falklands plan was written by Henry Rowen, then head of the National Intelligence Council. "For a period of three years the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands will be given a chance to consider whether they wish to remain on the Falkland Islands or whether they wish to relocate to an area of British jurisdiction, either in the UK or elsewhere under British sovereignty, with a relocation grant of $100,000 per person," he said.

He said it was probable "that many residents will find this sufficient inducement to relocate to some other area, perhaps in Scotland or elsewhere where conditions may be similar to the Falkland Islands."

Comment: Though the British won the Falklands war, Argentina has never completely accepted the outcome. It claims the UK wants the islands for the offshore oil fields under the ocean.


Sherlock

Lost 'Dark Age' Kingdom of Rheged uncovered in Scotland

A "lost" dark age kingdom has been discovered in Dumfries and Galloway after archaeologists finally solved the mystery surrounding the location of the elusive stronghold. The kingdom of Rheged has been found following excavation work by Gatehouse of Fleet in Dumfries and Galloway.

© GUARD Archaeology
A recreation of the royal stronghold of Rheged which has been discovered in Dumfries and Galloway.
Previously, it was thought the kingdom was headquartered in Cumbria although no evidence of it was ever found. Archaeologists were first drawn to the site by Pictish carvings in stones at Trusty's Hill given the unusual southerly location of the markings. But the team from GUARD Archaeology now believe the carvings belong to the stronghold of King Urien's where inauguration ceremonies for the Britons of Galloway were held around 600AD.

Ronan Toolis, who led the excavation, said: "The new archaeological evidence suggests that Galloway may have been the heart of the lost Dark Age kingdom of Rheged, a kingdom that was in the late sixth century pre-eminent amongst the kingdoms of the north." Excavations have revealed the summit of the hill was fortified with a timber-laced stone rampart.

Sherlock

1,000-Year-Old Noble's tomb unearthed in Denmark

The Copenhagen Post reports that a large tomb has been found in north Jutland by Bjarne Henning Nielsen of the Vesthimmerlands Museum. Nielsen speculates the tomb may have been constructed for the early eleventh-century Viking chief Ulv Galiciefarer, who was known for his raids on Galicia and was sometimes referred to in historic documents as an "earl of Denmark." Nielsen says the burial site is surrounded by dark soil that may have been left by a building placed over the tomb—a practice reserved for the nobility.
© Vesthimmerlands Museum
Nielsen also recovered a sword from the grave that dates to the early years of the second millennium. The region where the tomb was found is thought to have belonged to Valdemar the Great, king of Denmark from 1157 to 1182, whose great-grandfather is known to have been Ulv Galiciefarer. "It is private property he inherited from his father's side," Nielsen said, "and Galiciefarer is part of the lineage."

To read about another discovery in Denmark, go to "Bronze Age Bride."

Pharoah

Archaeologist discovers ancient Egyptian boat in middle of desert

When Penn archaeologist Josef Wegner and colleagues first came across structures buried deep beneath the sand in the Egyptian city of Abydos, they anticipated finding more evidence of a pharaoh cemetery they discovered in 2014. Instead, in the middle of the desert, they found a vaulted building.
© Josef Wegner/Penn Museum
The vaulted underground building discovered by Josef Wegner and colleagues contained 120 preserved boat drawings on the building’s walls, including those seen here.
"We thought it might be a good prospect for a large royal tomb," says Wegner, an associate professor of Egyptian archaeology in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations in the School of Arts & Sciences and associate curator at the Penn Museum. "We discovered it wasn't a tomb at all, but a subterranean bunker for a boat." Within the cavity, the team found wooden planks now attributed to a boat that was part of the funeral procession for Pharaoh Senwosret III, who reigned around 1850 B.C.E. They also discovered about 150 jars and 120 preserved boat drawings on the building's walls.

"Originally, the building must have had hundreds and hundreds of boat drawings," Wegner says. "They are phenomenal images, with a lot of detail showing the structure of the boats, the form of the hulls, masted and unmasted boats, rowers, oars."

UFO

The Russian defector who convinced America to take ESP seriously

© The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Image
KGB agent Nikolai Khokhlov, who defected from Russia in 1954, holding up pictures of his wife and son.
History's spookiest spook.

On the afternoon of April 22, 1954, reporters massed at a press conference in Bonn, Germany. They'd been invited to meet one Nikolai Evgenievich Khokhlov, a captain in the Soviet Union's newly minted security force, the KGB. Well, a former captain. Khokhlov had arrived in Germany tasked with assassinating the leader of an anticommunist organization. Instead he defected, tipping off the target and surrendering himself to U.S. agents. He was now no longer at the center of a murder plot, but a media event.

The 32-year-old Khokhlov was a "slight, scholarly-appearing blond young man. He was neatly dressed in a dark blue suit. He wore glasses," reported,The New York Times. The Times reporter observed that the defector was self-possessed and calm, "adroitly" fielding questions in Russian.

Though Khokhlov's press conference came just weeks after another high-profile defection of a KGB official in Australia, his actions were thrilling enough to grab headlines. Even better, he had brought with him the exotic murder weapons constructed for the plot: two seemingly normal cigarette cases. "But they are ideal weapons for an assassin," wrote the Associated Press at the time, "because of their innocent appearance, lightness and efficiency." Flip the lid of the case back, and it revealed what appeared to be rows of run-of-the mill smokes. But press a concealed button, and a tiny four-inch-long pistol hidden inside would fire hollow-nosed bullets spiked with potassium cyanide. Upon being fired, the "resulting noise is no louder than the snap of the fingers and might pass unnoticed in the moderate conversation in a normal office," wrote the AP.

Archaeology

'Great Wall of India': Feat of ancient engineering uncovered in central India

© Photo: Twitter/ Pioneer News
A feat of ancient engineering may be getting uncovered among forests and valleys in central India. Scientists are excited as excavations indicate the existence of a "great wall".

Nestled in the heart of India, one of the country's most important archaeological discoveries in a century has recently come to light. Excavations have revealed a wall like structure running through many villages, forests and valleys in India's central state of Madhya Pradesh. Could this be India's very own ancient Great Wall?

Some historians have projected that the wall might run for at least 80 kilometers and may be India's longest. Globally, it would then be the second longest fortification after the Great Wall of China. However, many sections are buried deep inside rubble and need to be excavated. This may take a few more years, a state archeology official told Sputnik.

Dig

China: Long-lost Buddha statue appears after lake level drops

© Xinhua/REX/Shutterstock
Forgotten by time: A long-lost Buddha appeared from under a lake in south-east China after the water level lowered
Chinese archaeologists are trying to solve the mystery of a long-lost Buddha statue which appeared from a lake after the water level lowered dramatically.

The stone relic, found in Nancheng County in Fuzhou, could date as far as the 14th century, according to state media Xinhua News Agency.

The holy figure was discovered at the end of last year when a few villagers saw its head emerging from the surface of the water in the lake in Fujian Province.

Comment:


Info

Ancient Egyptian cemeteries discovered near Aswan by Swedish archaeologists

© Handout/Reuters
Skeletal and animal remains are seen at one of the 12 newly discovered ancient Egyptian cemeteries.
Swedish archaeologists have unearthed a dozen burial sites near the southern city of Aswan that date back almost 3500 years to the New Kingdom era of ancient Egypt, the Antiquities Ministry said on Wednesday.

Human and animal remains were found in the cemeteries, which were discovered in the Gabal al-Silsila or Chain of Mountains area 65 km (40.3 miles) north of Aswan and would have been used during the reigns of pharaohs Thutmose III and Amenhotep II.

It is hoped the burial sites will help historians better understand ancient Egyptian healthcare and give a boost to Egypt's struggling tourism industry, which has been beset by political upheaval and militant attacks since the unseating of autocrat Hosni Mubarak in 2011.
© Reuters
An Egyptian pharaonic scarab is pictured at the site of one of dozen newly discovered ancient Egyptian cemeteries dating back to the New Kingdom era.
Some of the cemeteries were for animals and contain one or two chambers with either stone or clay coffins, or ones made of cartonnage, Mahmoud Afify, the ministry's head of Ancient Egyptian Antiquities, said in a statement. Totems and scorpions were also found.

Info

Archaeological find in Yukon, puts humans in North America 10,000 years earlier than thought

© Photo by Bourgeon et al
Cut marks in the jaw bone of a now-extinct Yukon horse serve as evidence that humans occupied the Bluefish Caves in Yukon, Canada, tens of thousands of years ago.
About 24,000 years ago, when much of North America was buried under the ice of the Last Glacial Maximum, a few hunters took shelter in a small cave above the Bluefish River in what is now northwestern Yukon. The hunters had killed a Yukon horse and were butchering it using super-sharp stone shards called microblades. As they sliced out the horse's meaty tongue, the microblades left distinctive cuts in its jaw bone. Millennia later, archaeologist and doctoral candidate Lauriane Bourgeon spotted those marks through her microscope at the University of Montreal and added the fragment of ancient jaw bone to her small selection of samples for radiocarbon dating.

The bones came from excavations led by archaeologist Jacques Cinq-Mars between 1977 and 1987 and have been in storage at the Canadian Museum of History in Gatineau, Quebec. At the time, Cinq-Mars and his team concluded that the Bluefish Caves showed evidence of occasional human use as much as 30,000 years ago. That is so much older than anything else found in the Americas that Cinq-Mars's conclusions were widely disputed, and the three small caves were largely left out of discussions about the peopling of the Americas.

Read more at Hakai Magazine

Bad Guys

Hypocritical Outrage over 'Russian hacking' disingenuous as the US has been hacking elections for more than a century

© AFP/Getty Images
Chilean President Salvador Allende waved to supporters in Santiago a few days after his election in 1970. The car was escorted by General Augusto Pinochet.
Outrage is shaking Washington as members of Congress compete to demonize Russia for its alleged interference in America's recent presidential election. "Any foreign intervention in our elections is entirely unacceptable," Speaker of the House Paul Ryan has asserted. Russian actions, according to other legislators, are "attacks on our very fundamentals of democracy" that "should alarm every American" because they "cut to the heart of our free society." This burst of righteous indignation would be easier to swallow if the United States had not itself made a chronic habit of interfering in foreign elections.

Over a period of more than a century, American leaders have used a variety of tools to influence voters in other countries. We have chosen candidates, advised them, financed their parties, designed their campaigns, bribed media outlets to support them, and intimidated or smeared their rivals.

One of our first operations to shape the outcome of a foreign election came in Cuba. After the United States helped Cuban rebels overthrow Spanish rule in 1898, we organized a presidential election, recruited a pro-American candidate, and forbade others to run against him. Two years later, after the United States annexed Hawaii, we established an electoral system that denied suffrage to most native Hawaiians, assuring that only pro-American candidates would be elected to public office.

During the Cold War, influencing foreign elections was a top priority for the CIA. One of its first major operations was aimed at assuring that a party we favored won the 1948 election in Italy. This was a multipronged effort that included projects like encouraging Italian-Americans to write letters to their relatives warning that American aid to Italy would end if the wrong party won. Encouraged by its success in Italy, the CIA quickly moved to other countries.

Comment: Ridiculously Massive: The list of governments the USA has overthrown since WWII