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Horse

Armenian Highlands, land of the horse

Horse breading, the domestication of the horses and the development of the chariot in Armenia dates back to the time immemorial. In fact, the Armenian Highlands were renowned for horse breeding and horsemanship throughout ancient times. Murals of the Iron Age (Armenian) kingdom of Ararat attest to the richness of this practice. Traditionally Armenians consider themselves as descended from the biblical Torgom (Togarmah), where the Bible refers to the House of Togarmah, a land known for its horses (Ez. 27:14). For this reason the ancient Persians would collect Armenian horses as part of taxation for their armies and the royal guard (Strabo, 20 B.C.). Equally revered was the Armenian cavalry of the ancient times.

Brick Wall

Discovery of the Great Wall of Siberia, 1st millennium BC

© Ancient-origins.net
Giant ramparts guarded Altai Mountains against attack from the north, says leading archaeologist Professor Andrey Borodovsky. The wall complex - now almost hidden to the naked eye - is believed to date from a long era that also saw such constructions as the Great Wall of China and Hadrian's Wall.

Concealed under thick layers of turf are huge stones put in place by ancient man, says the scientist. Six rows of a parallel wall system limited access to the Altai Mountain complex from the north via the valley of the Katun River. Their width is a substantial ten meters with an impressive height of up to eight meters.

It is not known who built the giant ramparts. 'To the east of these walls is a fairly wide passage, which is limited at the mountainside by another series of walls, oriented west-east across the Katun valley,' he said.

There are nine walls adjacent to the mountain slope.

Professor Andrey Borodovsky said: 'These walls were clearly made to cut off crowds of people, and make them go through a narrow passage in the direction chosen by the creators of the (construction).'

In this way access from the steppes to the mountains - the home of ancient civilizations, for example of the Pazyryk people - could be controlled.

Some of the walls were destroyed by the construction of the Chuya highway in tsarist times, modernized by Stalin using prisoner labor. [...]

Prof Borodovsky insists geophysical analysis using scans shows the structures here were manmade not natural. He has announced plans to conduct detailed research here next year, which - while not long in total length, with more than 1 kilometer identified - are high in historical significance.

So far archaeological evidence of man from the areas around the walls points to a medieval presence yet the researcher from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography in Novosibirsk is convinced proof will be found of their construction much earlier.

'Geophysics has clearly confirmed that the Souzga walls were artificially created,' he told The Siberian Times.

For more of this article, go here.

Pharoah

Analyzing mummy genes: Could ancient Egyptians be closely related to Middle Easterners?

© ancient-origions.com
Egypt has been thought of by many as a quintessentially African civilization. There is, however, evidence that the ancient Egyptians may have been less African than modern Egyptians, at least genetically. Recent genetic studies have shown that the people of ancient Egypt had ties to ancient Near Eastern populations such as Armenians. This is also consistent with the idea of a large migration out of the Middle East to settle parts of North Africa and Europe and mingle with local populations in those areas.

Modern Egyptians have a lot of genetic and cultural ties to Sub-Saharan Africa. It has long been believed by archaeologists that the Egyptian civilization grew from villages developing along the Nile which were similar to people farther south. So far, genetic studies of modern Egyptians as well as archaeological research have confirmed this. Studies of the ancient Egyptian mummies, however, tell a slightly more complex story.

Checking the Genes of Egyptian Mummies

In a recent study, genetic samples were taken from at least 90 mummies. What geneticists working alongside archaeologists found was that the mummies had closer genetic connections to the Middle East, specifically the Levant and Anatolia. This is an interesting find since it suggests that modern Egyptians are more African than ancient Egyptians.

One possible explanation for more genetic similarities between ancient Egyptians and Middle Eastern populations such as Syrians or Armenians would be the Hyksos. The Hyksos were a Middle Eastern people who occupied the Nile delta sometime before 1650 BC and came to rule Egypt until they were ousted by a native dynasty.
© Bigstock
Egyptian mummy in laboratory
For more of this article, go here.

Chalkboard

Mathematical secrets of ancient Babylonian tablet unlocked

Dating from 1,000 years before Pythagoras's theorem, the Babylonian clay tablet is a trigonometric table more accurate than any today, say researchers.
© UNSW/Andrew Kelly
Mathematician Dr Daniel Mansfield with the Plimpton 322 tablet.
At least 1,000 years before the Greek mathematician Pythagoras looked at a right angled triangle and worked out that the square of the longest side is always equal to the sum of the squares of the other two, an unknown Babylonian genius took a clay tablet and a reed pen and marked out not just the same theorem, but a series of trigonometry tables which scientists claim are more accurate than any available today.

The 3,700-year-old broken clay tablet survives in the collections of Columbia University, and scientists now believe they have cracked its secrets.

The team from the University of New South Wales in Sydney believe that the four columns and 15 rows of cuneiform - wedge shaped indentations made in the wet clay - represent the world's oldest and most accurate working trigonometric table, a working tool which could have been used in surveying, and in calculating how to construct temples, palaces and pyramids.

The fabled sophistication of Babylonian architecture and engineering is borne out by excavation. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, believed by some archaeologists to have been a planted step pyramid with a complex artificial watering system, was written of by Greek historians as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

Comment: Details of the hypothesis can be found in:
Plimpton 322 is Babylonian exact sexagesimal trigonometry, Historia Mathematica, 2017


Info

Paul Craig Roberts: The so-called Civil War was not fought over slavery

When I read Professor Thomas DiLorenzo's article the question that leapt to mind was, "How come the South is said to have fought for slavery when the North wasn't fighting against slavery?"

Two days before Lincoln's inauguration as the 16th President, Congress, consisting only of the Northern states, passed overwhelmingly on March 2, 1861, the Corwin Amendment that gave constitutional protection to slavery. Lincoln endorsed the amendment in his inaugural address, saying "I have no objection to its being made express and irrevocable."

Quite clearly, the North was not prepared to go to war in order to end slavery when on the very eve of war the US Congress and incoming president were in the process of making it unconstitutional to abolish slavery.

Here we have absolute total proof that the North wanted the South kept in the Union far more than the North wanted to abolish slavery.

If the South's real concern was maintaining slavery, the South would not have turned down the constitutional protection of slavery offered them on a silver platter by Congress and the President. Clearly, for the South also the issue was not slavery.

Eagle

The 64th Anniversary of the West's Coup in Iran is Not Forgotten by the World

After WWII, the West had one huge 'problem' on its hands: all three most populous Muslim countries on Earth - Egypt, Iran and Indonesia - were clearly moving in one similar direction, joining a group of patriotic, peaceful and tolerant nations. They were deeply concerned about the welfare of their citizens, and by no means were they willing to allow foreign colonialist powers to plunder their resources, or enslave their people.

In the 1950's, the world was rapidly changing, and there was suddenly hope that the countries which were oppressed and pillaged for decades and centuries by first the European and then North American geopolitical and business interests, would finally break their shackles and stand proudly on their own feet.

Several Communist countries in Eastern Europe, but also newly liberated China, were actively helping with a rapid de-colonizing process in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and other parts of the world.

Those developments were exactly what the West in general and both the U.K. and the U.S. in particular, were not ready or willing to accept. 'Ancient' belief in some sort of 'inherited right' to colonize, to loot and to control entire the non-white world, was deeply engraved in the psyche of the rulers in both Europe and North America.

USA

'We are all Americans': Native Americans fought for both Union and Confederacy during US Civil War


Evil black slave-owning racists? Cherokee confederates (Thomas' Legion) at the U.C.V reunion in New Orleans, 1903.
At a time when fear of removal from tribal homelands permeated Native American communities, many native people served in the military during the Civil War. These courageous men fought with distinction, knowing they might jeopardize their freedom, unique cultures, and ancestral lands if they ended up on the losing side of the white man's war. Read this intriguing account of Native American contributions to the war effort for a fuller understanding of what the conflict meant to "all Americans."

Allegiance to the Federal Government

Approximately 20,000 Native Americans served in the Union and Confederate armies during the Civil War, participating in battles such as Pea Ridge, Second Manassas, Antietam, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and in Federal assaults on Petersburg. By fighting with the white man, Native Americans hoped to gain favor with the prevailing government by supporting the war effort. They also saw war service as a means to end discrimination and relocation from ancestral lands to western territories. Instead, the Civil War proved to be the Native American's last effort to stop the tidal wave of American expansion. While the war raged and African Americans were proclaimed free, the U.S. government continued its policies of pacification and removal of Native Americans.


Comment: ...that'd be the Union US govt.


Rose

Letter comes to light from Queen Elizabeth about Princess Diana's death

© Anwar Hussein/Getty Images
Prince William arrives with Diana, Princess of Wales and Prince Harry for his first day at Eton College on September 16, 1995 in Windsor, England.
A letter by Queen Elizabeth six days after Princess Diana's death has come to light.

The letter from Queen Elizabeth to one of her closest aides, Lady Henriette Abel Smith, a lady in waiting, gives a rare glimpse into the depth of emotion that enveloped the royal family in the wake of Princess Diana's death.

"It was indeed dreadfully sad, and she is a huge loss to the country. But the public reaction to her death, and the service in the Abbey, seem to have united people round the world in a rather inspiring way. William and Harry have been so brave and I am very proud of them," Queen Elizabeth wrote in the letter.

Heart

New Princess Diana documentary reveals Queen tried to shield William and Harry from public hysteria after Diana's death

© Ian Waldie / Reuters
The Queen hid newspapers at Balmoral after Princess Diana died to stop her grandsons William and Harry from seeing the hysteria that swept Britain, a new documentary has revealed.

The BBC's 'Diana, 7 Days,' details the week of the death of the Princess of Wales and the outpouring of grief that followed. It includes interviews with her sons and siblings, as well as former members of the royal household and ex-Prime Minister Tony Blair.

The Queen was criticized for not returning from Balmoral to London quickly enough to acknowledge the national outpouring of grief. But Prince William appears to defend her decision, saying they were kept away from public view, knowing nothing of the extraordinary response throughout the country.

"At the time, you know, my grandmother wanted to protect her two grandsons and my father as well," William said.

"Our grandmother deliberately removed the newspapers and things like that, so there was nothing in the house at all, so we didn't know what was going on. We had the privacy to mourn and kind of collect our thoughts and to try and have that space away from everybody."

Bad Guys

70th Anniversary of India-Pakistan Partition: Tragic Lessons for Humanity

© ROYSTON LEONARD / MEDIADRUMWORLD
India and Pakistan recently marked the 70th anniversary of their independence from Great Britain, an event also known as the Great Partition, when the British empire withdrew from southern Asia. At midnight on August 15th, 1947, India gained independence after 200 years under the British Raj. Instead of marking a time of celebration, the event is scarred with one of modern history's bloodiest upheavals.

WWII's atrocities are recognized and studied across the Western world. However, what isn't highlighted is that fallout from that war continued to ravage south Asia as the British Empire declined. We know that Ghandi's non-violent civil disobedience was the seed that freed India from British imperialism, but the outcome of this revolution is barely a footnote in Westernized history.

War, political discord, economic depression and calamitous weather brought famine to British India and Gandhi's 'Quit India Movement' to break free from British rule. After fighting two world wars trying to sustain the British Empire, the Anglos were finally broke and unable to sustain control over their vast empire. Decolonization began in India, but not without the British firing 'a parting shot':
In the middle of World War II, with the United States pressuring Britain to loosen its colonial grip on India, Winston Churchill issued a bitter prophecy. "Take India if that was what you want! Take it, by all means!" the British prime minister raged to a U.S. diplomat in Washington. But, he argued, only British rule kept the subcontinent's Hindus and Muslims from each other's throats: "I warn you that if I open the door a crack, there will be the greatest bloodbath in all history; yes, bloodbath in all history."