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Sat, 01 Oct 2016
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Secret History


Six more ancient birch-bark letters unearthed in Russia's Novgorod

Archeologists have unearthed six ancient Russian birch-bark texts in the historical part of Vekliky Novgorod in northwestern Russia in less than a month.

"On June 2, two birch-barks were found in the 14-century cultural layer during excavations in Bolshaya Moskovskaya Street. And four more 'letters from the past' were discovered there later," a spokesman for the Novgorod Archeological Expedition told reporters.

The findings, all of them fragments of larger texts, apparently business records, are being studied by linguists.

More than a thousand ancient birch-bark texts have been found in Veliky Novgorod over more than 60 years of archeological excavations in that ancient Russian city.


The truth about giant skeletons in American Indian mounds, and the Smithsonian cover-up

Ancient American giants? 9-foot mummy allegedly found in California in 1895.
During the past few years a huge controversy has emerged accusing the Smithsonian (and a host of skeptics and archaeologists) of covering up the discovery of hundreds of giant skeletons from Native American Indian mounds. Jim Vieira is one of the key people who began uncovering hundreds of newspaper accounts of giant skeletons after he became intrigued by his visits to stone chambers found primarily in northeastern states. To date, Vieira has pulled together about 1,500 accounts from newspapers and books published in the 1800s and early 1900s.

The newspaper stories relate that the skeletons ranged in size from 7 feet to well over 18 feet in length. Vieira began issuing the reports, one at a time, every day on a popular Facebook page called Your Daily Giant. Vieira was subsequently attacked by skeptical bloggers. One of the skeptics, Jason Colavito, related that the giant reports came from misidentified mastodon/mammoth bones to outright hoaxes. However, Colavito didn't cite a single example of a hoax or a giant skeleton found in America that turned out to be a mastodon or mammoth. Colavito also wrote that modern paleopathology textbooks could explain other reports because repeated freezing and thawing of buried bones would expand bones "enough to turn a slightly average body into a gigantic one." Both of Colavito's assertions are astonishing claims evaluated below.

In February 2014 Andrew Collins and I began a detailed investigation into many of the giant reports as well as the assertions by the skeptics. We visited a host of mound sites, spoke with several archaeologists, and ran many of the giant skeleton reports down to their source. What we found was intriguing to the extent that I wrote a book on the topic and Andrew wrote the Foreword and an extensive Afterword to it. The book is entitled Path of Souls: The Native American Death Journey; Cygnus, Orion, the Milky Way, Giant Skeletons in Mounds, & the Smithsonian.

The main title reflects our original intent, which was to detail new information about the mysterious symbols found on artifacts excavated from mounds and what they mean with respect to Native American beliefs about death. We were essentially sidetracked by the "giant skeleton" issue and spent a great deal of time finding original sources of the stories. This article focuses only on the skeleton findings.


From ancient Egypt to modern America, spying has always been used to crush dissent

© Mario Bordieri
Americans are told that we live in a "post-9/11 reality" that requires mass surveillance.

But the NSA was already conducting mass surveillance prior to 9/11 ... including surveillance on the 9/11 hijackers.

And top security experts - including the highest-level government officials and the top university experts - say that mass surveillance actually increases terrorism and hurts security. And they say that our government failed to stop the Boston bombing because they were too busy spying on millions of innocent Americans instead of focusing on actual bad guys.

So why is the government conducting mass surveillance on the American people?


Scientists reveal a suspected Bronze Age murder (and dental secrets from around 4,000 years ago)

Power of science brings to life our past from 'unique' skull discovered in a grave northwest of Lake Baikal.
© Canadian Light Source
This specimen really intrigued me,' said bioarchaeologist Angela Lieverse, associate professor at the University of Saskatchewan.
The extraordinary ability of modern scientists to play the role of detectives delving into the deep past is highlighted by work of Canadian experts in co-operation with their Russian colleagues on the skull of a man from the early Bronze Age - some 3,995 to 4,420 years ago.

The man was aged 35 to 40, the evidence suggests he did not die a natural death.

'This specimen really intrigued me,' said bioarchaeologist Angela Lieverse, associate professor at the University of Saskatchewan. 'I've known about this skull for about ten years and there are a couple things about it that are fascinating.'

One was that the man was missing two front teeth on the lower jaw.

The other was an obvious stone projectile tip embedded in the exact same spot where the two incisors should be.

'We knew there was a projectile, we could see it, but we didn't know if it occurred years before the individual died or if it happened around the same time as his death. I suspected it happened earlier and had something to do with the very unusual missing teeth.'


How did the Harrappan civilization avoid war for 2,000 years?

The Harappan civilization dominated the Indus River valley beginning about five thousand years ago, many of its massive cities sprawling at the edges of rivers that still flow through Pakistan and India today. But its culture remains a mystery. Why did it leave behind no representations of great leaders, nor of warfare?

Archaeologists have long wondered whether the Harappan civilization could actually have thrived for roughly 2,000 years without any major wars or leadership cults. Obviously people had conflicts, sometimes with deadly results - graves reveal ample skull injuries caused by blows to the head. But there is no evidence that any Harappan city was ever burned, besieged by an army, or taken over by force from within. Sifting through the archaeological layers of these cities, scientists find no layers of ash that would suggest the city had been burned down, and no signs of mass destruction. There are no enormous caches of weapons, and not even any art representing warfare.

That would make the Harappan civilization an historical outlier in any era. But it's especially noteworthy at a time when neighboring civilizations in Mesopotamia were erecting massive war monuments, and using cuneiform writing on clay tablets to chronicle how their leaders slaughtered and enslaved thousands.

What exactly were the Harappans doing instead of focusing their energies on military conquest?

Comment: The missing link when researching the collapse of civilizations is the human-cosmic connection and the cometary bombardments that inevitably bring civilizations to their knees. See Laura Knight-Jadczyk's Secret History of the World series of books for more details, especially the newest volume, authored by Pierre Lescaudron: Earth Changes and the Human-Cosmic Connection.


The truth about imperial Russia


St. Petersburg, Russia
In early 1815, Nathan Rothschild approached Czar Alexander I (1801-25) at the Congress of Vienna with a proposal that he set up a central bank in Russia. Whether it was because he distrusted this shady banker or was aware of the perils of central banking is not known, but he prudently declined.

In 1860 The State Bank of the Russian Empire was founded with the aim of boosting trade turnovers and the strengthening of the monetary system. Up to 1894 it was an auxiliary institution under the direct control of the Ministry of Finance. In that year it was transformed into being the banker of the bankers and operated as an instrument of the government's economic policy. It minted and printed the nation's coins and notes, regulated the money supply and through commercial banks provided industry and commerce with very low interest rate loans. Its vast gold reserves, the largest in the world, except for the year 1906 exceeded the bank note issue by more than 100%.

Not unexpectedly Russia had the smallest national debt in the world. The following table reflects the number of rubles per inhabitant in 1908.

Comment: See also:

Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, by Antony C. Sutton


4,000-year-old burial with chariots discovered in South Caucasus

© Photo courtesy Zurab Makharadze
Here, the roof of a 4,000-year-old burial chamber buried in a Kurgan (mound) in the country of Georgia.
An ancient burial containing chariots, gold artifacts and possible human sacrifices has been discovered by archaeologists in the country of Georgia, in the south Caucasus.

The burial site, which would've been intended for a chief, dates back over 4,000 years to a time archaeologists call the Early Bronze Age, said Zurab Makharadze, head of the Centre of Archaeology at the Georgian National Museum.

Archaeologists discoveredthe timber burial chamber within a 39-foot-high (12 meters) mound called a kurgan. When the archaeologists reached the chamber they found an assortment of treasures, including two chariots, each with four wooden wheels. [See Images of the Burial Chamber & Chariots]

The team discovered ornamented clay and wooden vessels, flint and obsidian arrowheads, leather and textile artifacts, a unique wooden armchair, carnelian and amber beads and 23 golden artifacts, including rare and artistic crafted jewelry, wrote Makharadze in the summary of a presentation he gave recently at the International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, held at the University of Basel in Switzerland.

"In the burial chamber were placed two four-wheeled chariots, both in good condition, [the] design of which represents fine ornamental details of various styles," Makharadze wrote. Thechamber also contained wild fruits, he added.

While the human remains had been disturbed by a robbery, which probably occurred in ancient times, and were in a disordered position, the archaeologists found that seven people were buried in the chamber. "One of them was a chief and others should be the members of his family, sacrificed slaves or servants," Makharadze told Live Science in an email.

Comet 2

Comets and meteorites on ancient coins

© www.astrostudio.at / Gerald Rhemann
The night sky was really important to ancient people. This can be hard for us to understand, living as we do in a world where light pollution denies us a clear view of the stars. What people saw in the sky - or thought they saw - they expressed as myths, as symbols, and even as designs on their coins. The crescent moon and spiky stars, for example, appear frequently on ancient coins.

Most ancient cultures believed in astrology - the notion that changes observed in the heavens above were strongly linked to events on earth below. Along with the reassuringly predictable motions of the stars and planets, more troubling things sometimes appeared in the sky.

Rare and unpredictable, comets and meteors were particularly potent symbols, and their appearance on a few ancient coins has sparked the interest of historians and astronomers as well as numismatists.

We know now that comets are large "dirty snowballs" with eccentric orbits that sometimes bring them close enough to the sun that long tails of gas and dust reflect enough sunlight to make them visible. The Greek word kometes means "long-haired." One Latin term for comet was stella crinita - "hairy star."

Aristotle thought comets were the result of combustible gas igniting in the upper atmosphere. Some ancients believed they were wandering planets. But many believed they were omens of natural or political catastrophe - wars, plagues, famines, and especially the death of rulers. This was a potential PR problem if you happened to be a king and a comet appeared.


Large gold nugget dubbed 'Devil's Ear' found in Siberia during full moon on Friday 13th

A huge nugget of gold, nicknamed the Devil's Ear because of its peculiar shape, was found by miners in Siberia on Friday 13th, as a full moon shone over Russia.

A huge nugget of gold, nicknamed the Devil's Ear because of its peculiar shape, was found by miners in Siberia on Friday 13th, as a full moon shone over Russia. Depending on its purity, it may be worth £180,000 ($300,000).
  • Precious lump was cast aside by a sifting machine at the Ukhagan mine
  • Fortunately, nugget was spotted by a worker while he was levelling a pile
  • Named Devil's Ear due to shape and the fact its 6.66kg weight features the 'devil's number'
  • Miners are hoping to find more gold nuggets in the Bodaybinsky district
  • Devil's Ear is around ten times smaller than the world's largest nugget, Welcome Stranger, which weighed in at 72.02 kg (158.78 lbs)
Initially the precious lump was cast aside by a sifting machine, but was later spotted by an eagle-eyed worker at the Ukhagan mine in the Irkutsk region's Bodaybinsky district.

'Even the giant nugget's weight seems sinister - including three sixes - 6.664kg (14.69lb)' reported The Siberian Times.

Depending on its purity, this would make the nugget worth around £180,000 ($300,000).

Blue Planet

Scientists find 6,200 year-old parasite in ancient tomb

© Science picture co/Getty Images
Schistosoma parasitic worm that causes Schistosomiasis
In a skeleton more than 6,200 years old, scientists have found the earliest known evidence of infection with a parasitic worm that now afflicts more than 200 million people worldwide.

Archaeologists discovered a parasite egg near the pelvis of a child skeleton in northern Syria and say it dates back to a time when ancient societies first used irrigation systems to grow crops. Scientists suspect the new farming technique meant people were spending a lot of time wading in warm water - ideal conditions for the parasites to jump into humans. That may have triggered outbreaks of the water-borne flatworm disease known as schistosomiasis.

"The invention of irrigation was a major technological breakthrough (but) it had unintended consequences," said Gil Stein, a professor of Near Eastern archaeology at the University of Chicago, one of the report's authors. "A more reliable food supply came at the cost of more disease," he wrote in an email.