Secret HistoryS


Ramesses II's sarcophagus finally identified thanks to overlooked hieroglyphics

Archaeologists determined that a fragment of a sarcophagus hidden beneath a Coptic building's floor once belonged to Ramesses II.
sarcophagus fragment
© Kevin CahailThe sarcophagus fragment was found under the floor of a Coptic building in Egypt.
A sarcophagus fragment discovered beneath the floor of a religious center belongs to Ramesses II, one of the best-known ancient Egyptian pharaohs, according to a new study.

Archaeologists unearthed the granite artifact in 2009 inside a Coptic building in Abydos, an ancient city in east-central Egypt. The team, led by archaeologists Ayman Damrani and Kevin Cahail, had determined that the sarcophagus had carried two individuals at different times. However, they could identify only the latter — Menkheperre, a "high priest of the 21st dynasty," who lived in roughly 1000 B.C., according to a translated statement from France's National Center for Scientific Research.

The initial owner of the sarcophagus — a container that is covered in carved decorations and texts — had remained a mystery. But archaeologists knew it had belonged to a "very high-ranking figure of the Egyptian New Kingdom," according to the statement.

Further sleuthing enabled Egyptologist Frédéric Payraudeau, a teacher and researcher at Sorbonne University in France, to connect Ramesses II (also spelled Ramses II) to the sarcophagus. To do so, they deciphered an overlooked cartouche, an oval-shaped engraving that represents the name of a pharaoh, "of Ramses II himself," according to the statement.


Flashback Anglo-American money masters as the organizers of the Second World War

Anglo-American flag
© Unknown
The initiative to start the Second World War did not belong to the "possessed Fuhrer", who supposedly by chance found himself at the helm of power in Germany. The Second World War is a project of the global financial oligarchy, the Anglo-American masters of money. It was they, relying on institutions such as the US Federal Reserve System and the Bank of England, who immediately after the end of the First World War began preparing for the next armed conflict on a global scale. And the plan for a new war was directed against the USSR.

Important milestones in this preparation were the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan, the creation of the Bank for International Settlements, Germany's announcement of the cessation of reparation payments under the Paris Peace Treaty and the tacit consent of Russia's former allies with this decision, powerful infusions of foreign investment and loans into the economy of the Third Reich, the militarization of the German economy in violation of the terms of the Paris Peace Treaty.

1) The article has one link, but was published in two articles with different links:
03.05.2015 Англо-американские хозяева денег как организаторы Второй мировой войны (I)
04.05.2015 Англо-американские хозяева денег как организаторы Второй мировой войны (II)

2) The recent article Downfall: the empire's destiny includes a few paragraphs that can connect to this article, What happened preparation for WWII is a pattern that has been tried before.
During the 19th century, US economy endured three major financial crashes: in 1837, 1857, and in 1873. Each crash triggered major economic depressions with mass-scale culling of smaller banks and other businesses. The collapse enabled the ruling oligarchy to consolidate monopolies over all the key industries.
It would appear that the sequence of booms and busts followed by major wars is a feature of Western-style "free market capitalist economy." How and why this happens is never properly explained nor understood, but somehow, it's become our normal. Where explanations should be sought and offered we get shrugs and blank stares: "It's complicated..."

Sure. It's complicated, so let's not try too hard to understand it. Keep calm and carry on: get into debt, mortgage your property, enjoy some temporary prosperity, then struggle and go bankrupt. Then you may get to send your sons off to war. They'll tell you which enemy to hate and you may resign yourself to the unfolding dystopia. We've always been at war with Eurasia. What could you possibly do?
3) More confirmation can sometimes be gleaned from studying the Wikies of some of the main characters mentioned in the article.

American bankers
Gates McGarrah
Thomas Harrington McKittrick
Leon Fraser (Wikispooks) says that committed suicide, under odd circumstances, in April 1945. This announcement in the New York Times from February 16, 1935, "QUITS WORLD BANK FOR FIRST NATIONAL; Leon Fraser, 45, Head of International Body, Elected to Vice Presidency Here." So Fraser was the head for two years. The Wikispooks entry has a reference, which leads to a digital copy of Drew Pearson on The Washington Merry-Go-Round (April 13, 1945)
Drew Pearson
Drew Pearson on Leon Fraser
Would the views, and the testimony of Leon Fraser have been an impediment to the promotion of the Post World War II narrative?

British banker, British politicians
Montagu Norman, 1st Baron Norman
Neville Chamberlain
John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon

German Bankers
Kurt Freiherr von Schröder (German Wiki)
Emil Puhl (German Wiki, there is an English Wiki, but the German is more informative.)
Walther Funk
Hjalmar Schacht but the German Wiki has other details
The Wiki portrays him as a more nuanced character than the author of the article, for instance it is not mentioned that he was sent to a concentration camp, if translated, there is:
He was Reichsbank President from 1923 to 1930 and from March 1933 to January 1939 and Reich Minister of Economic Affairs from 1934 to 1937. He later fell out of favor with the regime and was deported to concentration camps because of his contact with the resistance against National Socialism.

Schacht was one of the 24 leaders of the National Socialist regime accused in the Nuremberg trial of the main war criminals before the International Military Tribunal. He was acquitted of all charges on October 1, 1946.
German banks and companies
Reichsbank, Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Donat Bank (Probably: Danat Bank),
IG Farben (German company formed in 1925:
It was seized by the Allies after World War II and split into its constituent companies; parts in East Germany were nationalized.[a]

IG Farben was once the largest company in Europe and the largest chemical and pharmaceutical company in the world.[4] IG Farben scientists made fundamental contributions to all areas of chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry.
Central banks, private banks, plans and institutions
Bank of England, Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Dawes Plan, Young Plan
Bank of International Settlements
Bretton Woods system this entry connects to the situation that was established after WWII and which paved the ground for US hegemony.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial relations among the United States, Canada, Western European countries, and Australia as well as 44 other countries[1] after the 1944 Bretton Woods Agreement. The Bretton Woods system was the first example of a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern monetary relations among independent states. The Bretton Woods system required countries to guarantee convertibility of their currencies into U.S. dollars to within 1% of fixed parity rates, with the dollar convertible to gold bullion for foreign governments and central banks at US$35 per troy ounce of fine gold (or 0.88867 gram fine gold per dollar). It also envisioned greater cooperation among countries in order to prevent future competitive devaluations, and thus established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to monitor exchange rates and lend reserve currencies to nations with balance of payments deficits.[2]

Preparing to rebuild the international economic system while World War II was still being fought, 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations gathered at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, also known as the Bretton Woods Conference. The delegates deliberated from 1 to 22 July 1944, and signed the Bretton Woods agreement on its final day. Setting up a system of rules, institutions, and procedures to regulate the international monetary system, these accords established the IMF and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which today is part of the World Bank Group. The United States, which controlled two-thirds of the world's gold, insisted that the Bretton Woods system rest on both gold and the US dollar. Soviet representatives attended the conference but later declined to ratify the final agreements, charging that the institutions they had created were "branches of Wall Street".[3] These organizations became operational in 1945 after a sufficient number of countries had ratified the agreement. According to Barry Eichengreen, the Bretton Woods system operated successfully due to three factors: "low international capital mobility, tight financial regulation, and the dominant economic and financial position of the United States and the dollar."[4]

On 15 August 1971, the United States "temporarily" suspended the convertibility of the US dollar to gold, effectively bringing the Bretton Woods system to an end and rendering the dollar a fiat currency.[5] Shortly thereafter, many fixed currencies (such as the pound sterling) also became free-floating,[6] and the subsequent era has been characterized by floating exchange rates.[7] The end of Bretton Woods was formally ratified by the Jamaica Accords in 1976.

In 1973, Nixon and secretary of state Henry Kissinger made a secret deal with Saudi Arabia to trade oil only in US dollars, thus pegging the US dollar to oil and birthing the petrodollar.[8]
It was said above that the Soviet Union is mention, its position was that 'the institutions they had created were "branches of Wall Street"' however,American Bankers also played role in the Russian Revolution:
SOTT Focus: MindMatters: Wall Street and the Russian Revolution, with Richard B. Spence
On SOTT, there are a few articles about the Bretton Woods agreement and its consequences, though more could be found if one refines the search to include summary and text. Here are four of five title with "Bretton Woods": Elements in the pre WWII situation can also be found today.

4) There is much missing from a short retelling that reduces history to economics and money owners, though it is part of the picture. There is another side, introduced in this article and the associated video:
Hyperdimensional Realities: The Most Dangerous Idea in the World, Explained by Laura Knight-Jadczyk
"If you think the government is hiding things about aliens, you're only scratching the surface of the mystery."

"We're not dealing with little green men or flying saucers. We're dealing with phenomena that challenge our very notions of reality." - Laura Knight-Jadczyk

Better Earth

Orkney promontory may be a neolithic artificial island, known as a crannog

crannog orkney
© Tom O’BrienThe Wasdale promontory from above.
Postgraduate students were back in Firth, Orkney, recently to carry out test-pitting on a promontory at the northern end of the Wasdale loch.

Previous visits were for walkover survey practical sessions, but this time the focus was on seeing what, if any, archaeology survives and whether it could clarify the nature of the feature.

Although it's possible to cross dry-shod these days, it appears as an islet on the 1882 Ordnance Survey map. Little is known about the site, but the fact the shoreside edges appear to show the remains of walling led to the suggestion it may be a crannog.

Comment: Recent finds point to the region as being quite the hub of activity in the neolithic.

The crannogs themselves are intriguing and the following snippets may provide clues as to why they were constructed: Crannogs: Neolithic artificial islands in Scotland stump archeologists
[...] many of Scotland's lochs hide the remains of a dozen crannogs or more, most of them dating to the same eras - around either the 5th or 2nd Centuries BC.

Building that kind of dwelling requires a high level of skill.

It also needs abundant resources.In that sense, the crannogs may be a little like the mysterious hill forts of Wales, which appeared around the same period.

But if this idea is true, it raises the question of why people began paying more attention to defence or status at this specific time.

In part, this may have stemmed from the same reason that caused a boom in Welsh hill forts in the same period: climactic deterioration.

Arrow Down

Federal government used bribery to end relationships with Native American tribes

Book by David Beck
© Courtesy David BeckThe federal government used bribery to try to end its legal and political relationships with Native American tribes in the first half of the 20th century, says University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign history professor David Beck. In his new book, “Bribed With Our Own Money,” Beck describes how the government coerced tribal nations to accept termination by threatening to withhold money owed them.
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Federal policy toward Native American tribal nations in the first half of the 20th century sought to end the government's legal and political relationship with tribes. A new book by University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign history professor David Beck looks at one aspect of termination policy — bribery.

Bribed With Our Own Money: Federal Abuse of American Indian Funds in the Termination Era examines how officials coerced tribal nations to accept termination by threatening to withhold money owed them by the federal government. Beck found that such coercion was a government policy, with both Congress and the interior department advocating using the money owed to tribes to force the end of the government's relationship with them.

For example, in 1954, Congress appropriated money owed to the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin, which it won in a lawsuit over timber mismanagement after the federal government clear-cut tribal forests. Congress forced the tribe to accept termination of its federal trust relationship with the government as a condition of being paid the money it won in the lawsuit.

"Termination was foisted onto the tribes as a quid pro quo for the payments that were due to them," Beck wrote of such tactics.

Federal Indian policy established a trust or fiduciary relationship with tribes under which the government is to provide protection and ensure the survival of the tribal nations. Among the government's responsibilities are overseeing the governance of reservation lands and managing resources such as forests, minerals and game.

"It's a legal as well as a moral responsibility. Almost from the very beginning, the federal government has been trying to get out from under that responsibility," Beck said.


Flashback Stalin 'planned to send a million troops to stop Hitler if Britain and France agreed pact'

Map of Europe post WWI
© UnknownThere is no image in the achieved article, but this map may help to locate the different countries mentioned.
Stalin was 'prepared to move more than a million Soviet troops to the German border to deter Hitler's aggression just before the Second World War'

Papers which were kept secret for almost 70 years show that the Soviet Union proposed sending a powerful military force in an effort to entice Britain and France into an anti-Nazi alliance.

Such an agreement could have changed the course of 20th century history, preventing Hitler's pact with Stalin which gave him free rein to go to war with Germany's other neighbours.

Comment: History is often hotly contested, and the events that surrounded the beginning of WWII is no exception. A difference between then and now, is that the lines of communication are much faster, but if anyone imagined more technology would make the World more more peaceful then the results are disappointing. Consider also: "the British and French side - briefed by their governments to talk, but not authorised to commit to binding deals - did not respond to the Soviet offer, ". The technology of telegrams and telephone was there, but it was not used.
Putin reminded his listeners that true blame for the war should be found in those European powers that had already created non-aggression pacts with Hitler long before Russia, beginning with the 1938 Munich Agreement between France, England and Germany permitting the later to carve up Czechoslovakia. To this point, Putin said: "Let them read historical documents so that they can see that the Munich Agreement was signed in 1938: the leaders of key European countries - France and the United Kingdom - signed an agreement with Hitler to divide Czechoslovakia."

The Russian leader went onto say "It is people like those who negotiated with Hitler - it is people like that who today are tearing down monuments to the liberating warriors, the Red Army soldiers who freed Europe and the European people from the Nazis."

Blue Planet

Pagan-Christian trade networks supplied horses from overseas for the last horse sacrifices of 14th century Europe

china bronze age
© Kai Bai; Antiquity Publications LtdFILE: One of the six sacrificial horse pits unearthed at Yaoheyuan in northwestern China. The walled city likely served as a political and cultural hub in Bronze Age China.
Horses crossed the Baltic Sea in ships during the Late Viking Age and were sacrificed for funeral rituals, according to research from Cardiff University.

Published in the journal Science Advances, studies on the remains of horses found at ancient burial sites in Russia and Lithuania show that they were brought overseas from Scandinavia utilising expansive trade networks connecting the Viking world with the Byzantine and Arab Empires.

Up to now, researchers had believed sacrificial horses were always locally-sourced stallions. But these results reveal horses from modern Sweden or Finland travelled up to 1,500 km across the Baltic Sea. The findings also show that the sex of the horse was not necessarily a factor in them being chosen for sacrifice, with genetic analysis showing one in three were mares.

Comment: See also:


The new study presents evidence suggesting the use of threshing sledges in Neolithic Greece as early as 6500 BCE

Threshing Sledge
© University of Pisa
The threshing sledges, which until a few decades ago was used in many Mediterranean countries from Turkey to Spain to separate the chaff from the wheat, is estimated to have appeared in Greece as early as 6500 BC.

By applying advanced analytical methods, including co-orientated microscopy, to the flint industries, researchers led by the University of Pisa were able to trace the early adoption of such technology and the adaptation of what can be considered among the first agricultural machines in Europe.

The research, conducted as part of several research projects funded by the European Union, Italy, and Spain and directed by the University of Pisa in collaboration with the CSIC in Spain and the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, predates previous records of this technology in Europe by at least 3,000 years, providing new insights into Neolithic society's technological innovations.

We have been working for years to reconstruct the routes and mechanisms of the spread of agriculture from the Near East to the rest of the Mediterranean, explains Professor Niccolò Mazzucco, of the University of Pisa, principal investigator of the work, discovering the processes of technological innovation and how new machines were introduced is fundamental to reconstructing past technological systems.

The use of the threshing sledge, also known by the Roman term tribulum, allowed for a considerable increase in the amount of grain processed and accelerated its processing. In the past, it was believed that this innovation was linked to the birth of the first states, but our study shows that its first use is much older.


Discovery of ancient Ahramat branch of the river Nile may explain location of Egypt's pyramids

egypt pyramid nile
© Eman GhoneimThe water course of the ancient Ahramat Branch borders a large number of pyramids dating from the Old Kingdom to the Second Intermediate Period, spanning between the Third Dynasty and the Thirteenth Dynasty.
Some 31 pyramids in Egypt, including the Giza pyramid complex, may originally have been built along a 64-km-long branch of the river Nile which has long since been buried beneath farmland and desert. The findings, reported in a paper in Communications Earth & Environment, could explain why these pyramids are concentrated in what is now a narrow, inhospitable desert strip.

The Egyptian pyramid fields between Giza and Lisht, built over a nearly 1,000-year period starting approximately 4,700 years ago, now sit on the edge of the inhospitable Western Desert, part of the Sahara. Sedimentary evidence suggests that the Nile used to have a much higher discharge, with the river splitting into several branches in places. Researchers have previously speculated that one of these branches may have flown by the pyramid fields, but this has not been confirmed.

Comment: Note that there's compelling evidence that suggests the Giza pyramids were built thousands of years earlier than is commonly believed, and that they likely were served a technological function, rather than being a funerary monument to a pharaoh. However, could it be that this flow of water may have played some part in its operation?

Comment: See also:


Mysterious L-shaped structure found near Egyptian pyramids of Giza baffles scientists

An enigmatic L-shaped structure found underground near the pyramids at Giza may be an entrance to a mysterious deeper feature below it.
Survey Area Giza
© Archaeological ProspectionLocation of the survey area projected on Google Maps. The red rectangle shows the area of the initial survey. The colour figure shows the horizontal profile of GPR. View is to the north.
Using remote sensing techniques, archaeologists in Egypt have discovered a mysterious L-shaped structure underground in the western cemetery of Giza.

The western cemetery contains burials of royal family members of the royal family and high-ranking officials, the team of scientists wrote in a study. Many of their tombs have above-ground rectangular stone or mud-brick structures with flat roofs known as "mastabas."

There is an area in the middle of the cemetery where no aboveground structures have been found. To search for remains in this area, the team used a technique called electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), in which electrical currents are sent into the ground and resistance is measured to detect remains, along with ground-penetrating radar (GPR), a technique that sends radar into the ground and, after it bounces back, maps the underlying structures.

The team found an anomaly roughly 6.5 feet (2 meters) beneath the surface. It appears to be an L-shaped structure measuring at least 33 feet (10 m) in length, the team wrote in their paper, published May 5 in the journal Archaeological Prospection. From the readings, the L-shaped structure "seems to have been filled with sand, which means it was backfilled after it was constructed," the team wrote in the study.


The IRA, MI6's not so secret army, remains the global hallmark in personal and political treachery

Gerry Adams
© breitbart.comGerry Adams
Anyone who thinks they understand the Irish Troubles has not a clue what they are talking about, Declan Hayes writes.

While the dying Bobby Tohill, once one of the IRA's top Belfast assassins prior to the IRA trying to assassinate him a couple of years back, prepares to meet his Maker over the next few days in North Belfast, Tommy Tolan, his one time friend and IRA comrade, comforts him by bringing Holy Communion to his sick bed.

What is noteworthy about that is that Tolan was caught by the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) in the process of kidnapping Tohill so that the IRA could torture and then kill him. In a remarkable act of forgiveness that would leave even Jesus scratching His head, these two lifelong "friends no matter what" have since metaphorically kissed and made up and Tolan, having previously failed in his mission to kill Tohill, is once again pulling up his sleeves to help his friend cross the Styx to the land beyond. As regards the PSNI, well Tolan, Tohill and their buddies spent the best years of their lives killing 314 of them and injuring a further 9,000 them but that, as they say, is another story from another time

Though that is but one tiny vignette of the old maxim that anyone who thinks they understand the Irish Troubles has not a clue what they are talking about, there is no shortage of other tales and many of them, in the case of Belfast at least, lead right back to Gerry Adams, long regarded as both the head of the IRA and, along with Martin McGuinness, MI6's main plant within the IRA.