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Horses domesticated 4,200 years ago in the steppes of Black Sea region, DNA analysis reveals

Horses

Horses are shown running in the steppes of Inner Mongolia, China.
The domestication of horses changed the course of human history, but scientists have tried for years to figure out when and where this crucial event happened. Now, evidence from a new study using DNA analysis suggests horses were first domesticated 4,200 years ago in the steppes of the Black Sea region, part of modern-day Russia, before spreading across Asia and Europe in the centuries that followed.

It has been incredibly difficult to pin down when and where horse domestication occurred because it's a less obvious shift than that seen with animals like domesticated cattle, which experienced a change in size. Instead, the researchers had to work off of indirect evidence, such as tooth damage that suggested the wearing of bridles or even horse symbolism across cultures, said lead study author and paleogeneticist Ludovic Orlando, research director at the French National Center for Anthropobiology & Genomics of Toulouse for University of Toulouse--Paul Sabatier in France.

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Blue Planet

60,000 years ago humans lived in the rainforests of Laos

rainforests
© Shutterstock / Signature Message
Humans lived in the rainforests of what is now Laos over 60,000 years ago.
Some of the oldest evidence for modern humans living in rainforests has been found in a cave in Southeast Asia.

Researchers analysed fossilised teeth discovered in Laos, revealing that these humans ate fruits and meat as part of an omnivorous diet.


Comment: It has been found time and again that humans who, for whatever reason, ate a high carbohydrate diet, suffered for it: 25,000 year old human jawbone discovered in Indonesian cave oldest found in Wallacea, dental problems reveal heavy carbohydrate diet


Early modern humans were in Southeast Asia were eating a wide range of foods to help them survive in rainforests.

An international team of researchers found that our Southeast Asian relatives were eating a range of plants and animals over 60,000 years ago, setting them apart from the largely meat-based diet it has previously been suggested many other populations of humans were eating at the time.

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Info

Oldest evidence of humans on Tibetan plateau may also be handprint art

Ancient Handprint
© D.D. Zhang et al. / Science Bulletin
Researchers discovered the impressions on the Tibetan Plateau in 2018.
Dr. David Zhang and his team's investigations of Quesang on the Tibetan Plateau in 2018 and 2020 sparked controversy, along with the discovery of potential parietal art.

Dr. David Zhang first found hand and footprints near the hot spring bath in 1988 at the active Quesang Hot Spring near Quesang Village, about 80 km northwest of Lhasa, Tibet. Recent research conducted between 2018 and 2020 resulted in the finding of the possible parietal art.

According to Zhang's team, whose findings were published in Science Bulletin, the tracks are between 169,000 and 226,000 years old, dating back to the Earth's last ice age.

Blue Planet

Vikings present in North America in 1021 C.E., new dating in Newfoundland suggests

Viking
© Dylan Kereluk via Wikimedia Commons under CC by 2.0
A recreation of Viking structures at L’Anse aux Meadows
Three rough pieces of wood — discarded sections of branches and tree stumps found among the refuse Vikings left behind after their short sojourn in Newfoundland — have turned out to be some of the more important evidence of the Norse in North America. The scars left by iron blades on these sections of fir and juniper can still be seen after more than 1,000 years. Was it the legendary Viking explorer Leif Eriksson himself whose blade chopped off these unwanted scraps? Might it have been Thorfinn Karlsefni or his wife, Gudrid, the lesser-known explorers of a different Viking saga who tossed these useless scraps aside? Many questions may never be answered, but researchers now have an extraordinarily precise date for when Norse hands and blades worked in the New World.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's: America Before by Graham Hancock - Book review


Info

The Hopewell Airburst Event

American cosmic airburst in late Roman times revealed by Tankersly and Saniel-Banrey of University of Cincinnati.
Chicxulub Impact Event
© Science
Meteorites, silicious vesicular melt glass, Fe and Si-rich magnetic spherules, positive Ir and Pt anomalies, and burned charcoal-rich Hopewell habitation surfaces demonstrate that a cosmic airburst event occurred over the Ohio River valley during the late Holocene. A comet-shaped earthwork was constructed near the airburst epicenter. Twenty-nine radiocarbon ages demonstrate that the event occurred between 252 and 383 CE, a time when 69 near-Earth comets were documented. While Hopewell people survived the catastrophic event, it likely contributed to their cultural decline. The Hopewell comet airburst expands our understanding of the frequency and impact of cataclysmic cosmic events on complex human societies.

Abstract — The Hopewell airburst event, 1699-1567 years ago(252-383 CE) — october 13, 2021

Colosseum

Hundreds of ornate, rock-cut tombs discovered in 1,800 year old ruins of Turkish city

turkey tombs
© Blaundos Archaeological Excavation Project Archive
The tombs feature images of vines, flowers and geometric patterns, as well as mythological figures.
Excavations at Blaundos in Uşak, Turkey, have revealed 400 rock-cut tombs dated to 1,800 years ago, when the ancient city was under Roman control. Many of the tombs are decorated with images of vine branches, bunches of grapes, flowers, animals and mythological figures, the state-run Anadolu Agency (AA) reports.

Blaundos was located atop a hill and surrounded by a canyon that offered protection from attackers. The tombs were carved into the steep sides of the canyon.

"There are arched sarcophagi carved into the bedrock in front of the walls of each room," expedition leader Birol Can, an archaeologist at Uşak University, tells AA. "Apart from these, places that are thought to be used for funeral ceremonies were also found inside the rock tombs. The main door of the tombs was closed with a marble door and reopened during burial or ceremony times in the past."

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MIB

In COINTELPRO, FBI used anarchism to 'disrupt' leftist groups, attack Vietnam & USSR

cartoon FBI anarchist zine magazine

A cartoon in the FBI's anarchist zine
US police used anarchist talking points and ideology to "disrupt" the left and demonize Vietnam, the Soviet Union, and other targets of imperialism, according to internal FBI documents released through Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests.

"The anarchists point of view is the most disruptive element in the New Left and should be capitalized on in the most confusing ways," the FBI wrote.

In its Counter Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO), which aimed to destabilize and destroy the socialist, anti-imperialist left in the United States, the FBI realized that anarchism and other ultra-left movements could be an effective weapon.

The FBI impersonated anarchists and even created its own underground newspaper or zine.

Black Cat 2

Oldest drawing of ghost found on 3,500-year-old Babylonian tablet in British Museum vault

spirit babylon
© The British Museum
A lonely spirit being led to eternal bliss by a lover on a Babylonian clay tablet. White line tracing James Fraser and Chris Cobb for The First Ghosts, by Irving Finkel.
Its outlines are faint, only discernible at an angle, but the world's oldest drawing of a ghost has been discovered in the darkened vaults of the British Museum.

A lonely bearded spirit being led into the afterlife and eternal bliss by a lover has been identified on an ancient Babylonian clay tablet created about 3,500 years ago.

It is part of an exorcist's guide to getting rid of unwanted ghosts by addressing the particular malaise that brought them back to the world of the living - in this case, a ghost in desperate need of a companion. He is shown walking with his arms outstretched, his wrists tied by a rope held by the female, while an accompanying text details a ritual that would to dispatch them happily to the underworld.

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Info

Not 'out of Japan' - Native American origins debunked by genetics and skeletal biology

The biological evidence "simply does not match up" with archeological finds.
Ancient Skull
© Shutterstock
Analysis of teeth has revealed Native Americans did not directly descend from the Jomon people in ancient Japan.
Native Americans may not have originated in Japan as previous archaeological evidence has suggested, according to a new study of ancient teeth.

For years, archaeologists had predicted that the first people to live in North America descended directly from a group called the Jomon, who occupied ancient Japan about 15,000 years ago, the same time people arrived in North America around 15,000 years ago via the Bering Land Bridge, a strip of land that previously connected Russia to North America before sea levels rose above it. This theory is based on archaeological similarities in stone tools, especially projectile weapons, found in Native American and Jomon settlements.

However, the authors of the new study say this scenario is highly unlikely because the biological evidence "simply does not match up" with the archaeological findings, according to a statement from the researchers.

"The Jomon were not directly ancestral to Native Americans," lead author G. Richard Scott, an anthropologist at the University of Nevada, Reno, told Live Science. "They [the Jomon] are more aligned with Southeast Asian and Pacific groups than with East Asian and Native American groups."

Instead, the researchers suspect that Native Americans descended from a different group living somewhere in East Asia, although a lot of uncertainty remains about exactly where and when those ancestors lived.

Smoking

Earliest evidence of tobacco use dates to over 12,000 years ago says new study

Burnt Tobacco
© D. DUKE ET AL/NATURE HUMAN BEHAVIOR 2021
Burned tobacco seeds found at an archaeological site in Utah, including this seed shown here from multiple angles, date to more than 12,000 years ago.
Ancient North Americans started using tobacco around 12,500 to 12,000 years ago, roughly 9,000 years before the oldest indications that they smoked the plant in pipes, a new study finds.

This discovery replaces the pipe-smoking report as the oldest direct evidence for the human use of tobacco anywhere in the world.

Excavations at the Wishbone site in Utah's Great Salt Lake Desert uncovered four charred seeds of wild tobacco plants in a small fireplace, say archaeologist Daron Duke of Far Western Anthropological Research Group in Henderson, Nev., and colleagues.

Those seeds, three of which the scientists radiocarbon dated, likely came from plants gathered on foothills or mountains located 13 kilometers or more from the Wishbone area, Duke's team reports October 11 in Nature Human Behavior.