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Tue, 28 Feb 2017
The World for People who Think

Science of the Spirit


Young adults less adept at dealing with workplace stress than older coworkers

© Getty Images
Take a look around your office. The most anxious employees in the room probably aren't the graying bosses—they're likely to be the millennials, new research shows.

For a report published on April 1, workplace-services firm Bensinger, DuPont & Associates found that about 30 percent of millennials—people born between 1978 and 1999—had workplace anxiety, more than any other age group. Among Generation X employees (born between 1965 and 1977), 26 percent reported anxiety. Around the same share of baby boomers (1946-1964) had anxiety on the job—25 percent.

Comment: With the world descending into a dystopian freak show, is it any wonder that those just coming into adulthood are increasingly uncertain about their place within it? Add to that the devolution of real human connections into a series of cyber-interactions, and it's amazing anyone can function at all.

Brick Wall

Education and the death of creativity

© Wikimedia
Is it a coincidence that pretty much all children love to write stories, have fantastic imaginations, enjoy getting messy, painting, making music, inventing characters, acting out plays, drawing and making things? Why don't we carry this natural capacity throughout adulthood? Why would nature intend us to lose these gifts?

Eight years ago, a man named Ken Robinson made a TED speech that revolutionized the topic of education. It caused many parents to pull their kids out of school, it was a matter of hot debate among experts, and it has been watched on the TED website over 31 million times to date (not including over 7 million more times on YouTube). Many of you may be familiar with this lecture, but for those who aren't, we highly recommend you take the next twenty minutes to sit down and listen to what this man has to say.

Robinson is an expert on creativity and education, and he strongly believes that at the moment, the two concepts don't seem to co-exist. In this speech, Robinson argues eloquently and passionately that education is destroying our childrens' capacity to think outside the box. Ken Robinson led the British government's 1998 advisory committee on creative and cultural education, an inquiry into the significance of creativity in the educational system and the economy, and he was knighted in 2003 for his achievements.

Comment: Formalized education is in place to produce obedient workers, not creative human beings. If a student manages to keep their creativity and non-conformity intact they're labeled as mentally ill.


Twelve ways to boost your emotional intelligence

People with high levels of emotional intelligence are able to recognize and regulate their own emotions along with the emotions of those around them. EQ, as emotional intelligence is called, is often thought to be more important than IQ in a person's overall performance. This is because people with high EQ are able to use their emotions constructively to solve problems and complete other cognitive tasks. They are also able to positively influence others' feelings.

Because EQ is intangible and harder to measure than IQ, many people don't know how much emotional intelligence they possess or how they can improve it. We've already covered how to know if you're emotionally intelligent. If your EQ doesn't look so high, don't worry: here are 12 practical ways everyone can increase their emotional intelligence today.


Near-Death Experiences: The brain is the key

© Discovery News
In the moments before death, the heart plays a central role, conventional wisdom says. That is, as the heart stops beating and blood stops flowing, the rest of the body slowly shuts down. But new research suggests this view may be wrong.

Scientists studied the heart and brain activity of rats in the moments before the animals died from lack of oxygen, and found that the animals' brains sent a flurry of signals to the heart that caused irrevocable damage to the organ, and in fact caused its demise. When the researchers blocked these signals, the heart survived for longer.

If a similar process occurs in humans, then it might be possible to help people survive after their hearts stop by cutting off this storm of signals from the brain, according to the study published today (April 6) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"People naturally focus on the heart, thinking that if you save the heart, you'll save the brain," said study co-author Jimo Borjigin, a neuroscientist at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor. But her team found something surprising. "You have to sever [the chemical communication between] the brain and heart in order to save the heart," Borjigin told Live Science, adding that the finding is "contrary to almost all emergency medical practice."

Every year, more than 400,000 Americans experience cardiac arrest — which is when the heart stops beating. Even with medical treatment, only about 10 percent survive and are discharged from the hospital, according to the American Heart Association.

The researchers addressed the question of why the heart of a previously healthy person suddenly stops functioning completely, after only a few minutes without oxygen.

Eye 1

Can psychopaths be blamed for their actions? A summary of the empirical and philosophical arguments

© Unknown
Ted Bundy
They are glib and superficially charming. They have a grandiose sense of self worth. They are often pathological liars and routinely engage in acts of cunning and manipulation. If they do something wrong, they are without remorse.

Their emotional responses are typically shallow, and they commonly display a high degree of callousness and a lack of empathy. They are impulsive, irresponsible, parasitic and promiscuous. Some of them torture cats. Who are they? Psychopaths, of course.

Psychopaths fascinate the public. Although they are relatively uncommon within the general population, they are often overrepresented in prison populations, and are more likely to be responsible for the most heinous violent crimes, such as repeated acts of predatory violence and serial killings. They are also said to be overrepresented in the upper echelons of corporate and political life. If nothing else is true, they appear to have a significant impact on social life. Part of this impact seems to be helped by the fact that psychopaths don't play by the same moral rules as the rest of us.

Comment: If we don't 'blame' psychopaths for doing what they do because they cannot do otherwise, then we equally can't blame their victims for becoming their victims. Thus the only solution for a blameless world would be to ensure no harm to all parties by separating the psychopaths from the humans. Otherwise no crimes are punished and everything descends into anarchy.

Right there you run into major problems. How do you successfully quarantine some half a billion people? The high-functioning psychopaths-in-power could surely work out how to quarantine that many 'leftists' and 'radicals' - they have, after all, lots of experience doing it.

But could humans do likewise? Most aren't even at the point where they grok what a psychopath is, and the scale of how many there are, thus civilization will have been destroyed before anything can be done about the problem. And that's just the clinical psychopaths. Then there's that whole other subset walking the halls of power...

The above research is stuck at the 19th century discovery that psychopaths suffer or are afflicted by 'moral insanity', or 'moral imbecility'. Of course psychopaths don't do morality. That was established over 150 years ago. But the waters were subsequently muddied by... psychopaths in the psychological professions!


How illness and vulnerability can be used to recognize and process buried emotions

Whenever I'm under the weather, I'm compelled to stay inside and forgo other plans. Some simply employ the "push through it" mentality, but not me. My body is telling me to stop, I'd say. To stop what I'm doing — to rest and slow down.

And in the stillness, in the quiet, my physiological discomfort intensifies my vulnerability (and I'm certainly an emotional and vulnerable individual, in general). I think and overthink. I feel deeply. When there is an unresolved, nagging issue, it will certainly rear its head even more in sickness.

When our bodies undergo physical stress, our mental and emotional states may align accordingly. Sickness can give way to rough thoughts, nitty gritty emotions and unpleasantries. Yet, is that necessarily bad for our psychological well-being?

In Tori Rodriguez's 2013 article, she explains that as a psychotherapist, she sees many clients who struggle with distressing emotions.

"In recent years, I have noticed an increase in the number of people who also feel guilty or ashamed about what they perceive to be negativity," she said. "Such reactions undoubtedly stem from our culture's overriding bias toward positive thinking. Although positive emotions are worth cultivating, problems arise when people start believing they must be upbeat all the time."

Comment: In his book, When the Body Says No, Dr. Gabor Maté explains that the emotional centers of the brain are physiologically connected with the immune system. People who continually suppress their emotions have increased risks of disease and death. He recommends that we learn to be curious about our symptoms of disease to begin an investigation of how we live our lives and how we might possibly live differently, in a more healthy fashion.

Dr. Gabor Maté: "When the Body Says No: Understanding the Stress-Disease Connection"

Listening to our emotions and learning to heed their valuable insights


Even if you sleep well, being a night owl is harmful to your health

© Shutterstock
When reluctant to go to sleep, children may hear their parents quote Benjamin Franklin: "Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise." We're brought up to believe those who hit the sack early and rise with the sun have a competitive edge in the typical 9-to-5 environment, while those who love to burn the midnight oil are better apt to live "outside the norm." However, according to a recent study to be published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, early birds have an edge when it comes to health, because night owls face a greater risk of diseases like diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and sarcopenia — even with sufficient sleep.

The biological clocks of early birds are in line with societal expectations of when someone should wake up and go to sleep, while night owls reach peak performance while most are sleeping. These sleep tendencies or chronotypes go beyond preference; they are believed to be predetermined by our genes. A 2012 study published in the journal Annals of Neurology found variations to a gene called PER1 — part of a group of genes that affect circadian rhythms — are linked to circadian timing and the tendency toward living as a night owl or an early bird.

Although we know chronotypes can develop a circadian preference in our behavioral and biological rhythm when it comes to the light-dark cycle, the relationship between chronotype and metabolic disorders has seldom been discussed. Nan Hee Kim, one of the study authors from Korea University College of Medicine in Ansan, Korea, and colleagues sought to explore whether late chonotype, otherwise called a night owl, is related to metabolic abnormalities and body composition in middle-aged adults. So, they analyzed over 1,600 participants, between the ages of 47 and 59, from the population-based cohort Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES).


Chronic Googlers overestimate their own intelligence

© Reuters/Dado Ruvic
People across the world have become used to turning to Google and Yahoo to look up information and advice on a whole host of topics, but a new study shows that search engines are actually inflating people's perception of their own knowledge.

In a study called "Searching for Explanations: How the Internet Inflates Estimates of Internal Knowledge," researchers conducted nine different experiments that suggested those who learn something online feel they are smarter than those who learn it through books or via a teacher.

The findings were published in the American Psychological Association Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, where researchers said that "searching the Internet for explanatory knowledge creates an illusion whereby people mistake access to information for their own personal understanding of the information."

Comment: Is Google Making Us Stupid?


Life is full of uncertainty, we've just got to learn to live with it


While it can make negative events worse, uncertainty also makes positive events more exciting.
Experiments dating back to the 1960s show people have less of a reaction to viewing an unpleasant image or experiencing an electric shock when they know it's coming than when they're not expecting it. That's because uncertainty, a long-known cause of anxiety, makes it difficult to prepare for events or to control them.

People vary in their desire to minimise uncertainty. Those who react by worrying focus on potential threats and risks such as "what if I don't get the promotion?" or "what if I get sick?". Worry can be useful when it leads to adaptive behaviours that reduce threat, but chronic worry may cause harmful levels of stress that can affect heart health and the functioning of the immune system, among other things.


Learning to move through avoidance caused by anxiety and stress

Regardless of whether you struggle with anxiety, you probably avoid all sorts of things. We all do. These can include painful feelings; difficult conversations; bills and big projects; or situations where we might be judged or rejected.

We avoid these things for all sorts of reasons, according to Melanie A. Greenberg, Ph.D, a clinical psychologist in Marin County, Calif., who specializes in managing stress, mood and relationships. It can be because we're scared or anxious; because we don't feel competent or don't know where to start; or because the problem feels too big.

It's an unconscious habit that worked in childhood when we didn't have the skills or power to change the situation, Greenberg said. (For instance, as a teen you hung out with your friends instead of trying to set limits at home with a critical parent, she said.)

However, when we avoid something today, we don't give ourselves the opportunity to learn new skills or solve problems, Greenberg said.

We don't learn that we can tolerate discomfort, said Sheri Van Dijk, MSW, a psychotherapist in Sharon, Ontario, Canada. We "train our brain that this is something we should be fearful of ... and that we are [incapable] of getting through the difficult situation."

Comment: Learning to manage stress and calm anxiety helps us to unfreeze and to begin to tackle those things that we are avoiding. One of the best tools for overcoming stress is the Éiriú Eolas technique which can be learned here. It will help you to heal emotional wounds; anything that may hinder or prevent you from leading a healthy and fulfilling life.