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Archaeology

Roman port discovered underwater off north-eastern Crete

roman port underwater crete
© Greek Ministry of Culture
The underwater remains of a Roman-era port at Sitia, Crete were documented as part of ongoing archaeological research this past year.
Treasures from the Roman era of Greek history were discovered recently at the bottom of the sea near the old Roman port at Sitia on the Gulf of Palekastro on the Greek island of Crete.

The underwater research, undertaken by the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities in the Gulf of Palekastro was completed in August.

For the first time, the remains of a shipwreck were found in the form of a number of stunningly lovely amphorae from the second century AD, resting on the seabed as they had been loaded onto a ship that researchers believe most likely originated from the Iberian Peninsula.

Info

Bone tools used to produce clothing in Morocco 120,000 years ago says study

Skinned for Fur
© Jacopo Niccolò Cerasoni 2021
Carnivores were skinned for fur, and bone tools were then used to prepare the furs into pelts.
A new study led by Arizona State University paleoanthropologist Curtis Marean and ASU doctoral graduate Emily Hallett details more than 60 tools made of bone and one tool made from the tooth of a cetacean, which includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. These finds, first unearthed from Contrebandiers Cave, Morocco, in 2011, are highly suggestive proxy evidence for the earliest clothing in the archaeological record and attest to the pan-African emergence of complex culture and specialized tool manufacture.

The invention of clothing, and the development of the tools needed to create it, are milestones in the story of humanity. Not only are they indicative of strides in cultural and cognitive evolution, archaeologists also believe they were essential in enabling early humans to expand their niche from Pleistocene Africa into new environments with new ecological challenges. However, as furs and other organic materials used to make clothing are unlikely to be preserved in the archaeological record, the origin of clothing is still poorly understood.

The current study published this week in iScience, which reports on a worked bone assemblage found near the Atlantic Coast of Morocco, provides strong evidence for the manufacture of clothing as far back as 120,000 years ago.

As part of her research with the Institute of Human Origins and the Lise Meitner Pan-African Evolution Research Group at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (MPI-SHH), Hallett was studying the vertebrate remains from Contrebandiers Cave deposits dating from 120,000 to 90,000 years ago.

Pirates

Another look at 9/11: Ask not 'What happened?' but 'Who did it?'

9/11 terror attack
© Flickr/ Cyril Attias
The evidence of Israeli involvement is substantial, based on the level of the Jewish state's espionage operations in the U.S., Phil Giraldi writes.

The twentieth anniversary of 9/11 last Saturday has raised many of the usual issues about what actually happened on that day. Were hijacked airliners actually crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon or was the damage in New York City attributable to explosives or even some kind of nuclear device? These are fundamental questions and the so-called "Truthers" who raise them have been inspired by their reading of the 585 page 9/11 Report, which is most charitably described as incomplete, though many would reasonably call it a government cover-up.

I have long believed that unless one actually sees or experiences something first hand the description of any event is no better than hearsay. The closest I came to "seeing" 9/11 was the panicked evacuation of a CIA office building, where I was working at the time. Another related bit of 9/11 narrative also came from two close friends who were driving into work at the Pentagon when they each independently observed what appeared to be a large plane passing over their cars and striking the building. I consider the sources credible but was it an airplane or a missile? And I was not there to see it with my own eyes, so I am reluctant to claim that my friends actually saw something that in retrospect might have been misconstrued.

Comment: And there's every reason to believe that Mossad & co. are still at it: Forbes asks: 'Was Israel responsible for the Beirut explosion?'

See also: And check out SOTT radio's: Behind the Headlines: No Ordinary Inside Job - The 9/11 Psy-Ops


Info

Milk enabled massive steppe migration

Wild Horses
© A. Senokosov
Horses in the Eurasian steppes: Already 5000 years ago, they served pastoralists as a source of milk and a means of transportation. In this way, populations managed to migrate to unusually distant areas.
The Yamnaya, one of the the earliest pastoralist populations of the Eurasian steppe, began expanding out of the Pontic-Caspian steppe more than 5000 years ago. These migrations resulted in gene flow across vast areas, ultimately linking pastoralist populations in Scandinavia with groups that expanded into Siberia. Just how and why these pastoralists travelled such extraordinary distances in the Bronze Age has remained a mystery. Now a new study led by researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History has revealed a critical clue. The Bronze Age migrations seem to coincide with a simple but important dietary shift - the adoption of milk drinking.

The researchers drew on a humble but extraordinary source of information from the archaeological record - they looked at ancient tartar (dental calculus) on the teeth of preserved skeletons. By carefully removing samples of the built-up calculus, and using advanced molecular methods to extract and then analyse the proteins still preserved within this resistant and protective material, the researchers were able to identify which ancient individuals likely drank milk, and which did not.

Their results surprised them. "The pattern was incredibly strong," observes study leader and palaeoproteomics specialist Dr. Shevan Wilkin, "The majority of pre-Bronze Age Eneolithic individuals we tested - over 90% - showed absolutely no evidence of consuming dairy. In contrast, a remarkable 94% of the Early Bronze Age individuals had clearly been milk drinkers."

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Prehistoric humans rarely mated with their cousins

Scientists screened 1,785 ancient human genomes from the last 45,000 years for parental relatedness.
Ancient DNA
© MPI for Evolutionary Anthropology
The researchers screened DNA extracted from ancient human remains for the genomic signs of parental relatedness.
At present-day, more than ten percent of all global marriages occur among first or second cousins. While cousin-marriages are common practice in some societies, unions between close relatives are discouraged in others. In a new study, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and the University of Chicago investigated how common close parental relatedness was in our ancestors.

The researchers re-analyzed previously published DNA data from ancient humans that lived during the last 45,000 years to find out how closely related their parents were. The results were surprising: Ancient humans rarely chose their cousins as mates. In a global dataset of 1,785 individuals only 54, that is, about three percent, show the typical signs of their parents being cousins. Those 54 did not cluster in space or time, showing that cousin matings were sporadic events in the studied ancient populations. Notably, even for hunter-gatherers who lived more than 10,000 years ago, unions between cousins were the exception.

To analyze such a large dataset, the researchers developed a new computational tool to screen ancient DNA for parental relatedness. It detects long stretches of DNA that are identical in the two DNA copies, one inherited from the mother and one from the father. The closer the parents are related, the longer and more abundant such identical segments are. For modern DNA data, computational methods can identify these stretches with ease. However, the quality of DNA from bones that are thousands of years old is, in most cases, too low to apply these methods. Thus, the new method fills the gaps in the ancient genomes by leveraging modern high-quality DNA data. "By applying this new technique we could screen more than ten times as many ancient genomes than previously possible", says Harald Ringbauer from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, the lead researcher of the study.

Info

Sequence of hand and footprints may be oldest art

Oldest Artwork
© Cornell Chronicle
Researchers discovered what is possibly the world's oldest artwork, rendered here in a three-dimensional scan, on a rocky promontory at Quesang on the Tibetan Plateau in 2018.
An international collaboration has identified what may be the oldest work of art, a sequence of hand and footprints discovered on the Tibetan Plateau. The prints date back to the middle of the Pleistocene era, between 169,000 and 226,000 years ago - three to four times older than the famed cave paintings in Indonesia, France and Spain.

To answer the question, "is it art?" the team turned to Thomas Urban, research scientist in the College of Arts and Sciences and with the Cornell Tree Ring Laboratory.

"The question is: What does this mean? How do we interpret these prints? They're clearly not accidentally placed," said Urban, a co-author of the paper, "Earliest Parietal Art: Hominin Hand and Foot Traces from the Middle Pleistocene of Tibet," published Sept. 10 in Science Bulletin.

"There's not a utilitarian explanation for these. So what are they?" Urban said. "My angle was, can we think of these as an artistic behavior, a creative behavior, something distinctly human. The interesting side of this is that it's so early."

The project was led by David Zhang of Guangzhou University in collaboration with researchers from Bournemouth University, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Education University of Hong Kong, Institute of Geology and University of Minnesota.

Beer

Ancient pottery unearthed in China reveals 9000-year-old traces of 'hunter-gatherer' rice beer

pottery
© Jiajing Wang
Painted pottery vessels (from Qiaotou platform mound) for serving drinks and food
Archaeologists have unearthed evidence of alcohol consumption 9,000 years ago at an ancient burial site in southern China, shedding light on what could be one of the earliest known instances of ritual beer drinking to honour the dead.

According to the researchers, including Jiajing Wang from Dartmouth College in the US, this kind of ritual drinking 9,000 years ago may have played an important role in "maintaining social relationships and paving the way for the rise of complex farming societies four millennia later".

In the study, published last week in the journal PLOS ONE, the scientists unearthed some of "the earliest known painted pottery in the world", of which some were also decorated with abstract designs.

Comment: A discovery in Siberia revealed a 16,000 year-old cooking pot, which is also considered to be the world's oldest, whilst Aboriginals in Australia may have been baking bread for nearly 30,000 years.

See also: And check out SOTT radio's: MindMatters: America Before: Comets, Catastrophes, Mounds and Mythology


Attention

Revenge of the Technocrats: How Canada's Liberal Party became an appendage of the Great Reset

trudeau
© Blair Gable/Reuters/KJN
The ugly truth behind the Great Reset and the thing masquerading as a global pandemic is an intention to cataclyze a complete reform of human civilization...

Today, the Canadian political landscape is being remoulded by a nest of technocratic ideologues who aim to lead the nation into a post-nation state Great Reset.

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau was among the earliest public figures who celebrated this new age stating in 2015 that Canada is "the world's first post-national state". Once the COVID pandemic had been used to justify the shutdown of the world economy, the same Trudeau stated in November 2020 that
"this pandemic has provided an opportunity for a reset. This is our chance to accelerate our pre-pandemic efforts to reimagine economic systems that actually address global challenges like extreme poverty, inequality, and climate change."
As Canada moves into an election on September 20, 2021 with the Liberal government of Chrystia Freeland seeking a majority rule (and un-challengeable authority), the question remains: How did this all happen? How did a party which was once renowned during WW2 and the two ensuing post-war decades as a champion of progress led by such figures as C.D. Howe and Prime Minister St. Laurent become a party devoted to technocratic management of a post-industrial/post-truth world order?

Dominoes

9/11: A US Deep State insider speaks

9/11 towers
© Forbes/Mideast Saudi/AP
9/11
An 8 part tweet stream by Pepe Escobar and posted with his permission
Pepe has two requests as follows:
  • Please retweet as much as possible
  • Please alert the Saker community - because at least parts of this thread may be "disappeared", post-Allende-style, in no time. These are the parts that totally destroy the official narrative.
9/11: A U.S. DEEP STATE INSIDER SPEAKS Old school. Top clearance. Extremely discreet. Attended secret Deep State meetings on 9-11. Tired of all the lies. The following is what's fit to print without being redacted.

Part 1 THE PHONE CALL. Up next.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's: Behind the Headlines: No Ordinary Inside Job - The 9/11 Psy-Ops


Binoculars

A newly declassified pre-9/11 report exposes Al-Qaeda 'sleeper' cells across US, so why was the intelligence not acted on?

World Trade Center
© REUTERS/Sara K. Schwittek
The second tower of the World Trade Center bursts into flames after being hit by a hijacked airplane in New York, US, September 11, 2001.
The release of a White House report put together the year before the 9/11 attacks reveals there was a growing fear of terrorist attack during this period. And it begs the question why more wasn't done to prevent one.

A previously secret report authored in January 2000 by senior members of the White House's then-national security team, which concluded that US intelligence was ill equipped and ineffective in the face of a major and ever-growing domestic terror threat, has at last been declassified.

Dubbed the 'Millennium Alert After Action Review', it was compiled at the behest of the National Security Council's Counterterrorism Security Group, by representatives of each of the US government's counterterrorism and security agencies, after a major planned terror attack was thwarted at the end of 1999.

Ahmed Ressam, an Algerian living in Canada, was caught attempting to cross the border into Washington state in a car laden with explosives. He later admitted to the FBI that he'd been trained at an Al-Qaeda camp in Afghanistan and intended to bomb Los Angeles Airport on New Year's Eve.

The Bureau made dozens of arrests, questioned an enormous number of individuals and placed hundreds under surveillance countrywide over the course of the ensuing investigation, although proving the targets in question were terrorists, let alone had terrorist connections, proved elusive. A feared wave of incendiary attacks during millennium celebrations that year didn't materialise, although the sense that a major incident of some kind was inevitable pervaded the White House, leading to the review's compilation.