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Tue, 21 Aug 2018
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Weird volcanoes are erupting across the solar system

NASA Juno data indicate another possible volcano on Jupiter moon Io.
This annotated image highlights the location of the new heat source close to the south pole of Io. The image was generated from data collected on Dec. 16, 2017, by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument aboard NASA's Juno mission when the spacecraft was about 290,000 miles (470,000 kilometers) from the Jovian moon. The scale to the right of image depicts of the range of temperatures displayed in the infrared image.

Higher recorded temperatures are characterized in brighter colors - lower temperatures in darker colors.
NASA's Juno spacecraft recently spotted a possible new volcano at the south pole of Jupiter's most lava-licious moon, Io. But this volcanically active moon is not alone in the solar system, where sizzling-hot rocks explode and ooze onto the surface of several worlds. So how do Earthly volcanoes differ from those erupting across the rest of the solar system?

Let's start with Io. The moon is famous for its hundreds of volcanoes, including fountains that sometimes spurt lava dozens of miles above the surface, according to NASA. This Jupiter moon is constantly re-forming its surface through volcanic eruptions, even to this day. Io's volcanism results from strong gravitational encounters between Jupiter and two of its large moons, Europa and Ganymede, which shake up Io's insides.

Rosaly Lopes, a senior research scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, managed observations of Io between 1996 and 2001, during the Galileo spacecraft mission to Jupiter.

"Io has lots of caldera-like features, but they are on the surface," Lopes told Live Science. "There are lots of lava flows and lots of lakes. Lava lakes are pretty rare on Earth. We have half a dozen of them. We think they have occurred in the past on Venus and Mars. But on Io, we actually see lava lakes at the present time." Hawaii's Kilauea volcano is one such spot on Earth dotted with lava lakes.

Juno scientists asked for Lopes' help in identifying Io's newly found hotspot. She said the new observations of Io are welcome, because Galileo was in an equatorial orbit and could rarely see the poles; by contrast, Juno is in a polar orbit and has a much better view. There are some hints that Io might have larger and less-frequent eruptions at the poles, she said, but scientists need more observations to be sure.

Comment: Planetary scientists are discovering volcanoes everywhere they look


Volcanic ash blankets Vanuatu island forcing hundreds of villagers to flee

Ash cover
© John Joemeteo
The alert level for Vanuatu's Ambae volcano has been raised to level three after eruptions and the spewing of ash.

Hundreds of villagers are being evacuated from a volcanic Vanuatu island as thick ash from minor eruptions blanket the island.

The threat level of Manaro volcano on Ambae island was raised from two to three on Saturday by the country's Meteorological and Geo-Hazards Department.

Vanuatu's Red Cross reports several villages have become uninhabitable and the organisation is providing humanitarian assistance.

Bizarro Earth

'Child of Krakatau' volcano stirs to life in the Pacific

Anak Krakatau
© Watts Up with That
Anak Krakatau has rumbled back to life in recent weeks, spitting flaming rocks and ash from its crater.
From the "this can't be good" department and AFP:

An Indonesian volcano known as the "child" of the legendary Krakatoa erupted on Thursday, spewing a plume of ash high into the sky as molten lava streamed down from its summit.

No one lives on Krakatau, which forms a small island in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, but the peak is a popular tourist spot.

Indonesia's geological agency has not raised the alert level for the mountain. However, there is a one kilometre no-go zone around its summit.


Heaven to Hell Timeline: Kilauea's Ruthless Eruption: 18,000+ Earthquakes and so Much More

hawaii lava
© REUTERS/Terray Sylvester
Lava erupts on the outskirts of Pahoa during ongoing eruptions of the Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii, US, May 18, 2018.
Kilauea, a volcano on the southern shore of the island of Hawaii, has been erupting almost continuously since 1983. On the 17th of May 17th, its eruption however was one of the strongest ever recorded, throwing ash 30,000 feet in the air. This article shows a chronological summary of events - volcanic activity and earthquakes - that led up to the massive eruption, with events that occurred afterwards. This is followed by what we can expect for the future, and lastly, a short mention of disastrous flooding and a 'rare' phenomena that preceded the event.


Multiple injuries after Kilaeua explosion hurls basketball-sized lava bomb onto tour boat

lava bomb boat hawaii
© Hawaii News Now
A lava bomb created a large hole in a tour boat
At least 23 people were injured after a lava explosion sent rocks and debris flying into the air and landing on a tour boat off Kapoho early Monday, Hawaii County officials said.

According to county officials, a "basketball-sized" lava bomb punctured the roof of the boat, leaving a large hole.

U.S. Coast Guard crews initially responded around 6 a.m. to reports that several crew members and passengers were injured aboard the tour boat Hot Shot.

The boat returned to Wailoa Harbor in Hilo with the injured passengers around 7 a.m., county officials said.


Worldwide volcanic activity uptick update, and new volcano discovered on Jupiter's moon Io

hawaii new island
A tiny new island of lava has formed on the northernmost part of the ocean entry. During this morning’s overflight, HVO’s field crew noticed the island was oozing lava similar to the lava oozing from the broad flow front along the coastline. By
Volcanoes are exploding everywhere, even deep in our Solar System: A small lava island formed off Kapoho, Hawaii. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano on La Reunion Inland stared erupting again on July 13, 2018. The Öræfajökull volcano in Iceland is inflating and preparing for a next major eruption. Continuous intense explosions of Anak Krakatau in Indonesia are heard over 42 kms around. A new volcano has been discovered on Io, one of Jupiter's moon. And some other pictures and videos from around the world.

A tiny new island of lava has formed on the northernmost part of the ocean entry. During this morning's overflight, HVO's field crew noticed the island was oozing lava similar to the lava oozing from the broad flow front along the coastline. By USGS

New lava island is forming in Hawaii

A tiny new island of lava has formed on the northernmost part of the ocean entry off Kapoho, scientists say, as Fissure 8 continues to be the primary erupting vent on Kīlauea's lower East Rift Zone.

Comment: Along with volcanic activity there's an increase in landslides, fissures and sinkholes, and we're seeing a similar rise in events occurring throughout our solar system:


Hawaii gets new island as erupting volcanic crater continues to spew lava flow into sea

© USGS / YouTube
Lava has filled Kapoho Bay, on Hawaii's Big Island.
Lava flows that have been cascading into the sea have formed a brand new, small island off the coast of Hawaii after a crater at Mount Kilauea exploded with the force of a 5.2-magnitude earthquake.

Friday's crater explosion sparked a slow-moving flood of lava that destroyed hundreds of homes at Kapoho, on the Big Island. A once-scenic bay dotted with idyllic beach homes, parkland, and turquoise water used for swimming and scuba diving was quickly turned into a menacing, steaming dark pool. When the lava cooled, the sea peeled back to reveal a small island jutting out from the depths only a few meters from the mainland.

According to Hawaii News Now, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory estimated that the island is about 20 to 30 feet in diameter. The new island formed at the northernmost part of the ocean entry and is "oozing lava similar to the lava oozing from the broad flow front along the coastline."

Comment: See also: Hawaii: Is the cone of Kilauea's fissure 8 a new volcano?


New tiny island of lava forms off Hawaii island

A tiny island is seen off the coast of Hawaii island. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory’s field crew noticed the new island on Friday.
A tiny island is seen off the coast of Hawaii island. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory’s field crew noticed the new island on Friday.
A tiny island of lava has formed north of the Kapoho ocean entry on Hawaii island.

During a Friday morning flight, a Hawaiian Volcano Observatory field crew noticed the new island oozing lava and producing a steam plume along the coastline.

HVO believes the new island could be part of the fissure 8 lava flow, which continues to flow into the ocean. It could also be a submarine tumulus that's created when slow-moving lava pushes the earth's outermost crust above sea level.


Small eruption occurs on uninhabited island south of Japan

© Japan Coast Guard
A small eruption has been confirmed on an uninhabited island in the Pacific around 1,000 kilometers south of Tokyo, the weather agency said Thursday.

A Japan Coast Guard aircraft observed brown smoke coming out of a crater on Nishinoshima around 12:24 p.m., according to the Japan Meteorological Agency.

The island emerged in an eruption in 2013 but volcanic activity has slowed since August last year, prompting the agency to lower the alert level it issued for areas near the crater.

Given that land surface temperatures have remained steady, the agency believes the latest eruption did not lead to the release of lava.


Growing, deforming, shaking: Iceland's largest volcano Öræfajökull showing clear signs of unrest for last 18 months

Öræfajökull volcano in southeastern Iceland, the largest active volcano and the highest peak in Iceland, is showing clear signs of unrest with an inflation phase for at least a year and a half. The last eruptive episode of this volcano started in August 1727 and ended in May 1728.

The inflation is ongoing and is reflected by increased seismicity and characteristic deformation pattern, Icelandic Department of Civil Protection said July 13, after a series of meeting with scientists from The Icelandic Meteorological Office, The University of Iceland and Iceland Geosurvey.

There are no signs of a decrease in the inflation rate or the seismicity and the state of unrest persists despite a decrease in geothermal activity since last December.

The source causing the inflation is most likely injection of new magma, scientists said. The volume change since the start of the unrest is of the order of magnitude of 10 million m3 (about 0.2 m3/sec) comparable to the intrusion activity in Eyjafjallajökull some years before the eruption in 2010.

Comment: The eruption in 2010 grounded flights throughout Europe for nearly a week.

Comment: The uptick in volcanic and seismic activity all around the world point to much greater changes occurring: