© CBS News and NASAFigure 1: Volcanic eruption sends ash into the atmosphere.
In a stunning turn of events, a study by the University of Cambridge released on June 13, 2023, has concluded that all current climate models need to be significantly updated because they do not include the effects that volcanic activity has on climate.

The researchers state that the effect that volcanism has on our climate is four times greater than previously estimated.

The conclusions of this study are confirmation that the building principles of the Plate Climatology Theory, which was released to the public on October 7, 2014, are correct.

The conclusion of the Cambridge study stated:
"Climate projections are the simulations of Earth's climate in the future using complex climate models. Standard climate projections, as in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Sixth Assessment Report, assume that explosive volcanic activity over 2015-2100 is of the same level as the 1850-2014 period. Using the latest ice-core and satellite records, we find that explosive eruptions could emit more sulfur dioxide into the upper atmosphere for the period of 2015-2100 than standard climate projections. Our climate model simulations show that the impacts of volcanic eruptions on climate, including global surface temperature, sea level, and sea ice extent, are underestimated because current climate projections do not fully account for the recurrent frequency of volcanic eruptions. We also find that small-magnitude eruptions occur frequently and can contribute a significant effect on future climate". (See Here).
If the effect of volcanic activity has significantly altered Earth's climate as per the Cambridge study, then why have all previous researchers failed to recognize the effect of this activity? Three reasons may have played a role in their failure. They are Remoteness, Interpretation Bias, and Lack of Monitoring.


pacific ocean
© Google Earth and some labeling by J. KamisFigure 2: The elevation map of the Pacific Ocean covers 64,000,000 square miles and has an average depth of 14,000 feet.
Oceans cover 71% of the Earth's surface and have an average depth of 14,000 feet (Figure 2). Polar ice sheets cover 9% and have an average thickness of 6,200 feet. Sea Ice covers 5% of the earth's surface. So, 85% of our planet is remote.

In the past, the bathymetry (elevation) of earth's ocean floors has been mapped utilizing sound waves, satellites, and plum line type methods. However, most of this mapping is of low to moderate resolution. Ocean elevation is used to identify fault ridges, volcanoes, and hydrothermal vents. It has been difficult to recognize and count the number of these types of ocean floor geological features using low-resolution ocean floor elevation maps, making many of these features nearly invisible.

In 2017 the Nippon Foundation began its GEBCO Seabed Project whose goal is to accurately map 100% of Earth's oceans. The excerpt below describes the goals and progress of this project. Via the BBC:

We've just become a little less ignorant about Planet Earth.

The initiative that seeks to galvanize the creation of a full map of the ocean floor says one-fifth of this task has now been completed.

When the Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030 Project was launched in 2017, only 6% of the global ocean bottom had been surveyed to what might be called modern standards.

That number now stands at 19%, up from 15% in just the last year.

Some 14.5 million sq km of new bathymetric (depth) data was included in the GEBCO grid in 2019 - an area equivalent to almost twice that of Australia.

It does, however, still leave a great swathe of the planet in need of mapping to an acceptable degree.

An example of a high-resolution ocean floor elevation map generated by the Foundation mapping project is shown in Figure 3.

© NOAA and labeling and drawings by J. KamisFigure 3: A high-resolution three-dimensional image of an ocean floor area located off the east coast of Antarctica .
Two research studies illustrate how higher-resolution ocean floor elevation mapping lets us see the correct number of geological features. These studies were conducted in the exact area located off the coast of California. The first study was older.

This older research study discovered an estimated 47 hydrothermal vents mostly located in five vent field complexes. The more recent study which utilized higher-resolution bathymetric data was able to identify a total of 572 hydrothermal vents (quote below).

The scientists gave these vent fields fanciful names such as Mothra, Salty Dawg, and Sasquatch. They also discovered that this region not only had a vast number of hydrothermal vents but that some of them were the tallest hydrothermal vents in the world. The tallest of these chimneys, "Godzilla," reached a height of 45 meters (150 feet) before it toppled over in 1995.

This height reflects the magnitude of present-day or past emissions of super-heated and chemically charged emissions. Taller and larger vents can be interpreted to emit greater volumes of fluid or indicate that the vent emissions lasted longer. I believe this example shows that the effect of all ocean floor emissions from geological features, which eventually rise into the atmosphere, are not properly accounted for in climate computer models.

Interpretation Bias

Scientists have for many years force-fit climate trends and climate-related events into an atmospheric context insisting that the root cause of these trends and events is related to atmospheric forces.

This force-fit process does not follow proper scientific methodology because it ignores the climate influence of many other natural forces, most importantly geological forces. Force fitting all data, observations, and trends into an atmospheric context is here termed "Interpretation Bias". (Kamis 8-31-2015).

The Theory of Continental Drift was introduced by Alfred Wegener in 1912. Wegener proposed that continents moved laterally across the earth's surface, that their shapes fit together like a jigsaw puzzle, and that recent research studies showed that the limited distribution of specific fossils species existed on now far-apart continents.

He believed that this information proved continents drifted apart. The introduction of his theory was strongly rejected by all scientists, especially geologists, was not supported by peer-reviewed studies, did not fit the 100% proven theory that continents bobbed up and down termed Isostacy, and was extremely criticized by the press who then censored his theory.

It was not until the 1950 to 1977 period that scientists realized and then relented that Wegener's theory was correct. Researchers collected data that confirmed that geological forces associated with large geological features, such as divergent fault systems, were part of the process that moved continents and large segments of ocean floor rock layers apart.

Since then, geologists and geophysicists have discovered that Upper Mantle Convection cells are the primary source of energy that acts to move continents and large ocean segments laterally or underneath each other at a rate of up to 1-2 inches per year. Scientists used these refinements of Wegener's theory to justify the renaming of the Continental Drift Theory to the Plate Tectonics Theory.

Insufficient Monitoring

The primary reason geological forces have remained hidden is Insufficient Monitoring. To properly calculate the effect geological forces, have on our oceans, atmosphere, and climate it will be necessary to increase the number of monitoring devices that measure emissions from ocean floor and land geological features. Proper monitoring requires that the devices need to record three aspects of geological emissions.


Geologists have known for many years that geological features such as fault segments, volcanoes, hydrothermal vent complexes, etc. turn on and off in irregular patterns. To improve the understanding of these on-and-off patterns, it is imperative to integrate historical and modern data.

The proper integration of these two datasets needs to take into consideration that they differ in many ways, for instance, accuracy, the timespan between each data point, and the amount of data within each set. There needs to be additional monitoring of the current pattern of all geological features.


The time that each geological feature emits fluids (gas and viscous) before turning off is an important factor in determining the total volume emitted. The duration of emissions greatly varies from feature to feature.

It is common for geological features such as volcanoes to stay active for thousands of years and then suddenly shut down. Conversely, some geological features deemed extinct suddenly become active without warning.

I recognize that it is extremely difficult to establish the exact duration time of all types of geological features. However, additional data obtained by increased monitoring will help improve estimates of duration.


Scientists have proven that emissions from major terrestrial or oceanic volcanic eruptions have immediate and long-lasting effects on our climate. However, until recently scientists assumed that emissions from minor terrestrial or oceanic volcanic eruptions had very little or no effect on our climate.

This assumption has been proven to be incorrect. The Cambridge Study concluded that the cumulative amount of emissions from small and medium size terrestrial and oceanic volcanic eruptions have a significant effect on climate.


The conclusions of the Cambridge research study will require the updating of all current climate models because they don't include the significant and underestimated effect volcanism has on climate.

More importantly, the Cambridge study proves that geological activity, either locally or globally, acts to release heated and chemically charged fluids from various types of geological features into Earth's atmosphere. These emissions have in the past and still to this day acted to influence and, in many cases, completely control climate and climate-related events as per the Plate Climatology Theory.
James Edward Kamis is a retired Geologist with forty-two years of experience. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in Geology from Northern Illinois University and a Master of Science degree in Geology from Idaho State University. More than forty-six years of research have convinced him that geological forces significantly influence, or in some cases, completely control climate, and climate-related events as per his Plate Climatology Theory and latest book.