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European genetic identity may stretch back 36,000 years

Eske Willerslev
© Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography Man
Eske Willerslev found that a man from Kostenki in modern-day Russia had a lot in common with living Europeans.
Europeans carry a motley mix of genes from at least three ancient sources: indigenous hunter-gatherers within Europe, people from the Middle East, and northwest Asians from near the Great Steppe of eastern Europe and central Asia. One high-profile recent study suggested that each genetic component entered Europe by way of a separate migration and that they only came together in most Europeans in the past 5000 years.

Now ancient DNA from the fossilized skeleton of a short, dark-skinned, dark-eyed man who lived at least 36,000 years ago along the Middle Don River in Russia presents a different view: This young man had DNA from all three of those migratory groups and so was already "pure European," says evolutionary biologist Eske Willerslev of the Natural History Museum of Denmark at the University of Copenhagen, who led the analysis.

In challenging the multiple migration model, the new genome data, published online today in Science, suggest that Europeans today are the descendants of a very old, interconnected population of hunter-gatherers that had already spread throughout Europe and much of central and western Asia by 36,000 years ago.

"What is surprising is this guy represents one of the earliest Europeans, but at the same time he basically contains all the genetic components that you find in contemporary Europeans - at 37,000 years ago," Willerslev says.

The origins of Europeans used to seem straightforward: The first modern humans moved into Europe 42,000 to 45,000 years ago, perhaps occasionally meeting the Neandertals whose ancestors had inhabited Europe for at least 400,000 years. Then, starting 10,000 years ago, farmers came from the Middle East and spread rapidly throughout Europe.

As researchers recently sequenced the genomes of more than a dozen ancient members of our species, Homo sapiens, in Europe and Asia in rapid succession, they added a third genetic component: a "ghost" lineage of nomads who blew into northeast Europe from the steppes of western Asia 4000 to 5000 years ago.
Cow Skull

Children from lost civilisation 'helped build' geoglyph some 6,000 years ago

Remarkable new details about giant moose released as archaeologists confirm stone structure is world's oldest.
© Stanislav Grigoryev
The moose was discovered by chance by local researcher Alexander Shestakov.
Children were involved in the construction of a geoglyph in the Urals which was only discovered thanks to images taken from space. It predates Peru's famous Nazca Lines by thousands of years, archaeologists have announced. But they are no nearer answering why ancient man made it, nor can they yet fathom which group built the geoglyph; archeological traces found so far in the area do not show a culture with sufficient refinement.

Was it to impress the gods or did it have some other purpose?

Experts have been examining the giant moose-shaped stone structure since it was discovered in 2011 and have now confirmed it is the world's oldest.

Located near Lake Zyuratkul in the Ural Mountains, it stretches for about 275 metres and depicts an animal with four legs, antlers and a long muzzle.
Roses

Saffron cultivation returns to England after 200 years as farmer revives centuries old tradition

saffron

Expensive: With a gram, 0.035 of an ounce, of the sought-after spice selling for up to £75, saffron is more expensive than gold because harvesting it is so laborious
The cultivation of an exotic spice worth more per ounce than gold has returned to England for the first time in 200 years after a farmer decided to revive the centuries-old tradition of producing saffron.

Farmer David Smale was inspired to start producing the spice after discovering a crocus plant in his Essex garden, and his produce is now being sold in prestigious London grocers Fortnum & Mason and Partridges.

Growing the spice was once a popular practice in Britain, but died out because the painstaking harvesting methods became too expensive to compete with cheap saffron imported from remote Iran and Kashmir.

Comment: Saffron has been traded and used for over four millennia. In addition to its use in dyeing textiles and cooking, it has also been found to have numerous health benefits. Scientists have found the compounds in saffron play key roles in preserving eyesight and boosting immunity by helping white blood cells to mature, and has been shown to be capable of inhibiting tumors.

Saffron Could Save Your Eyesight

What is Saffron Good For?

Document

Documents tell of childhood in Roman Egypt

© Museum of Cultural History
Roman boy with his hair worn in the Egyptian style with a "lock of Horus". First half of the second century CE. Museum of Cultural History, Oslo.
In Roman Egypt, 14-year-old boys were enrolled in a youth organization in order to learn to be good citizens.

So says social historian and historian of ideas Ville Vuolanto, University of Oslo, who has joined forces with Dr April Pudsey of the University of Newcastle to dive deep into a mass of material of around 7,500 ancient documents written on papyrus. The texts comprise literary texts, personal letters and administrative documents. Never before has childhood been researched so systematically in this type of material.

The research is part of the University of Oslo project, "Tiny Voices from the Past: New Perspectives on Childhood in Early Europe".

The documents originate from Oxyrhynchos in Egypt, which in the first five hundred years CE was a large town of more than 25,000 inhabitants. Oxyrhynchos had Egypt's most important weaving industry, and was also the Roman administrative centre for the area. Researchers possess a great deal of documentation precisely from this area because archaeologists digging one hundred years ago discovered thousands of papyri in what had once been the town's rubbish dumps.
Star of David

Remember, remember: The Day Israel attacked America

The Liberty 1967
© Unknown
This film is a must watch, it tells the story of The Liberty, the USA NAVY vessel that was attacked by Israeli forces in June, 1967. The attack was a slaughter by an ally, that murdered and injured 200 American servicemen and led to a massive cover-up.

The film must be watched carefully for its detailed disclosure of the names of Jewish agents working within the American government who secretly reported to Israel on American national security secrets. It clearly suggests treason on the part of these Jewish agents. Perhaps the time for American independence is long overdue.
Attention

Governments lied about the Spanish Flu to prevent panic. It backfired, as it will with Ebola

spanish flu
© unknown
Governments Have Suppressed the Dangers of Epidemics Before, Only Making Things Worse.

The mainstream American press has agreed - at the request of the government - not to report on suspected Ebola cases.

Let's provide some context ...

The U.S. National Academies of Science noted in 2005 (starting on the bottom of p. 64):

In the United States, national and local government and public health authorities badly mishandled the [1918 "Spanish Flu"] epidemic [which killed up to 50 million people worldwide], offering a useful case study.

The context is important. Every country engaged in World War I tried to control public perception. To avoid hurting morale, even in the nonlethal first wave the press in countries fighting in the war did not mention the outbreak. (But Spain was not at war and its press wrote about it, so the pandemic became known as the Spanish flu).

Comment: After witnessing the CDC's track record regarding autism, the flu, and vaccines it becomes glaringly obvious that they cannot be trusted with telling the truth about anything. Throughout history, governments and their representatives have lied and propagandized to sway public opinion and maintain a facade of control. History continues to repeat itself.

Erring on the side of idiocy: CDC contradictions and the US Ebola situation


Changing their tune: CDC admits that Ebola can be spread through droplets in the air

For your protection: The lies and deception of the CDC

V

'Demon trap' carvings to protect James I after 1605 Gunpowder Plot found in Kent, UK

© Wikipedia
James I of England
Abstract markings discovered under the floorboards of an historic aristocratic home have been identified by archaeologists as "demon traps" created to protect King James I during a visit shortly after the failure of the Gunpowder Plot.

The grids, crudely carved into wooden floorboards at National Trust property Knole in Kent, stem from a superstitious zeal that descended upon England in the aftermath of the failed 5th November, 1605 conspiracy to assassinate James I and blow up the Houses of Parliament, when conspiracies against the monarchy were rife.

The carvings, described as witchmarks, remained hidden for over 400 years and failed to surface in any historical documents, The Times suggests.

But a group of archaeologists from the Museum of London Archaeology were able to pinpoint when they were created using advanced carbon-dating methods.

Careful analysis of natural patterns in the wood revealed it stemmed from timber that had been felled in the winter of 1605. The archaeologists were able to discern the planks were laid in the property as flooring while they were pliable and fresh the following spring or summer.

The dates reflect a period in British history when the 1st Earl of Dorset, Thomas Sackville, enticed King James I to stay at his residence in 1606 by constructing a group of royal apartments.

An MP and Lord High Treasurer, Sackville was the nephew of executed Queen of England Anne Boleyn. Carpenters, in full knowledge they were constructing a bedroom for a monarch, strove to protect James I by carving special marks they believed would serve as talismans.

Comment: See also:
  • This Day in History 1605: King James Learns of Gunpowder Plot


Frog

Paleontologists discover ancient groundhog-like mammal in Madagascar

vintana sertichi
© Lucille Betti-Nash.
This is an artist’s rendering of Vintana sertichi.
A team of paleontologists led by Prof David Krause of Stony Brook University has discovered a groundhog-like animal that lived in what is now Madagascar during the Late Cretaceous epoch, about 70-66 million years ago.

The new fossil mammal, named Vintana sertichi, belongs to Gondwanatheria (or gondwanatherians), a group of early mammals that lived during the Cretaceous through the Miocene in the Southern Hemisphere, including Antarctica.

The animal's skull was huge, measuring 13 cm long - twice the size of the previously largest known mammalian skull from the entire Age of Dinosaurs of the southern supercontinent Gondwana.
Magnify

Joseon dynasty shipwreck discovered off Korea's coast

© Yonhap
Ceramics recovered from a shipwreck off Mado Island are on display during a press conference in Taean, South Chungcheong Province, Wednesday.
Buncheong ceramics, white porcelain pieces among relics salvaged from underwater site

A shipwreck with more than 100 pieces of earthenware, presumed to date back to 18th- or 19th-century Korea, has been found in western waters in what archeologists say could be the first discovery of a Joseon-era ship.

The National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage said Wednesday that its underwater research team discovered what appeared to be a vessel's stern and some wooden beams on the seabed off Mado Island, Taean County, South Chungcheong Province.

"A pilot excavation of the shipwreck site resulted in the discoveries of two buncheong-ware ceramics. It's highly likely that the vessel is from the Joseon era," the institute said in a press release.
Boat

How the sinking of the Lusitania was used to bring America into WWI

lusitania
© en.wikipedia.org
When the Lusitania left New York for Liverpool on what would be her final voyage on 1st May 1915, during the Great War, it would alter the course of history forever.

Just a week later on 7th May 1915, the Lusitania was torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat resulting in the loss of 1,198 lives of both passengers and crew off the southern coast of Ireland inside Germany's declared, but unrecognised "zone of war."

The sinking, without any prior search or warning, and with no regard for the safety of the passengers and crew, breached international law. Germany produced the argument (unconvincingly) that the liner was itself breaching international law by carrying munitions, and through doing so, providing Germany with justification for the attack.

Novel research conducted by Dr. Matthew Seligmann, Reader in History, at the Department of Politics, History and Law at Brunel University London, has unveiled new information on the incident. Dr. Seligmann has uncovered records that demonstrate that the Lusitania, one of the two fastest and most luxurious British passenger liners built at the turn of the century, had a hidden purpose. It acted as a trade protection vessel against attacks on British merchant vessels by German commerce raiding auxiliary cruisers.

Comment: In contravention of the rules of war at the time (the Hague Conventions and the Cruiser Rules) the RMS Lusitania was carrying a considerable amount of ammunition, explosives, and other war materiel for the armies of England and France. Germans knew that The Lusitania was carrying military supplies bound for Germany's enemies on the Western Front. The German embassy in Washington even took the precaution of placing an advertisement in 50 U.S. newspapers warning civilians not to sail on the Lusitania. Due to the intervention of the State Department most of the notices were not published

The sinking of the Lusitania was a major catalyst for America's later entry into the World War. Total deaths from the War are estimated between 9 and 15 million souls; American casualties of dead and wounded were in excess of 300,000. But the House of Morgan, House of Rothschild, and other banksters were thoroughly pleased at America's entry into the War. It meant that they continued to benefit hugely from the wholesale slaughter and misery of millions of programmed human beings. When one thinks of Pearl Harbour, Gulf of Tonkin, 9/11, and other false flags it seems that some things never change. The lessons of history are quickly forgotten. See: Sinking the Lusitania: An act of mass murder by the banksters

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