Secret History


Huge geometric shapes located in the Middle East date back to 8500 years

© Google Earth
Wheel structures in the Azraq Oasis in Jordan, as seen in this Google Earth image.
Thousands of stone structures that form geometric patterns in the Middle East are coming into clearer view, with archaeologists finding two wheel-shaped patterns date back some 8,500 years. That makes these "wheels" older than the famous geoglyphs in Peru called Nazca Lines.

And some of these giant designs located in Jordan's Azraq Oasis seem to have an astronomical significance, built to align with the sunrise on the winter solstice.

Those are just some of the findings of new research on these Middle East lines, which were first encountered by pilots during World War I. RAF Flight Lt. Percy Maitland published an account of them in 1927 in the journal Antiquity, reporting that the Bedouin called the structures "works of the old men," a name still sometimes used by modern-day researchers. [See Photos of the 'Nazca Lines' in the Middle East]

The "works of the old men" include wheels,which often have spokes radiating out from the center, kites (stone structures used for funnelling and killing animals), pendants (lines of stone cairns) and meandering walls, which are mysterious structures that meander across the landscape for up to several hundred feet.

The works "demonstrate specific geometric patterns and extend from a few tens of meters up to several kilometers, evoking parallels to the well-known system of geometric lines of Nazca, Peru," wrote an archaeological team in a paper published recently in the Journal of Archaeological Science. (Peru's Nazca Lines date to between 200 B.C. and A.D. 500.)

They "occur throughout the entire Arabia region, from Syria across Jordan and Saudi Arabia to Yemen," wrote the researchers. "The most startling thing about the 'Works' is that they are difficult to identify from the ground. This stands in contrast to their apparent visibility from the air."

New research on the Middle East lines was published recently in the Journal of Archaeological Science and the journal Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy. Live Science also got an advance copy of an article set to be published in the journal Antiquity.


Nazca lines of Kazakhstan: More than 50 geoglyphs discovered

Riddle in the Sands: Thousands of Strange 'Nazca Lines' Discovered in the Middle East


The Yamnaya: 'Fourth strand' European ancestry began with hunter-gatherers isolated by the Ice Age

Satsurblia Cave, location of some of the bones found that indicate a fourth strand of ancestry for European hunter-gatherers.
"This is a major new piece in the human ancestry jigsaw, the influence of which is now present within almost all populations from the European continent and many beyond."

The first sequencing of ancient genomes extracted from human remains that date back to the Late Upper Palaeolithic period over 13,000 years ago has revealed a previously unknown "fourth strand" of ancient European ancestry. This new lineage stems from populations of hunter-gatherers that split from western hunter-gatherers shortly after the 'out of Africa' expansion some 45,000 years ago and went on to settle in the Caucasus region, where southern Russia meets Georgia today.

Here these hunter-gatherers largely remained for millennia, becoming increasingly isolated as the Ice Age culminated in the last 'Glacial Maximum' some 25,000 years ago, which they weathered in the relative shelter of the Caucasus mountains until eventual thawing allowed movement and brought them into contact with other populations, likely from further east.

This led to a genetic mixture that resulted in the Yamnaya culture: horse-borne Steppe herders that swept into Western Europe around 5,000 years ago, arguably heralding the start of the Bronze Age and bringing with them metallurgy and animal herding skills, along with the Caucasus hunter-gatherer strand of ancestral DNA - now present in almost all populations from the European continent.

Comment: As puzzle pieces find their niche, a fuller picture of human genomic ancestry appears with interesting influences of a past ice age.


The entity of neutrality and the story of the black knights

© theflickerees / deviantart
‘The Black Knight’
Around the year 800, Black Knights began to appear in history and, since the 13th century, a series of legends mentioning the mysterious Black Knights, then known as 'the Sith', emerged. Although the Black Knights were said to have carried out good deeds and fought to protect cities from unjust rulers and other threats, texts referring to these legends were censored and banned by the Church during the medieval period. Nevertheless, the story of the legendary knight Ashor endured over the centuries.

The origin of Black Knights is closely linked to the legend of Ashor, a knight who had remained skilled and strong, despite his advanced age, and who specialized in the killing of kings and other nobles. Some time around the 13th or 14th century, there was a king with a powerful enemy - a king of another land who oppressed his people. Desperate to defeat his opponent, the good king sent a message calling Ashor to his court. One night, the king woke up to find Ashor near his bed. The assassin had entered his castle without detection, thus having proven his skill.


Archaeologists unearth Hellenistic Period fortress of Acra

© Assaf Peretz / Israel Antiquities Authority
IAA archaeologists have unearthed the ruins of the Hellenistic period fortress of Acra, solving one of Jerusalem’s greatest archaeological mysteries.
Archaeologists from the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) have unearthed what they believe are the ruins of Acra - often called the Seleucid Acra - a fortress in Jerusalem constructed more than 2,150 years by the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes (215-164 BC).

The fortress ruins were unearthed from beneath the Givati parking lot in the City of David, Jerusalem.

According to the IAA archaeologists, Dr Doron Ben-Ami, Yana Tchekhanovets and Salome Cohen, a section of a massive wall, a base of a tower (13 by 66 feet, or 4 by 20 m) and a glacis were uncovered at the site.

"The glacis, which was built next to the wall, is a defensive sloping embankment composed of layers of soil, stone and plaster, designed to keep attackers away from the base of the wall," Dr Ben-Ami explained.

Blue Planet

The First War For India's Independence: 1857

The British called its battles of 1857 in the Indian sub-continent, waged by native people, as "Sepoy Mutiny" or terms as dismissive, more or less: rebellion, revolt, uprising or subaltern war ( by sepoy cadres and junior officers in their own military ) ! For long now, after I came across compelling evidence of it being a far more concerted and coordinated affair, the historical lies and half-truths that continue to be taught in our schools and colleges has seemed so shocking and shameful to me. But that streaming propaganda flows unabated over the young minds to this day, despite corrections since suggested by very eminent minds and respectable historians. Why ? Are our people so naive, gullible, stupid or fast brainwashed ? Let me know ...


Scan of King Tut's tomb points to secret chamber, maybe Queen Nefertiti's mummy

© Mohamed Abd El Ghany / Reuters
The golden sarcophagus of King Tutankhamun in his burial chamber in the Valley of the Kings, in Luxor, Egypt
The name Nefertiti means, "the beautiful one has come" in Egyptian. This may actually prove prophetic. Scans of King Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings point to a secret chamber, possibly containing the remains of Queen Nefertiti.

Experts are "approximately 90 percent" sure there's a hidden chamber in Tutankhamun's tomb, Antiquities Minister Mamduh al-Damati told a news conference. They are currently trying to gather more information, using hi-tech infrared and radar technology.

The scans were prompted by a study by a prominent British archaeologist, Nicholas Reeves, which claimed Nefertiti's lost tomb may be hidden in an adjoining chamber. Tutankhamun (who died 3,000 years ago at the age of 19) may have been placed in an outer chamber of what was originally Nefertiti's tomb, according to Reeves. Along with her husband, Nefertiti, an Egyptian queen and one of the wives of Tutankhamun's father Akhenaten, played a key political and religious role in the 14th century BC.


Sarcophagus of 'high priest of God Amun' unearthed in Luxor

© Antiquities Ministry Facebook page
Sarcophagus of Ankh-f-n-Khonsu.
The sarcophagus of Ankh-f-n-khonsu, a high priest of ancient Egyptian god Amun Ra, has been unearthed in the west bank of Luxor, Antiquities Minister Mamdouh al Damaty announced Thursday.

The sarcophagus, which dates back to the 22nd Dynasty (943B.C-716B.C.,) was found in the tomb of Amenhotep-Huy, who served as Egypt's viceroy and vizier during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1391 B.C. - 1353 B.C.)

"The sarcophagus is made of wood and covered with a layer of plaster. It represents the deceased wearing a wig and crown with flowers and colorful ribbons along with ceremonial beard and a necklace adorning his chest," Sultan Eid, Director of Upper Egypt Antiquities Department said in a statement Thursday.

The sarcophagus also contains a number of hieroglyphic inscriptions with scenes of the deceased making offerings to several ancient Egyptian deities, he added.


New evidence suggests King Tutankhamun's gold mask was made for heretic queen Nefertiti

© The Independent, UK
Tutankhanum's famous gold death mask may have been intended for his step-mother, Nefertiti.
Before being published in a scientific journal in December, British Egyptologist Nicholas Reeves, from Arizona University, sent Al-Ahram Weekly an advance copy of his article on the original name inscribed on Tutankhamun's mask.

Entitled "The Gold Mask of Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten" Reeves relates that an essay was behind his first doubts about King Tutankhamun's possession of his iconic gold mask, now under restoration at the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir Square.

In the paper Reeves wrote several years ago, in an essay which is yet to appear, he sought to demonstrate that the famous gold mask from King Tutankhamun's tomb (KV 62) had been created not for the boy king but for the use of a female predecessor named Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten (Queen Nefertiti) who was King Akhenaten's co-regent.

"The evidence in favour of this conclusion was, and still is compelling," Reeves said, adding that he was able to muster for it no inscriptional support. Detailed scrutiny, both of the mask itself and of photographs, furnished not the slightest hint that the multi-columned hieroglyphic inscription with cartouche might pre-date Tutankhamun's reign.

"Happily, this reluctant presumption of the mask's textual integrity may now be abandoned," Reeves pointed out in the paper, asserting that "a fresh examination of the re-positioned and newly re-lit mask in Cairo at the end of September 2015 yielded for the first time, beneath the hieroglyphs of Tutankhamun's prenomen, lightly chased traces of an earlier, erased royal name."


Unique ancient manuscripts found in Tibet

Tibetan script.
Historians scouring the ruins of a Tibetan monastery have found 30 ancient manuscripts, including one detailing a kind of musical score never seen before.

The manuscripts, dating from the 13th to 18th century and found in Maizhokunggar County, mostly refer to noted Buddhist sutra "Perfection of Wisdom," said Palbar Tsering, director of the regional ancient books protection center, on Thursday.

The scores, consisting of groups of curves and syllabic symbols, have been identified as the music for chams, religious dances usually staged during important festivals to greet gods and dispel demons.

Experts will try to decipher them so the music can be played to the public, raising awareness of old Buddhist customs, Palbar Tsering said.


Ancient underground city in Cappadocia will "rewrite history"

© AA Photos
An underground city found in Turkey's touristic Cappadocia will "rewrite the history of the city", according to the mayor in the Central Anatolian Nevşehir province, adding they had discovered people had permanently lived in the underground city, unlike other cities which were mostly carved into rocks for temporary protection.

Hasan Ünver, the mayor of Nevşehir, where Cappadocia is located, said the new findings at the ancient underground city in the province would rewrite history.

"When the works are finalized the history of Cappadocia will be rewritten," said Ünver, adding the findings found during the excavations dated back as the Hittite era.

"We have reached significant discoveries; new long tunnels and spaces where people lived all together. Places where linseed oil was produced, chapels and tunnels combining various living spaces in the underground city were found," said Ünver.