Secret History
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Hidden secrets revealed in 1491 world map that may have guided Columbus

© Wikimedia Commons
The Yale world map of "Henricus Martellus Germanus" (Heinrich Hammer). It is the most detailed "Dragon Tail" map by Martellus. It is the only one with a coordinate grid.
A map of the world produced in 1491 by Henricus Martellus has been subjected to multispectral imaging, which has revealed hidden details on the map not previously visible, including numerous Latin descriptions of regions and people.

Henricus Martellus is also known as Heinrich Hammer. He was a German cartographer who lived in Florence from 1480 to 1496. His 1491 world map is one of two (an earlier version was produced in 1489). It is similar to the terrestrial globe, called the Erdapfel, produced by the later mariner, artist, astronomer, philosopher and explorer Martin Behaim in 1492, which may actually have been influenced by Martellus.

Both of these incorporate variations of the Ptolemaic model in that they show an opening to the Indian Ocean beneath the horn of Africa and they include the continent of Malaysia. Both may also derive from earlier maps produced by Bartolomeo Columbus, created around 1485 in Lisbon, Portugal. Some historians believe that the Martellus map may also have been used by Christopher Columbus prior to his voyage to circumnavigate the globe.

Flashlight

Margate Shell Grotto decorated with 4.6 million seashells is one of the world's greatest unsolved mysteries

The Margate Shell Grotto, a winding underground passageway in Kent, England, decorated with nearly 4.6 million seashells, is one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in the world.

Legend has it that in 1835, James Newlove and his son, Joshua, were digging a duck pond in Margate, Kent, when they noticed a hole in the ground. Newlove then lowered his kid down there to check it out, according to BuzzFeed.​

The hole turned out to be caverns connected together by several underground tunnels with walls covered in intricate mosaics made out of millions of seashells (video below).

The shells in the grotto include scallops, mussels, limpets, whelks, cockles, and oysters, all of which can be found locally. In all, there are more than 2,000 square feet of shell mosaic in the grotto, according to Viral Nova.

Snakes in Suits

'Drugs, Oil and War' - The hidden government group

Peter Dale Scott is considered the father of "Deep Politics"— the study of hidden permanent institutions and interests whose influence on the political realm transcends the elected, appointed and career officials who come and go. A Professor of English at Berkeley and a former Canadian diplomat, he is the author of several critically acclaimed books on the pivotal events of our country's recent past. Daniel Ellsberg said of his book Drugs, Oil and War, "It makes most academic and journalistic explanations of our past and current interventions read like government propaganda written for children." What follows is based on a recent Scott lecture entitled "The JFK Assassination and Other Deep Events".
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© Unknown
Mount Weather entrance.
For some time now, I have been analyzing American history in the light of what I have called structural deep events: events, like the JFK assassination, the Watergate break-in, Iran-Contra, or 9/11, which repeatedly involve law-breaking or violence, are mysterious to begin with, are embedded in ongoing covert processes, have political consequences that enlarge covert government, and are subsequently covered up by systematic falsifications in the mainstream media and internal government records. [1]

The more I study these deep events, the more I see suggestive similarities between them, increasing the possibility that they are not unrelated external intrusions on American history, but parts of an endemic process, sharing to some degree or other a common source. [2]

Fire

Paranoid patriotism: We're trapped in vicious cycle of militarism, says US Army colonel

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© © Flickr/ The US Army
Americans have come to the point where they fear they can't live without war, US Army Colonel Gregory A. Daddis said, adding that the US' addiction to war is fed by "paranoid patriotism."

Since the end of the Second World War Americans have found themselves trapped in a vicious cycle of warmongering, fed by constant fear of an external threat, noted Gregory A. Daddis, a US Army colonel and a professor of history at the United States Military Academy.

Throughout the Cold War American policy makers spoke "in apocalyptic terms" about a major threat presented the Soviets and Communism. Remarkably, nothing has changed since the collapse of the USSR, and "the gravest threat looms continuously on the horizon," the colonel pointed out.

"The 2015 National Security Strategy, published in February, offers a case in point. While acknowledging America's growing economic strength and the benefits of moving beyond the large ground wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the document stresses the 'risks of an insecure world.' Despite its global power and reach, the United States, we are told, faces a 'persistent risk of attacks,'" Gregory A. Daddis emphasized.

Cow

Our European ancestors brought farming, languages and a love of dairy, study shows

© The Independent, UK
Thousands of Bronze Age migrants from the Caucuses came to northern Europe in a major movement of prehistoric people in the third millennium BC.
The making of modern Europe began in earnest about 5,000 years ago when a mass migration of people from what is now southern Russia and Georgia introduced new technology, languages and dairy farming to the continent, a study has found.

Thousands of Bronze Age migrants from the Caucuses came to northern Europe in a major movement of prehistoric people in the third millennium BC, according to the largest research project of its kind that analysed the genetic makeup of more than 100 ancient skeletons from the period.

The migrants brought new metal skills, spoke what became the basis of almost every other European language - from Greek and Latin to German and English - and carried a genetic mutation that allowed adults to drink cow's milk.

This lactose-tolerance gene, which enables adults to digest the sugar in milk, is still more prevalent in north Europeans today than in most other regions of the world. This illustrates the historic importance of dairy food in the North European diet, the scientists said.

The mass migration was one of the most significant in European history, equivalent to the colonisation of the Americas, and was a transformative period in terms of the change in languages and culture that it brought about, the researchers believe.

"The single most important finding from our study is that the Bronze Age, which is relatively recent, is when the major genetic landscape affecting modern-day Europeans was formed. It's a surprise as it happened so recently," said Eske Willerslev, professor of evolutionary genetics at the University of Copenhagen.

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3,800-year-old statuettes found in Peru

© Agence France-Presse
One of the figurines, a woman with many fingers and red dots on her white face, is believed to represent a priestess. The Caral civilisation emerged some 5,000 years ago and lived in Peru's Supe Valley, leaving behind impressive architecture including pyramids and sunken amphitheatres.
Researchers in Peru have discovered a trio of statuettes they believe were created by the ancient Caral civilisation some 3,800 years ago, the culture ministry said yesterday.

The mud statuettes were found inside a reed basket in a building at the ancient city of Vichama in northern Peru, which is today an important archaeological site.

The ministry said they were probably used in religious rituals performed before breaking ground on a new building.

Two of the figures, a naked man and woman painted in white, black and red, are believed to represent political authorities. The third, a woman with 28 fingers and red dots on her white face, is believed to represent a priestess.

Bad Guys

Fascist sympathizer Edward VIII wanted Britain bombed, historian claims

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© Wikipedia
King Edward VIII
Edward VIII wanted Britain to be bombed into an alliance with the Third Reich and blamed "Jews and Reds" for World War II, according to a prominent academic.

The research, carried out by UK-based German historian Karina Urbach, delved into the historical archives of 30 nations, including Germany, Spain and Russia, revealing the fascist sympathies of many European aristocrats.

Writing for The Conversation website ahead of the release of her new book, Go-Betweens for Hitler, Urbach said Edward VIII, who abdicated the throne in 1936 and became the Duke of Windsor, "has always been known for his pro-Nazi sympathies."

Comment: Also see:


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2,500-year-old 'Wonder Woman' found on Greek vase

© The University of Mississippi Museum and Historic Houses, David M. Robinson Memorial Collection
A 2,500-year-old predecessor of DC Comics' Wonder Woman super heroine has emerged on a vase painting kept at a small American museum.

Drawn on a white-ground pyxis (a lidded cylindrical box that was used for cosmetics, jewelry, or ointments) the image shows an Amazon on horseback in a battle against a Greek warrior.

Much like the fictional warrior princess of the Amazons, the horsewoman is twirling a lasso.

"It is the only ancient artistic image of an Amazon using a lariat in battle," Adrienne Mayor, a research scholar at Stanford University's departments of classics and history of science, told Discovery News.

Mayor noticed the vase at the University of Mississippi Museum during research for her 2014 book The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World.

Created between 480 and 450 B.C. in Athens, the image is attributed to the Sotheby painter.

Video

Documentry: 'Wounded Knee: A Line in the Sand'

© Kevin McKiernan
Reporter Kevin McKiernan is pictured with Tom Bad Cob and Oscar Bear Runner during the 1973 occupation.
Four decades ago, Kevin McKiernan made a decision that would change the course of his life.

Then in his late 20s, McKiernan was a cub reporter who had never seen combat, witnessed fatal gunfire or stepped onto an Indian reservation. That didn't stop him from sneaking past FBI agents and U.S. Marshals in the winter of 1973 to embed with the American Indian Movement at Wounded Knee.

McKiernan was the only journalist bunking inside the compound after the federal government declared a media blackout.

"I didn't know then that I'd disappear from my family for two months, that I'd be shot at by federal agents, assaulted by vigilantes, or that I'd come out of this place in handcuffs," he said. "Maybe somebody had to get the inside story, but my heart was in my mouth."

Star of David

History of the June 1967 "Six Day War": Some Israeli leaders do sometimes tell the truth

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Still today, 48 years on, there are relatively few people who know the whole truth about how Israel set the stage for war in June 1967 to grab more Arab land. The single most decisive event that made war inevitable happened on Thursday 1 June, four days before Israel launched its attacks. What was it?

On that day in Israel there was a coup organized and executed by the IDF's top generals and other security chiefs without a shot being fired. They required Prime Minister Levi Eshkol to form a unity government and bring into it as minister of defence Israel's one-eyed war lord, General Moshe Dayan. Up this point Eshkol had been both prime minister and minister of defence; and for two years Dayan had been in the political wilderness, devoting his time to archaeology. Effectively Eshkol was stripped of his command of Israel's war machine.

The problem with Eshkol for Israel's military and other security establishments was that he didn't want Israel to go to war because he knew the assertions of its hawks that the Arabs were about to attack were propaganda nonsense (more on this in a moment). He also understood and accepted the advice given to his foreign minister Abba Eban by French President Charles de Gaulle. In a conversation with Eban in Paris de Gaulle said Israel should not go to war because, if it did, it would create Palestinian nationalism which would never go away. (In my opinion that was the best advice anybody ever gave Israel).