Secret History

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Five scary Christopher Columbus quotes that let you celebrate the holiday the right way

© Raw Story
Happy Columbus Day! I hope you're celebrating the holiday appropriately, by breaking into someone's home and claiming that you discovered and now own it! Or you could just, you know, mourn the genocide of indigenous people by shopping. Because we all grieve in different ways.

You've probably heard lots of great things about Christopher Columbus and tons of inspiring quotes from him about hard work, god, the sea etc. But those don't really capture what Columbus and the colonial expansion of which he was part were all about. So, without further ado, allow me to present these quotes that you may not have heard, from or about Christopher Columbus.

1. Conquest: the perfect chaser for expelling Muslims and Jews. You don't have to be an academic to link Spain's colonial expansion abroad with its inquisition at home. Columbus made the connection himself. Of course he saw this as a good thing, not a bad one - a killer combo, if you will.


Giant skeletons uncovered in Ecuador and Peru Amazon regions sent for scientific testing

© Wikimedia Commons
Illustration from "Mundus subterraneus" - suggesting that fossil bones were from giants
Strikingly tall skeletons uncovered in the Ecuador and Peru Amazon region are undergoing examination in Germany, according to a research team headed by British anthropologist Russell Dement. Will these remains prove that a race of tall people existed hundreds of years ago deep in the Amazonian rainforest?

According to a Cuenca news site, since 2013 the team has found half a dozen human skeletons dating to the early 1400s and the mid-1500s which measure between seven and eight feet (213 to 243 centimeters) in height.

Dement said,
"We are very early in our research and I am only able to provide a general overview of what we have found. I don't want to make claims based on speculation since our work is ongoing. Because of the size of the skeletons, this has both anthropological and medical implications," reports Cuenca Highlife.

Comment: There is a wealth of evidence suggesting that giants may have once roamed the earth:

Bad Guys

A real history lesson: What really happened when Columbus 'discovered' America?

Prior to the 'discovery' of the Americas by Europeans, scholars have estimated the pre-contact era population to be as high as 100 million people. For example, American anthropologist and ethnohistorian Henry F. Dobyns, most known for his published research on American Indians and Hispanic peoples in Latin and North America, estimated that more than one hundred and twelve million people inhabited the Americas prior to European arrival. He approximated that ten million alone inhabited an area north of the Rio Grande before European contact. In 1983, he revised that number to upwards of eighteen million. (source)(source)(source)

It's also important to note that other scholars have estimated the number to be as low as ten million, and everything in between. For example, William M. Denovan, Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, believes there were approximately fifty four million inhabitants. (source)

Comment: American Holocaust - The Unhealed Wound
Joanelle Romero began putting this film together in 1995. It was originally intended to be a 90 minute film, but due to a lack of funding, this 29 minute version released in 2001 is all that's been completed so far.

Romero traces direct connections between the Nazi holocaust and the slaughter of millions of Native Americans - at least 19 million by conservative estimates.

The powerful and hard-hitting documentary, American Holocaust, is quite possibly the only film that reveals the link between the Nazi holocaust, which claimed at least 6 million Jews, and the American Holocaust which claimed, according to conservative estimates, 19 million Indigenous People.

It is seldom noted anywhere in fact, be it in textbooks or on the internet, that Hitler studied Americas Indian policy, and used it as a model for what he termed the final solution.

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Untold story of British WWII concentration camps for Jewish refugees

© Wikipedia/israluv
Atlit detainee camp.
The gruesome and shameful history of British concentration camps for Jewish refugees in Palestine during the Second World War still remains largely unspoken.

When one refers to the issue of Jewish concentration camps, the dark history of the Nazi Holocaust aimed against European Jews usually comes to mind; however, it was not only fascist regimes who detained Jews in the 1930s-1940s.

Remarkably, the story of British concentration camps for Jewish refugees still remains largely untold.

"Today, when Europe is shutting its borders in the face of the huge flow of Arab refugees from Syria and Iraq, it is worth mentioning that Britain, now lecturing others on moral values, in 1939-1948 captured and detained, in its own concentration camps, thousands of Jewish refugees who escaped doom in Nazi death camps," Russian-Israeli travel blogger Alexander Lapshin wrote on his Facebook page.

In the 1930s European Jews were not welcomed anymore in Nazi-controlled Germany. The Jewish community was stigmatized, and anti-Semitism was on the rise. In the face of increasing repression many Jews fled Germany. Needless to say, the nationwide Kristallnacht ("Night of Crystal") in Germany in November 1938 facilitated a sharp increase in Jewish emigration.

But where could they go? It was a time when Palestine was seen by many as the only light at the end of the tunnel.


12,000 year old hunter-gatherer population discovered in Scotland

© Steven Mithen and Karen Wicks, University of Reading
Archaeologist Karen Wicks is pictured with the pigs that found stone tools belonging to hunter-gatherers who lived 12,000 years ago on the Isle of Islay, Scotland.

Pigs foraging along a Scottish coastline have unwittingly uprooted the earliest evidence for a remote population of hunter-gatherers.

The uprooted items, stone tools that have been dated to around 12,000 years ago, are described in the latest issue of British Archaeology. The tools were discovered on the east coast of the Isle of Islay, Scotland, and include sharp points -- likely used for hunting big game -- scrapers and more.

Archaeologists Steven Mithen and Karen Wicks of the University of Reading explained to Discovery News that a gamekeeper had previously released the pigs at a local port on Islay to reduce the bracken there. While feasting away, the pigs managed to dig up the ancient tools.

"Previously, the earliest evidence (for humans at Islay) dated to 9,000 years ago, after the end of the Ice Age," Mithen said. "The new discovery puts people on Islay before the Ice Age had come to an end at 12,000 years ago."

Mithen and Wicks were already working on a project in Scotland when they were informed of the pigs' finds. They investigated the site, Rubha Port an t-Seilich, as well as nearby areas, and found layers of many other artifacts dating to different time periods. These included remains of animal bones, antlers, spatula-like objects, crystal quartz tools, and what was once a very well used fireplace.


The Great Chicago Fire of 1871

© Photo by Chicago History Museum/Getty Images
Map (published by the R.P. Studley Company) of the area of Chicago burned during the Great Chicago Fire, Chicago, Illinois, early 1870s.
In 1871, the most famous fire in American history swept across Chicago and destroyed much of the city. According to legend, the Great Chicago Fire was started when a cow owned by an Irish immigrant named Mrs O'Leary kicked over a lantern in the barn. But from the ashes, Chicago was rebuilt, and the city's rebirth changed the face of every major American urban center.


Newly identified human ancestor handy with tools, walked like a person, scientists say

© Peter Schmid/Will Harcourt-Smith
The hand and foot of the newly-discovered hominin species Homo naledi.
Homo naledi, the ancient human ancestor whose fossils have been retrieved from a South African cave, may have been handy with tools and walked much like a person, according to scientists who examined its well-preserved foot and hand bones.

Its foot and hand anatomy shared many characteristics with our species but possessed some primitive traits useful for tree climbing, the researchers said on Tuesday.

Scientists last month announced the discovery of this previously unknown species in the human linage, in a cave northwest of Johannesburg.

The new research offers fresh insight into a creature that is providing valuable clues about human evolution.

Paleoanthropologist Tracy Kivell from Britain's University of Kent said it boasted a hand "specialised for fine, powerful manipulation".

Its wrist bones and thumb showed features shared with modern people and Neanderthals, and indicated powerful grasping and the ability to employ stone tools.

Its strongly curved fingers, rather than the straight ones of people and Neanderthals, suggested it also regularly used its hands for climbing.Its foot was largely like ours, particularly in the ankle joint anatomy, the presence of a non-grasping big toe and the proportions of the region from the ankle to toes.

Dartmouth College anthropologist Jeremy DeSilva said it was well-adapted for long distance walking and perhaps running.

"The legs are long, the knees are like ours, the feet are human-like," he said.

"Homo naledi walked a lot like us."


Mona Lisa: Another mystery resolved?

© Reuters
Remains found in Florence, Italy, are strongly believed to belong to Lisa Gherardini, who posed for the Mona Lisa.
Experts strongly believe they've come across bone fragments that belong to Lisa Gherardini, who posed Leonardo da Vinci's for the Mona Lisa.

One of history's greatest mysteries seems to have been finally resolved, after remains that are strongly believed to belong to Lisa Gherardini del Giocondo, better known as the Mona Lisa, were found in convent in Florence, Italy.

"There are converging elements, above and beyond the results of the carbon-14 tests, that say we may well have found Lisa's grave," said lead researcher Silvano Vincenti. "I'm speaking of historical, anthropological and archaeological analyses that have been carried out very rigorously."

Vincenti spoke cautiously, saying, "We can't provide absolute certainty that some of the remains examined are Lisa's but the likelihood is very high. I have to say that many historians would have stated this was Lisa on the basis of written records, with many fewer elements and without scientific data."

The remains of the Gherardini - the woman immortalized by Leonardo Da Vinci's painting - were found in her tomb at the former convent of Santa Orsola in Florence.

Comment: Da Vinci' masterpiece has inspired speculation for centuries:


Moral decay and wealth inequality: Following in the footsteps of ancient Rome

© Unknown
Rome Burning
If you want to understand why Rome declined, look no further than the moral decay of ruling Elites.

There are many reasons why Imperial Rome declined, but two primary causes that get relatively little attention are moral decay and soaring wealth inequality. The two are of course intimately connected: once the morals of the ruling Elites degrade, what's mine is mine and what's yours is mine, too.

I've previously covered two other key characteristics of an empire in terminal decline: complacency and intellectual sclerosis, what I have termed a failure of imagination.

Michael Grant described these causes of decline in his excellent account The Fall of the Roman Empire, a short book I have been recommending since 2009:

Comment: Is the U.S. Republic ending? 8 striking parallels between the Fall of Rome and the U.S.


The Exceptional Kokino Observatory - Ancient Megalithic Site, Holy Mountain

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The beautiful and astounding archaeo-astronomical site, Kokino Observatory, or Tatic’s Stone.
At the dawn of the 21st century, at a place called Tatic's Stone, near the village of Kokino, in the Republic of Macedonia, archaeologists discovered an exceptional prehistoric megalithic site which dates back to the Bronze Age. It was built on a mountain top at 1013 meters (3323 feet) above sea level, right upon a neo-volcanic plate made of craggy andesite rocks.

According to the movable archaeological material unearthed at the site, archaeologists believe that certain cult activities took place there. Researchers found an abundance of fractured ceramic vessels, molds for bronze axes, and jewelry. Within cracks in the rocks of the towering archaeological site, the remains of vessels filled with offerings were found, leading to the site being dubbed a "holy mountain".