Secret History
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Colosseum

Julius Caesar suffered from mini-strokes, not epilepsy says new study

Roman emperor Julius Caesar may have suffered a series of mini-strokes, explaining his dark mood in later life, according to doctors at London's Imperial College.

Caesar, who lived from 100 to 44 BC, has long been the focus of medical debate, with the common assumption being that he suffered from epilepsy.

But medical experts from the London university have reexamined his symptoms, which included vertigo, dizziness and limb weakness, and concluded that he may have in fact suffered from a cardiovascular complaint.

"To date, possible cardiovascular explanations have always been ruled out on the grounds that until his death he was supposedly otherwise physically well during both private and stately affairs," said an excerpt of the study written by Francesco Galassi and Hutan Ashrafian.

Info

Found in UK cathedral, pummeled remains of medieval knight

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© Headland Archaeology
The skeleton of the medieval man, a possible knight, in his stone grave.
The battered remains of a medieval man uncovered at a famous cathedral hint that he may have been a Norman knight with a proclivity for jousting.

The man may have participated in a form of jousting called tourney, in which men rode atop their horses and attacked one another, in large groups, with blunted weapons.

Archaeologists uncovered the man's skeleton, along with about 2,500 others — including a person who had leprosy and a woman with a severed hand buried at Hereford Cathedral in the United Kingdom. The cathedral was built in the 12th century and served as a place of worship and a burial ground in the following centuries, said Andy Boucher, a regional manager at Headland Archaeology, a commercial archaeology company that works with construction companies in the United Kingdom.

Comment: Interesting information brought to light by examination of skeletal remains.


Question

Experts perplexed by ancient structure built in the middle of a Siberian Lake: 'Russia's most mysterious archaeological site'

© Siberian Times
Por-Bajin
Described as "Russia's most mysterious archaeological site," the Archaeological Institute of America says Por-Bajin is located roughly 20 miles from the Mongolian border and boasts outer walls that are 40 feet high.

The structure was reportedly excavated in the 1950s and 1960s, but archaeologists were unable to determine what the purpose of the intricate structure was. Irina Arzhantseva of the Russian Academy of Sciences has begun her own expedition, and is determined to get to the bottom of the ancient mystery.
© gdehorosho.ru
1,300-year-old structure could be a fortress, summer palace, monastery, or even an astronomical observatory.

Cow Skull

1,200-year old tombs filled with dozens of mummies discovered in Peru's Cotahuasi Valley

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© Willy Yépez Álvarez
In addition to the water and rodent damage some of the human remains were taken apart in ancient times, their bones moved to different tombs. This image shows a partially disarticulated mummy. A tupu (an artifact that could have been used to fasten clothing) fell through this mummy’s rib cage when it was moved.
Dozens of tombs filled with up to 40 mummies each have been discovered around a 1,200-year-old ceremonial site in Peru's Cotahuasi Valley.

So far, the archaeologists have excavated seven tombs containing at least 171 mummies from the site, now called Tenahaha.

The tombs are located on small hills surrounding the site. "The dead, likely numbering in the low thousands, towered over the living," wrote archaeologist Justin Jennings, a curator at Toronto's Royal Ontario Museum, in a chapter of the newly published book "Tenahaha and the Wari State: A View of the Middle Horizon from the Cotahuasi Valley" (University of Alabama Press, 2015).

Before rigor mortis set in, the mummies had their knees put up to the level of their shoulders and their arms folded along their chest, the researchers found. The corpses were then bound with rope and wrapped in layers of textiles. The mummies range in age from neonate fetuses to older adults, with some of the youngest mummies (such as infants) being buried in jars. While alive the people appear to have lived in villages close to Tenahaha.

Bits and pieces of mummies

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© Willy Yépez Álvarez
Analysis of the mummy remains also found little evidence for human violence. This is also surprising as some sites in Peru, which date to this time period, have a high incidence of cranial trauma (hits to the head). This image shows three vessels found by the feet of an individual.
The mummified remains were in poor shape due to damage from water and rodents. Additionally, the researchers found some of the mummies were intentionally broken apart, their bones scattered and moved between the tombs. In one tomb the scientists found almost 400 isolated human remains, including teeth, hands and feet.

"Though many individuals were broken apart, others were left intact," Jennings wrote in the book. "People were moved around the tombs, but they sometimes remained bunched together, and even earth or rocks were used to separate some groups and individuals." Some grave goods were smashed apart, while others were left intact, he said.

Understanding the selective destruction of the mummies and artifacts is a challenge. "In the Andes, death is a process, it's not as if you bury someone and you're done," Jennings told Live Science in an interview.

Cult

Book review: Hidden History, the Secret Origins of the First World War

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A must-read
The authors of this thought-provoking book make the extraordinary claim that a small group of rich and powerful men sought, as early as 1890, to "bring the whole uncivilised world under British Rule, for the recovery of the United States, for the making of the Anglo-Saxon race but one empire". Led by Cecil Rhodes and backed by the fortunes of the House of Rothschild, the secret society that he formed sought to perfect a system of emigration in which British settlers would take over all of Africa and South America, and integrate the United States into the British Empire. The objective of all this was "the foundation of so great a Power as to render wars impossible, and promote the best interests of humanity".

The authors claim that what is defined as the "Secret Elite" provoked the Boer War so that the Boer colonies could be defeated and incorporated into the British Empire, stating that Jan Smuts, who was once Rhodes' close friend, "allegedly" defected to the Boers and encouraged them to initiate a war they were certain to lose.

During the war in South Africa, Germany had shown moral support for the Boers. This worried the Secret Elite. Germany was rapidly becoming the most powerful nation in Europe and a direct threat to the Secret Elite's plans for world domination. So Germany would have to be dealt with next.

To this end, talks were held in secret with Belgium. From 1905 onwards Britain planned, with Belgium, operations in the event of a German invasion. It was the invasion of neutral Belgium which prompted Britain to declare war on Germany but, according to the authors, this was all premeditated. To explain this, it must be understood that a neutral nation cannot form treaties of alliances with other countries as this means they are no longer neutral - they have taken sides. But Belgium did have a secret agreement with Britain, one devised by the Secret Elite.

Comment: Check out this lecture by one of the co-authors:


See also Joe Quinn's analysis of the causes of the first world war: The Rise of Russia and the 'End of the World'


Video

Historical anomaly: U.S. WWII propaganda film ACCURATELY portrays Russia and 'most epic battle in history'

© US Dept of Defense
I've just watched an excellent 1943 documentary by Oscar Award-winning director Frank Capra, and produced by the US government. It's a rare thing to behold: an accurate - in fact, a rather glowing - portrayal of Russia and its historical role as shock absorber to invading hordes. The film was recently uploaded to the YouTube channel of the US National Archives but, as far as I can make out, has been publicly available since 2011.

While the bulk of the film uses contemporary footage collected by US Army Intelligence during the war to capture the horror, scale and intensity of the Nazi invasion of Russia, and how the Russians ultimately defeated the Nazis through brilliant strategy and sheer force of will, the first part also goes into some historical context about previous invasions of Russia, as well as important geographical detail about the nature of 'Russia'.

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Underground city of Ani, discovered by Gurdjieff, reveals hidden secrets from below

New underground structures have come to light in Ani, one of Turkey's most breathtaking ancient sites. History researcher Sezai Yazıcı says the ancient city's structures should be promoted.
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© AA Photo
Secret water channels, undiscovered monk cells, meditation rooms, huge corridors, intricate tunnels, traps and corners were found under the ruins of the ancient Armenian town of Ani.
The underground secrets of the historic Ani Ruins, an ancient, 5,000-year-old Armenian city located on the Turkish-Armenian border in the eastern province of Kars, have been revealed.

While speaking at the recent "International Ani-Kars Symposium," history researcher Sezai Yazıcı said secret water channels, undiscovered monk cells, meditation rooms, huge corridors, intricate tunnels, unbelievable traps and corners that make one lose their sense of direction were just some of the unknown underground structures located at the ancient site.

Yazıcı said a number of experts, academics and researchers attended the Kars Symposium, which was held at Kars' Kafkas University from Aug. 14 to 16. At the symposium, Yazıcı's presentation titled, "Underground Secrets of Ani," drew a lot of attention since no previous publications on the underground structures had been mentioned before.

Comment: Not long ago another underground city was discovered in the neighboring Turkey. The total size of this archeological site is almost 5 million square feet. Could there be a connection between two vast and complicated underground networks? And were they constructed to provide shelter during various calamities?


Magnify

How Americans supported and inspired the Nazis

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© Ian Waldie /Getty Images
A survivor of the Holocaust, Leon Greenman, displays the number that was tattooed on his arm at Auschwitz. The number is courtesy of IBM.

Unless We Learn Our History, We're Doomed to Repeat It


Preface: I am a patriotic American who loves my country. I was born here, and lived here my entire life.

So why do I frequently point out America's warts? Because - as the Founding Fathers and Supreme Court judges have explained - we can only make America better if we honestly examine her shortcomings. After all:
"Dissent is the highest form of patriotism."
Only when Americans can honestly look at our weaknesses can we become stronger. If we fail to do so, history will repeat ...

While Americans rightly condemn the Nazis as monstrous people, we don't know that America played both sides ... both fighting and supporting the Nazis.

Americans also aren't aware that the Nazis were - in part - inspired by anti-Semites in America.

Comment: All of this certainly begs the question: with such a strong undercurrent of Nazi-like or fascistic thinking in existence in the U.S. for so long, where exactly is all this psychopathic machinery leading towards? And what are their goals now besides making a boat-load of money? If past is prelude, what can we expect to occur in the future? And how much of the Nazi mentality has just gone 'underground'?

If any of these questions may be answered with the name of a single intelligence agency or organization, we can certainly single out the NSA or National Security Agency for this one. What the expletive do they do anyway?? By all accounts, they are several times larger than the CIA, several times more secretive, and are funded tens of Billions of dollars every year from U.S. taxpayer money. How exactly do they keep us secure, one might ask?

Perhaps the job of the NSA was never to keep the lives of Americans and its "allies" secure at all. Perhaps its raison d'etre has more to do with the absolute totalitarian control and domination of U.S. and world citizens than anything else. They do, after all, have technology and supercomputers that keep tabs on the activities of law-abiding citizens down to the minutia of when, exactly, one might be reading these words here. And that's just what we know about.

The NSA's systems of surveillance are not unlike IBM's Nazi punchcard system; only several orders of magnitude larger and more powerful. So what the hell are they going to do with it? To what end do they even see the need for such a thing?

For some more background on the NSA and an exploration of this subject, read: Project L. U. C. I. D. by Texe Marrs.

Then, to put the NSA into an even broader context, read the incomparable Wave Series by Laura Knight-Jadczyk.

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© Rick Baumer
NSA's massive new data center in Utah.



Meteor

Oil workers in Siberia find woolly mammoth remains

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© Flickr/ Tyler Ingram
The unique find, made in the course of the oil workers' land reclamation work, was made about fifty kilometers from the town of Nyagan, in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region in western Siberia.

Oil company workers in the area noticed a strange object sticking out of an excavator bucket in the course of their work removing the top soil near a forest in the area, which turned out to be the mammoth's tusk.

The workers stopped their excavation work and began digging with hand shovels, managing to find other remains, including the second tusk, the tibia, ribs, and fragments of the animal's teeth and jaw. The mammoth was said to have been buried approximately three meters underground.

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Massive underground city discovered in Turkey: Was it a shelter during various calamities?

© Dachalan/Flickr
A view of Nevşehir, a city near where the underground city was found.
In 2013, workers in Turkey looking to demolish low-income housing near a Byzantine-era hilltop castle stumbled upon something extraordinary: an expansive underground city that may have housed 20,000 people or more.

We think they actually found a huge Diglett sanctuary.

Located in the middle of the country near the provincial capital of in Nevşehir, the underground network has yet to be extensively explored by researchers. Archaeologists and geophysicists do have resources for their explorations in the form of a 300-year-old paper trail stretching all the way back to the Ottoman Empire.

"We found documents stating that there were close to 30 major water tunnels in this region," Nevşehir mayor Hasan Ünver told National Geographic.

In 2014, those documents led researchers to a multi-level underground village of living areas, wineries, chapels, and bezirhane-linseed presses for generating lamp oil. The research team was able to find numerous small artifacts, including stone crosses and ceramics. The artifacts reveal that the settlement was used from the Byzantine era all the way up to the Ottoman conquest, researchers said.

Comment: It seems illogical to construct such a vast underground settlement that has everything to sustain life for a long period of time, only in order to hide from the marauders. It appears that the real reason may be a very different one.

Also, nearly 135 years ago Gurdjieff discovered a similar underground city in the neighboring Armenia. Could there be a connection between two vast and complicated underground networks?