Science & Technology
Map


Syringe

Scientists invent injectable oxygen that keeps you alive without breathing

lab worker
© Ocean Networks Canada
Oxygen is great, you guys - it's pretty important to sustaining organic life and does particularly great things for us humans. The small caveat, though, is that we need to be able to breathe in order to make use of our atmospheric oxygen; if you can't - a collapsed lung or blocked windpipe, say - you'd typically be out of luck. Until now.

Scientists have developed a new microparticle filled with oxygen that can be injected into the blood stream, keeping you alive even if you can't intake air into your lungs. The microparticles are actually tiny capsules (2-4 micrometers tiny) made of a single layer of lipids surrounding a small bubble of oxygen gas. The capsule is suspended in a liquid so that the bubbles don't get any bigger (which would make them deadly, FYI).
Bulb

Bio-luminescent deep sea creatures may shed light on next generation of medical imaging

© Wim Van Egmond/Corbis
Sea Sparkle (Noctiluca scintillans) is a large, non-photosynthetic marine Dinoflagellate that is bioluminescent and causes the sea to glow.
Bioluminescent organisms may help doctors design better ways to scan human organs and make better diagnoses

In July, a team of scientists organised by the American Museum of Natural History will dive 300 metres below the Atlantic Ocean's surface about 160km off the coast of New England. Among their goals: to find bioluminescent creatures - such as the dinoflagellates that make their own light, causing the ocean to glow - that they hope will offer clues for creating the next generation of medical imaging.

The right combination of molecules - a protein that can make light and another compound to serve as the light's fuel - may allow us to map brain activity to a new level of detail. This advance may some day give quadriplegics new ways to interact with the world.

Though it seems futuristic, the back story for this line of research began 50 years ago. In the early 1960s, a Japanese marine biologist named Osamu Shimomura isolated a protein from the crystal jellyfish. When blue light is shined on the creature, this protein absorbs it, changes its wavelength and emits a green light. It is called green fluorescent protein, or GFP.

"That single protein literally changed the course of biology," says Vincent Pieribone, a neurobiologist at Yale. It also won Shimomura a share of the 2008 Nobel prize in biochemistry.
Boat

It may work: Modern day Noah makes tsunami proof boat


From his backyard in Palo Alto, Calif., Chris Robinson is building a tsunami-proof capsule out of epoxy and plywood that he hopes will be strong enough to survive a tsunami and save the lives of those inside it.

He's a user experience designer by trade and looks at everything as a challenge. "What could you do that you could just climb into in your backyard," Chris asked himself, "instead of climbing in your car and being chased by a wave?"

The earthquake and tsunami that devastated Fukushima, Japan, had a profound impact on him. Chris lived in Japan after college and taught English in Fukushima for a year. He met his wife there; many of the places that were destroyed by the tsunami were places he and his wife frequented when they were dating.

"The idea that tsunamis happen and have that destructive force and there really wasn't, at that time, any kind of viable plan to survive it other than just get to high ground," bothered Chris and was the challenge that lead him to build the capsule.
Question

Yellowstone Volcano Observatory scientists dismiss claims that volcano about to erupt

© American Dream
Yellowstone National Park assured guests and the public on Thursday that a super-volcano under the park was not expected to erupt anytime soon, despite an alarmist video that claimed bison had been seen fleeing to avoid such a calamity.

Yellowstone officials, who fielded dozens of calls and emails since the video went viral this week following an earthquake in the park, said the video actually shows bison galloping down a paved road that leads deeper into the park.

"It was a spring-like day and they were frisky. Contrary to online reports, it's a natural occurrence and not the end of the world," park spokeswoman Amy Bartlett said.
Satellite

Space station dodges 'space junk' again

The International Space Station had to dodge space junk again - the second time in less than three weeks.

NASA said the station fired its thrusters Thursday afternoon, moving up about half a mile, to avoid some parts from an old Ariane (a-ree-AN') 5 rocket. The European Space Agency launches Ariane rockets out of South America.

The junk would have come within 1,040 feet of the outpost. NASA said the six man crew was never in danger.

NASA spokesman Kelly Humphries said the space agency has had to consider sidestepping space junk dozens of times since the outpost was launched in 1998, sometimes canceling the orbital dodge at the last moment.
Info

Weird magnetic anomaly reveals ancient tectonic crash

Magnetic Anomaly
© USGS
Magnetic anomaly map of North America.
The east coast of North America was once as wild as the West, with massive mountains rising between colliding tectonic plates, volcanoes belching lava and giant faults slicing the crust.

That's because millions of years ago, eastern North America was part of Gondwana and Pangaea, the supercontinents that formed as Earth's tectonic plates collided, split apart, and then crashed together again before rifting and drifting toward the spots where they're located today. Though North America's east coast is relatively quiet now, clues to these ancient tectonic mash-ups remain buried deep underground.

A new look at one of these clues reveals that a weird magnetic signal near Florida shows the peninsula stuck to North America's heel like a piece of old tape about 300 million years ago, when the central and southern Appalachian mountains were built.

The rocks beneath Florida suggest the peninsula originally wasn't part of North America. Rather, it's a fragment of either Africa or South America, sutured onto the southeastern United States near an unusual feature called the Brunswick Magnetic Anomaly, researchers say.

The Brunswick Magnetic Anomaly is a geological feature that snakes from Alabama across Georgia, and offshore to North Carolina's Outer Banks. Anomalies in Earth's magnetic field are caused by structures such as faults, and by the varying magnetic intensities of different rock types. These slight differences in rock magnetism can be measured and mapped to find hidden geologic structures.
Cassiopaea

Electric Universe: Andromeda's mother

Cassiopeia A
© Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/UNAM/Ioffe/D. Page, P. Shternin et al; Optical: NASA/STScI; Illustration: NASA/CXC/M. Weiss
The remains of an exploding double layer known as Cassiopeia A with an artist’s impression of a theoretical entity called a neutron star.
Rather than searching for exotic explanations, this celestial object can best be described using plasma physics.

According to astronomers from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the so-called "supernova remnant" Cassiopeia A (or "Cas A") harbors a strange passenger within the neutron star that is supposed to inhabit its interior, a form of superconductor known as a superfluid.

As theory suggests, neutron stars form when large stars exhaust their fuel supplies as they age. Once a star with about five times the mass of our Sun accumulates enough thermonuclear "ash" composed of non-fusible elements like iron in its core, it undergoes a catastrophic implosion. Since nuclear reactions can no longer be sustained, the star becomes the victim of its own gravity field. The star's outer surface collapses inward at tremendous speed, rebounding off the dense core material. The star then erupts outward in a supernova explosion, blasting its outer layers into space, releasing X-rays, gamma rays, and extreme ultraviolet.

Depending on the mass of the star, the remaining stellar core material might remain as a hot, white dwarf star, or if it is large enough, the gravity field will pull all the electrons out of their atomic orbits and squeeze them into the nucleus, forming neutrons. The star will become what astrophysicists call a "neutron star" with unbelievable density and gravitational attraction. It is commonly said that a teaspoon of neutron star stuff would posses an inertial mass in the billions of tons. A neutron star is thought to exist at the center of the Cas A nebular cloud.
Info

'Zebra Stripes' in Earth's magnetic field have surprising source

Van Allen Probes
© Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
An artist's rendition of the two Van Allen Probes and the magnetic field that protect Earth from the worst of the sun's charged particles.
Strange stripelike features in Earth's magnetic field are caused by the planet's spin, and not by the constant bombardment of solar particles as previously thought, scientists say.

The so-called "zebra stripes" form when the electric field around Earth generated by the planet's rotation - previously thought to be too weak to impact the fast-moving particles - creates a striped pattern in the inner electron belt.

"Features similar to zebra stripes were previously inferred from low-altitude electron measurements," said lead study author Sasha Ukhorskiy of Johns Hopkins University in Maryland. Ukhorskiy was the lead author of the new study that examined the patterns of charged particles and modeled their interactions with Earth's rotation.

The "zebra stripes" were previously thought to be caused by the changing flow of particles streaming from the sun.

"It is because of the unprecedented high energy and temporal resolution of our energetic particle experiment RBSPICE - part of the Van Allen Probes NASA mission - that we now understand that the inner belt electrons are, in fact, always organized in zebra patterns," Ukhorskiy told Space.com via email.
Sherlock

Average Joes are better at predicting world events than CIA analysts

CIA
© Saul Loeb/AFP/Getty Images
A group of 3,000 ordinary citizens, armed with nothing more than an Internet connection, is often making better forecasts of global events than CIA analysts. Here, a man crosses the CIA logo at its headquarters in Langley, Va
The morning I met Elaine Rich, she was sitting at the kitchen table of her small town home in suburban Maryland trying to estimate refugee flows in Syria.

It wasn't the only question she was considering; there were others:

Will North Korea launch a new multistage missile before May 10, 2014?

Will Russian armed forces enter Kharkiv, Ukraine, by May 10? Rich's answers to these questions would eventually be evaluated by the intelligence community, but she didn't feel much pressure because this wasn't her full-time gig.

"I'm just a pharmacist," she said. "Nobody cares about me, nobody knows my name, I don't have a professional reputation at stake. And it's this anonymity which actually gives me freedom to make true forecasts."

Rich does make true forecasts; she is curiously good at predicting future world events.
Moon

Moon's age revealed?

Moon formation impact
© NSA/JPL-Caltech
This artist's illustration depicts a giant impact between the early Earth and a Mars-size object, a cataclysmic collision thought to have created the moon about 4.5 billion years ago.
Scientists have pinned down the birth date of the moon to within 100 million years of the birth of the solar system - the best timeline yet for the evolution of our planet's natural satellite.

This new discovery about the origin of the moon may help solve a mystery about why the moon and the Earth appear virtually identical in makeup, investigators added.

Scientists have suggested the moon was formed 4.5 billion years ago by a gigantic collision between a Mars-size object named Theia and Earth, a crash that would have largely melted the Earth. This model suggested that more than 40 percent of the moon was made up of debris from this impacting body. (Current theory suggests that Earth experienced several giant impacts during its formation, with the moon-forming impact being the last.)

However, researchers suspected Theia was chemically different from Earth. In contrast, recent studies revealed that the moon and Earth appear very similar when it comes to versions of elements called isotopes - more so than might be suggested by the current impact model. (Isotopes of an element have differing numbers of neutrons from one another.)

"This means that at the atomic level, the Earth and the moon are identical,"study lead author Seth Jacobson, a planetary scientist at the Côte d'Azur Observatory in Nice, France, told Space.com. "This new information challenged the giant impact theory for lunar formation."

Comment: From Cassiopaean experiment transcripts

1994-oct-22
Q: (L) When and how did planet earth acquire its moon?
A: Was caused by the regular passage of a large comet cluster which caused a gravitational disruption allowing a large chunk of the original earth's surface, which was somewhat less solid at that point in space/time, to break away from the main body and assume a locked in orbit around the main body.
Q: (L) When did this happen?
A: This occurred approximately 3 billion years ago.


Top