Secret History


DNA helps unravel the story behind past human migrations

© Cristina Valdiosera
Cristina working at the El Portalon cave dig at the anthropological site Atapuerca in northern Spain.
It's only a matter of time before we have a nearly complete genetic picture of the Neolithic in Europe, thanks to molecular archaeology, writes Dr Cristina Valdiosera.

Past human migrations have always been a subject of great interest because they tell us a story of where we come from, and who we are.

Molecular archaeology or archaeogenetics, is a new field that allows you to travel back in time and directly study the DNA of humans or animals in the archaeological record.

This has now opened the possibility to directly track ancient human migrations by analysing the genetic composition of past populations.

Among the subjects that I have been recently working on are the 'Peopling of the Americas' and the 'Neolithisation' of Europe: that is, the origin of agricultural societies. Both involve past human migrations.

The peopling of the Americas is of particular interest because this was the last mass of land on earth to be populated by humans.

But who were these people? Where did they come from? Are all Native Americans direct descendants of one single migration wave that populated the Americas only one time? Or were there several initial migration waves originating from different places?

By using the latest molecular technologies, the field of molecular archaeology has been unravelling some of the stories behind the past human migrations.


Ice Age skeletons discovered in Mexican underwater cave show evidence of early migrations to the Americas

© Christine Rondea / Roberto Chavez Arce
A cenote in Tulum, Mexico Inset: Ancient skull found in Tulum cenote.
In May last year, archaeologists made the exciting announcement that a complete Ice Age skeleton had been found in an underwater cave in Tulum, Mexico. Since then, more than eight well-preserved skeletons, ranging in age from 9,000 to 13,000 years have been retrieved from cenotes in Mexico and now scientists are beginning to unravel the secrets that they hold, remaining hopeful that the bones may eventually reveal how the Americas were first populated.

El Universal reports that three skeletons were found in the Naharon cenote, Los Palmas cenote, and the Temple cenote. Out of the eight sets of human remains, at least one of the individuals is believed to have accidentally fallen in the cenote - a natural pit resulting from the collapse of limestone bedrock that exposes groundwater underneath, while at least two of the skeletons were intentionally deposited. Cenotes were later used by the ancient Maya for sacrificial offerings.

Comment: See also: Skull in Underwater Cave May Be Earliest Trace of First Americans


Huge ritual monument found hidden near Stonehenge

© Ludwig Boltzmann Institute
A new line of stones has been found under Durrington Walls super-henge.
A huge ritual monument which dates from the time of Stonehenge has been discovered hidden under the bank of a nearby stone-age enclosure.

Durrington Walls, a roundish 'super-henge' has long puzzled archaeologists because one side is straight while the rest of the structure is curved.

As early as 1810, historian Richard Colt Hoare suggested that its shape had been left 'much mutilated' by centuries of agriculture.

But now ground penetrating radar has found that the straight edge is actually aligned over a row of 90 massive standing stones which once stood 15ft high, and formed a c-shaped arena which has not been seen for thousands of years.

The stone line, which curves into a c-shape towards one end, is likely to have marked a ritual procession route, and is thought to date from the same time as the sarsen circle at Stonehenge.


Legendary secret tunnels discovered beneath Puebla, Mexico

© Jose Castanares / AFP
A member of Puebla's city hall works in one of the tunnels discovered under the city on September 03, 2015 in Puebla, Mexico.
Talk of ancient tunnels in the Mexican city of Puebla has long been considered urban legend. But authorities have now confirmed their existence, and say the secret passageways could date back 500 years. The city hopes to turn the tunnels into an attraction.

The underground passages, which measure approximately seven meters high and three meters wide, were discovered during public works in the colonial city.

"In the urban narrative or urban legends there was word of the tunnels in Puebla, but nobody knew where they were, they had never been seen," Sergio Vergara Bermejo, manager of the Cultural Heritage and Historical Center of Puebla, told El Universal.


Low water level exposes thousands of Shiva Lingas in the Shalmala river

Recently, due to dry weather, the water level of the Shalmala river in Karnataka receded, revealing the presence of thousands of Shiva Lingas carved throughout the river bed. Because of these uncountable carvings, the place gets the name "Sahasralinga" (thousand Shiva Lingas).

Sahasralinga has become an important pilgrimage place. On the auspicious day of Mahashivaratri thousands of pilgrims visit Sahasralinga to offer their prayers to Lord Shiva. Each Lingam in the river has a matching carving of Nandi (the Bull carrier of Lord Shiva) facing it.

Shiva Lingas have been worshipped by Hindus for thousands of years. It represents divine power and energy. The worship of Shiva Linga was not confined to India only. Carvings of Shiva Lingas can be found throughout the world in nearly every ancient civilization.

Comment: "During Shivratri, thousands of pilgrims visit this place and offer pujas, a perfect time when the water level in the river is low and most of the Lingas are visible with their bases called Yonis. Each Linga also has an individual bull carved facing towards them. No one really knows when or who carved these Lingas but it is speculated that the King of Sirsi, Sadashivaraya may have ordered their construction during his reign from 1678 to 1718."


Ice Age fossils, including bones of ancient mammoths discovered at California construction site

© Cornerstone Communities
Workers dig up the fossilized bone of a prehistoric mammoth at the Quarry Creek development along state Route 78 in Carlsbad.
Fossils from the last Ice Age, including bones of ancient mammoths and a prehistoric bison, have been found at a Carlsbad construction site where hundreds of new homes are planned.

The fossils, 50,000 to 200,000 years old, were discovered earlier this summer during grading at Carlsbad's Quarry Creek, the San Diego Union-Tribune reported.

Work was halted while paleontologists carefully removed them.

"I said, 'Take your time, this is kind of cool,'" John Suster, the project superintendent for developer Cornerstone Communities of San Diego, told the newspaper in a story Thursday.


Discovery of ancient shipwrecks in Malaysia may force historians to rewrite history of South-East Asia

© YouTube, The Star Online
An ancient mast unearthed by archaeologistsat the Sungai Batu Archaeological Site, near Semeling, Malaysia.
Archaeologists have discovered a number of ancient shipwrecks lying in mud at the site of an ancient town called Kedah Tua in Malaysia. An investigation of the wrecks may force historians to rewrite the history of South-East Asia. The ships may predate the ancient city of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, itself more than 1,000 years old, by around 2,000 years.

The wrecks were detected by ground penetrating radar, enabling the archaeologists to reveal the outlines of more than five ships buried between five and 10 meters (16 and 33 feet) underground at the Sungai Batu Archaelogical Site, near Semeling. The site appears to have been one of the oldest civilizations in the region, reports New Strait Times Online.


Pottery brings to life the path of early Pacific people

© Susan Bulmer
Excavation of Wanelek archaeological site, New Guinea Highlands, in 1972.
A 3000-year-old fragment of pottery has solved a mystery behind the movement of an ancient people of South East Asia into the Pacific.

These ancient colonisers - known as Lapita - carried with them agricultural plants derived from mainland New Guinea. However, until now there has been no evidence of an early connection between the Lapita and indigenous New Guineans.

Now, a new analysis of pottery pieces found at a site in the New Guinea Highlands reveals a connection dating back to the time before the Lapita moved into the remote Pacific.

The discovery is important because "it is suggesting on the way to the Pacific, the Austronesian-speaking people who went on to become the ancestors of Polynesians actually went on to mainland New Guinea," says study co-author Dylan Gaffney, from the Department of Anthropology and Archaeology at the University of Otago.

"Until recently it was thought they bypassed New Guinea and just migrated via outlying islands but [this find] suggests the Austronesian-speaking peoples developed ties with people living in the New Guinea Highlands on their way from South-East Asia to colonise remote Oceania," Gaffney says.

The Lapita people left Southeast Asia and entered the Western Pacific 4000-3000 years ago. About 300 years later they started heading east to become the first people to settle on the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji, moving later to Samoa and Tonga.

Evidence of their settlement is found in the remains of intricately patterned pottery used for rituals.

Gaffney says the study, published today in PLOS One, is based on analysis of a number of pottery sherds excavated from Wanelek in the Kaironk River valley, in the New Guinea Highlands in the 1970s.

The research team returned to the excavation site recently and, using carbon dating technology, were able to date the site of the find to around 3000 years ago. Chemical analysis of the clay and temper on the pottery also revealed its manufacturing origin.

Gaffney says three technological factors - manual tempering, red slip, and paddle and anvil technique - found on the samples were indicative of Austronesian manufacture.

Eleven of the 12 pottery fragments analysed were made from materials found in inland New Guinea and then "traded up" into the Highlands. However one piece was manufactured along the northeast coast of New Guinea.

Arrow Down

Skeletons of Scottish prisoners provide evidence of child soldiers in Britain's civil wars

© The Independent, UK
Troops at the brutal Battle of Dunbar in 1650 may have been as young as 12.
Physical evidence that children were used as soldiers in Britain's mid-17th century civil wars has been discovered by archaeologists.

Investigations in Durham have identified the remains of up to 28 skeletons as Scottish prisoners of war including a dozen teenage soldiers, five of whom were aged 12 to 16.

They were taken prisoner after English parliamentarian forces defeated the pro-Charles II Scottish Presbyterian army at the Battle of Dunbar on 3 September, 1650.

Scientific and other investigations carried out by the Durham University show that they almost certainly died of malnutrition, disease and dysentery.

One 13-15 year old boy who may have been suffering from scurvy had infections in his leg and foot bones. A 14-15 year old appears to have been suffering from malnutrition for several years - and had had severe tooth decay and a leg infection. A 12-16 year old had leg and foot infections - and probably also suffered from rickets.


Japanese-American internment camps & Roosevelt's domestic 'War on Terror'

© Photo Illustration, Library of Congress
A new book traces how America discarded civil rights in the name of security during the forced internment of Japanese-American citizens—and how the policy ruined families and lives.

In early 1942, a World War I veteran named Hideo Murata went to see his local sheriff. The two were old friends, and Murata wanted to know if the stories he was hearing were true, that every person of Japanese descent living on the West Coast would be evacuated to an internment camp. Murata came bearing an "Honorary Citizen" certificate awarded for his Great War service. He showed it to his friend. The sheriff told him that the order would apply to citizens and non-citizens alike, and even war veterans. He would be evacuated with the others.

Murata said goodbye to his friend, rented a hotel room by the beach, and shot himself in the head. When his body was found, Murata was still clutching the certificate. It read: "Monterey County presents this testimonial of heartfelt gratitude, of honor and respect for your loyal and splendid service to the country in the Great War. Our flag was assaulted and you gallantly took up its defense."

Comment: The more one compares the internment of Japanese-Americans during WII to the false-flag events, rhetoric and institutionalized xenophobia aimed at Muslims throughout the world today - especially in the U.S. - the more it seems like those earlier events were some kind of 'trial run' or 'dress rehearsal' for what we're seeing now. At the very least, the pattern is uncanny and warrants serious reflection.

See also:

Turkish president accuses 'the West' of being behind Charlie Hebdo attacks and deliberately 'blaming Muslims'

Crusaders Message in PBS's "Crossroads" Series: Some Muslims Are Not Bad

Greenwald to expose massive NSA spying on American Muslims (even though the NSA must know about the nature of false flag attacks)

Call it genocide - 4 million Muslims killed by the US and NATO

Fox News contributor Erik Rush calls for all Muslims to be killed for Boston marathon explosions

...among, sadly, many many more articles that document their systematic and malevolent vilification.