Science & Technology


New research aims to shed light on a cosmological enigma - dark matter

dark matter
© Credit: University of Kansas / KU News Service
The distribution of dark matter in the universe as computed within the two-component flavor-mixed dark matter paradigm.
Astrophysicists believe that about 80 percent of the substance of our universe is made up of mysterious "dark matter" that can't be perceived by human senses or scientific instruments.

"Dark matter has not yet been detected in a lab. We infer about it from astronomical observations," said Mikhail Medvedev, professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Kansas, who has just published breakthrough research on dark matter that merited the cover of Physical Review Letters, the world's most prestigious journal of physics research.

Medvedev proposes a novel model of dark matter, dubbed "flavor-mixed multicomponent dark matter."

"Dark matter is some unknown matter, most likely a new elementary particle or particles beyond the Standard Model," Medvedev said. "It has never been observed directly, but it reveals itself via gravity it produces in the universe. There are numerous experiments around the world aimed at finding it directly."

Medvedev's theory rests on the behavior of elementary particles that have been observed or hypothesized. According to today's prevalent Standard Model theory of particle physics, elementary particles - categorized as varieties of quarks, leptons and gauge bosons - are the building blocks of an atom. The properties, or "flavors," of quarks and leptons are prone to change back and forth, because they can combine with each other in a phenomenon called flavor-mixing.
Blue Planet

How advanced are Earthlings on a cosmic yardstick?

evolution question
How far can we evolve and stay in balance with the earth and technology?
We humans like to think ourselves pretty advanced - and with no other technology-bearing beings to compare ourselves to, our back-patting doesn't have to take context into account. After all, we harnessed fire, invented stone tools and the wheel, developed agriculture and writing, built cities, and learned to use metals.

Then, a mere few moments ago from the perspective of cosmic time, we advanced even more rapidly, developing telescopes and steam power; discovering gravity and electromagnetism and the forces that hold the nuclei of atoms together.

Meanwhile, the age of electricity was transforming human civilization. You could light up a building at night, speak with somebody in another city, or ride in a vehicle that needed no horse to pull it, and humans were very proud of themselves for achieving all of this. In fact, by the year 1899, purportedly, these developments prompted U.S. patent office commissioner Charles H. Duell to remark, "Everything that can be invented has been invented."

We really have come a long way from the cave, but how far can we still go? Is there a limit to our technological progress? Put another way, if Duell was dead wrong in the year 1899, might his words be prophetic for the year 2099, or 2199? And what does that mean for humanity's distant future?

Comment: Back in March, 2013, NASA told Congress to "pray" if a meteor similar to the one that hit Russia is ever three weeks away from the U.S. During that House Committee hearing, NASA administrator Charles Bolden Jr. told Congress that the U.S. doesn't have the proper equipment to identify a small meteor (the size of Russia's meteor). Bolden said, "The reason I can't do anything in the next three weeks is because for decades we have put it off. We are where we are today because, you know, you all told us to do something and between the administration and the Congress, the funding to do that did not - the bottom line is always - the funding did not come." [This is pathetic. Let's start a war.]

As a species, we will not rise above a doomsday scenario as long as we allow lies, injustice and propaganda to blind us to what is real and secret agendas for the few to take priority over what is in all mankind's best interest and longevity. We apparently do not learn from our mistakes. If we haven't figured out why we are here and how to genuinely progress for the good of all, how will we stay the course, find our place in the balance of the universe and our connection to the realm of the cosmos? We will do what we will do...perhaps too little, too late. There are lessons...and apparently they are worth repeating.


Astronomers led by Southern Connecticut State University say that 50% all planets in the universe may have two suns

Astronomers led by Southern Connecticut State University say that half of all planets in the universe may have two suns. This image shows an artist's concept of the circumbinary planet Kepler-16b - the first planet known to definitively orbit two stars. The cold planet, with its gaseous surface, is not thought to be habitable
* The finding was made by observing stars already found to host planets

* The team found that 50 per cent of such stars were in binary systems

* This means more planets than thought are orbiting multiple stars

* Some of the planets may never-ending day time, while others would just have an unusually bright second star among others in their night sky

Imagine a world where it's never night time; when one sun moves below the horizon another takes its place, providing endless light.

This might sound like a sci-fi scenario, but research now suggests that this could be far more common than thought.

In fact, up to 50 per cent of stars hosting planets may actually be in binary systems, providing their worlds with odd characteristics not seen in our solar system.

Sunday's close flyby of asteroid 2014 RC

Asteroid 2014 RC
© NASA/JPL-Caltech
This graphic depicts the passage of asteroid 2014 RC past Earth on September 7, 2014. At time of closest approach, the space rock will be about one-tenth the distance from Earth to the moon. Based on brightness, astronomers estimate the asteroids’s size at 60 feet. Times indicated on the graphic are EDT or Eastern Daylight Time.
Guess who's dropping by for a quick visit this weekend? On Sunday, a 60-foot-wide (20-meters) asteroid named 2014 RC will skim just 25,000 miles (40,000 km) from Earth. That's within spitting distance of all those geosynchronous communication and weather satellites orbiting at 22,300 miles.

Size-wise, this one's similar to the Chelyabinsk meteorite that exploded over Russia's Ural Mountains region in February 2013. But it's a lot less scary. 2014 RC will cleanly miss Earth this time around, and although it's expected back in the future, no threatening passes have been identified. Whew!

New Silicon Valley in Crimea

General view from Ai-Petri peak in the Crimean mountains on Yalta
Crimea's authorities are looking at creating a kind of a Crimean Silicon Valley in the territory of the peninsula, acting head of republic Sergei Aksyonov said in an article that was published in the Rossiiskaya Gazeta on Wednesday.

He said such innovation hub would host advanced communications and microelectronics facilities. At the same time, he called to take into account experience and achievements of the Soviet-era periods. "We can recall the productions of Photon television sets, ship-repair plants and shipyards, canned foods industry, agro-industrial gardening and greenhouse facilities, unique production of essential oil plants, etc," the newspaper quoted him as saying.

He called to make more active use of advanced technologies in industrial and agrarian sectors. For these ends, he said it would be expedient to set up a Crimean branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

He said that the Crimean authorities were finalizing programmes of infrastructure development on the peninsula. A special council, in his words, was established to evaluate the quality and expediency of investment projects in Crimea.

"The most important thing for us is to see to it that an investor be registered in Crimea, pay taxes here and create jobs for locals," he said. He admitted that the current level of investments - of about 1.5 billion U.S. dollars - was not enough. "Investors are keeping a close eye on the development of the political situation linked with sanctions against Russia and Crimea.

Because existing methods of mass slaughter aren't efficient enough, US scientists working on mind-controlled drones for military use

University researchers in Texas say they are designing a new type of drone - one that could be controlled simply and only with a soldier's mind.

If successful, the project would allow soldiers to command future drones in ways beyond simple navigational commands. While troops would be able to order a drone to "move left" and "move right," it would potentially enable them to command the vehicles to travel over specific geographic installations and send critical data back to their operators.

According to My San Antonio, the project is currently underway at the University of Texas at San Antonio, where graduate students recently demonstrated a hovering drone operated via a cell phone app while one researcher sat - his head covered in sensors - and focused intently on the unnamed aerial vehicles' activity.

Comment: While the infrastructure is crumbling, a large percentage of the people are on food stamps, society is on the verge of collapse, the US government sees fit to spend huge amounts of money researching more efficient methods of mass killing. Those are all the signs of a collapsing empire, soulless, brutal and corrupted to the core. Those who learn from history know how it will end; those who do not, will perish.


Extinct underwater volcano discovered beneath Pacific Ocean

Underwater Volcano
© Image courtesy of the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center
The newly discovered seamount rises up some 3,600 feet (1,100 meters) from the seafloor near the Johnston Atoll, at a depth of about 16,730 feet (5,100 m) under the Pacific Ocean.
Lurking some 3.2 miles (5.1 kilometers) beneath the Pacific Ocean, a massive mountain rises up from the seafloor, say scientists who discovered the seamount using sonar technology.

The seamount is about two-thirds of a mile high (1.1 kilometers), researchers said. Seamounts, rocky leftovers from extinct, underwater volcanoes, are found on ocean floors around the world. The newly discovered seamount is about 186 miles (300 km) southeast of Jarvis Island, an uninhabited island in a relatively unexplored part of the South Pacific Ocean, experts said.

"These seamounts are very common, but we don't know about them, because most of the places that we go out and map have never been mapped before," James Gardner, a University of New Hampshire research professor who works at the university's NOAA Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center, said in a statement. [See Images of the Newfound Pacific Ocean Seamount]

Languages are being wiped out by economic growth

Chief Marie
© Natalie Fobes/Corbis Images
Chief Marie Smith Jones, the last speaker of the Eyak language in Alaska, died in 2008 at age 89.
The world's roughly 7000 known languages are disappearing faster than species, with a different tongue dying approximately every 2 weeks. Now, by borrowing methods used in ecology to track endangered species, researchers have identified the primary threat to linguistic diversity: economic development. Though such growth has been shown to wipe out language in the past on a case-by-case basis, this is the first study to demonstrate that it is a global phenomenon, researchers say.

Many people know about the threatened polar bear and extinct passenger pigeon, but few have heard of endangered and extinct languages such as Eyak in Alaska, whose last speaker died in 2008, or Ubykh in Turkey, whose last fluent speaker died in 1992, says Tatsuya Amano, a zoologist at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom and lead author of the new study.

It's well known that economic growth or the desire to achieve it can drive language loss, he notes - dominant languages such as Mandarin Chinese and English are often required for upward mobility in education and business, and economic assistance often encourages recipients to speak dominant languages.

Whereas specific case studies demonstrate such forces at work, such as the transition from Cornish to English in the United Kingdom and from Horom to English in Nigeria, this is the first study to examine losses worldwide and rank economic growth alongside other possible influences, he says.

Welcome to Laniakea, our new cosmic home

Laniakea Supercluster
© SDvision interactive visualization software by DP at CEA/Saclay, France
A slice of the Laniakea Supercluster in the supergalactic equatorial plane.
Using a new mapping technique that takes into account the motions -- and not just the distances -- of nearby galaxies, astronomers discovered that the Milky Way is located in the suburb of a massive, previously unknown super-cluster they named Laniakea, a term from Hawaiian words meaning "immeasurable heaven."

Actually, Laniakea's girth is measurable, though difficult to conceptualize. The super-cluster spans 520 million light-years in diameter, more than five times larger than the cluster previously believed to be the Milky Way's cosmic home.

A light-year is the distance that light, moving at a speed of 186,000 miles per second, travels in one year. One light-year is about 5.88 trillion miles.

Astronomers were able to identify the boundaries of Laniakea by charting the flow of more than 8,000 galaxies surrounding the Milky Way. By that yardstick, they discovered that the Milky Way, along 100,000 other galaxies, is sailing toward a region named the Shapley super-cluster.
Solar Flares

NASA imagery shows a late summer "flurry of flares" bursting from the sun

As summer is ending, NASA captures a series of solar flares, making for a fitting end to a sizzling season. Solar flares may affect communication signals but nothing major was reported during the event.
The sun produced a flurry of flares this week says NASA, unleashing over half a dozen in one day alone.

As summer draws to a close, the Sun decides to finish the season with a bang, releasing a number of solar flares as August winds down.

NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured all the action which peaked on Aug. 24. A mid-level solar flare started the event and soon more than half a dozen solar flares happened on the Sun's left side.

Solar flares are highly powerful bursts of radiation. The Sun had been experiencing increased activity lately and this has manifested in more than a handful of solar flares taking place in the past few days.

The biggest solar flare was the first solar flare reported for the event, an M-class flare which is known to be about 10 times smaller than the largest flare ever recorded, an X-class flare.