Signs Supplement - Meteors, Asteroids, Comets,
- August 2004
fainter now, Comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) will pass through the bowl of
the Big Dipper this month, making it easier for novice comet seekers
to find it. That also provides the perfect excuse to linger l
in the dipper, surely the most well-known group o
f stars in the
you get binoculars out to spy the comet, it's easy to find other
intriguing jewels and surprising quirks in the big pot with the
note that the writer of the following is not a native English speaker.
Also note that we offer it with the caveat that it sure sounds like
bunkum to us: a bit of truth and a lot of nonsense. What's scary
is that this is making the rounds among some semi-scientific circles...
Note particularly that the writer seems to advocate the "ETs
as "good guys" hypothesis and that they will smack us
only because they "love us." Yeah, right.
The "Doomsday Asteroid" Toutatis Exterminate Earth Civilization
I. Ivanenko, Ph. D.
Independent Inner Space explorer
Founder of Russian Initiative Group for the Defence of Earth
St Petersburg, RUSSIA Via Email
exopolitical background of Cosmic Threat)
there is fast approaching 29 September 2004: calculated by astronomers
more than a decade ago fateful moment of most close during entire
century approach to Earth of "doomsday asteroid 4179"
Toutatis (named by its influenced by ‘mystic apprehensions’
discoverers after dreaded God of Death of ancient Celts), there
is activated discussion between informed members of Global Leading
Edge community what this approach does portend to inhabitants of
Russia there exists an influential group of "politically active
Inner Space explorers" (called "The Internal Predictor
of Russia", allegedly supported by certain government agencies)
which is seriously concerned about possible results of this approach;
- which might, in their opinion, bring global-scale disaster similar
to that which had destroyed remains of Atlantis about 11 500 years
opinion is shared by a group of scientifically advanced opponents
of unlimited spreading of technologies for production of "free
energy" (especially of "free vacuum energy"); - which
are basing thei
r arguments on data extracted by numerous explorers
Akashic Archives: such as E. Cayce & various authors mentioned
by Sh. Andrews in her book "Atlantis: Insights from a Lost
Civilization" from ‘Akashic Archives’ of past Atlantean
- as believe competent Russian Inner Space explorers, - most valuable
data were obtained in ‘30s-‘40s in Nazi Germany by large
highly disciplined & trained team of Ahnenerbe psychics; - which
got direct order of Himmler to put as much efforts as possible into
psi-investigation of Atlantean technologies of "ultimate extermination".)
to their version, final destruction of (situated in the region of
present Bermuda Triangle) Atlantean metropolis, - which happened
about 11 500 years ago, - was brought about by precisely aimed strike
of medium-sized "killer asteroid"; - which had been directed
at its target by antigravity drives (upgraded variants of Podkletnov’s
disk) of battleships of Galactic Spacefleet, which were stationed
data of astronomical calculations made on basis of laws of "conventional"
Celestial Mechanics, - which demonstrate that Toutatis, during its
coming approach, will pass at a considerable distance (about 1 million
of miles) away from Earth, - may be not relevant in this case; -
because Toutatis’ trajectory could be "corrected"
by ETs - at
such moment when it’ll be already too late to
el it with the help of nuclear missiles or using other methods
requiring considerable preparation time.
use of, eg, controlled from Earth via radiochannels nuclear missiles
for defelection of asteroids’ trajectories, - as proposed
E. Teller, - might be conterproductive in case of "ET- guided
killer asteroids"; - as such missiles could be intercepted
by highly technologically advanced ET operators – and directed
back to Earth - as it happened with some of Mars probes.)
of Atlantis hadn’t been an act of unprovoked wanton cruelty
(says "official version", received by Russian contactees
during seances of mental communications with ETs): this drastic
action was undertaken (like US intervention into Iraq) only after
numerous warnings & ultimatums; - which demanded Atlantean government
to stop unauthorized by Galactic experts research in area of vacuum
energies (cf. "Iraqi WMD research").
said Galactic Ultimatum, "in absence of proper precautions
– which could be based only on profound theoretical knowledge
about Structure of Universe (which Atlantean scientists did not
possess, in opinion of Galactic experts) – blind clumsy tamperings
with powers of Cosmic Magnitude could bring disaster of Universal
scale, damaging protective armour of vacuum which protects fragile
body of physical Universe fr
om unimaginable fury of Cosmic Fire".
Regretfully, weak government of decaying Atlantean Empire could
not resist concentrated pressure of "populistically oriented
partisans of unlimited energy"; – whose tempting (as
proposals of con men) slogans of the type: "Unlimited Energy
of Space for (limitlessly multiplying: T. Malthus/G. Hardin) starving
masses" were enthusiastically supported by uneducated massess,
organically incapable to foresee long-term consequences of such
decisions. (Russian "ET climate expert" Dr Karnaukhov
says that these "partisans of unlimited energy" were abetted
& secretly guided by ‘Luciferites’: descendants
of fugitives from Venus; - which had been transformed into incandescent
hell by careless experiments wi th "free energy" of its
former ‘less than truly intelligent’ inhabitants –
which, in spite of their technological achievements, lacked common
writes an eminent American climatologist A. Bates in his publ. in
’90 popular book "Climate in Crisis" (with Foreword
by Al Gore, Dr Bates’ school friend), this situation is being
repeated now with striking similarity.
- with much regret, as They dislike very much to use physical violence
(or at least such is Their official position: cf. official position
of US Government Re Iraq), - Representatives of Galactic Government
were forced to take recourse to "ultimate arguments" in
o rder to save Earth & Universe from "terrible consequences
of reckless actions inspired by aggressive ignorance".
loving parent might slap a child playing with hand grenade, when
there isn’t enough time to act gently" – thus was
explained this ancient drama in psi-messages of "Public Representatives
of Galactic Government" to Russian ET contactees.
a proof of Their basically good intentions Galactic Messengers named
the fact that Their spaceships on sentry duty around Earth had no
special armaments; - so use of antigravity generators of spacecraft
engines for aiming of "killer asteroid" was an ad hoc/last
drawings of disk-based antigravity generators which formed key components
of engines of Galactic spacecraft are presented on Figs. 22 &
23 of "Two-Thirds" by D. Percy & D. Myers; Aulif Publ.,
easy to see similarity of these ET devices to widely publicized
after 1999, - see, eg, in publ in 2000 "Hunr for Zero Point"
by N. Cook & an article "Going Up" by D. Cohen in
12 Jan 2002 issue of "New Scientist", - disk-based "antigravity
generator" of Russian inventor Dr. E. Podkletnov; - which is
regarded by experts of US NASA as a possible
prototype of drives
of interstellar spaceships of the F
in ’96 in St Petersburg Leading Edge magazine "Terminator"
there was published my proposition to organize in 2004: "the
Year of Advent of Hell on Earth", as say Prophecies of The
Great Pyramid (see, eg, in J. Michell’s "A new View over
Atlantis" & other sources) Global Internet-based Meditation
for the Defence of Earth from Space Threat.
Meditation will allow to increase the level of inner coherency of
Global Psi-Field; - transforming it into an "active psychotronic
shield of Earth Defence", - impenetrable both to "gross
physical" (such as asteroid strike) & "subtl
(such as chaotic turbulent energies of ‘Photon Belt of Pleiades’)
published in ‘30s works of Russian Spiritual teachers N. &
H. Roerich and G. Gurdjiev it was said that similar techniques of
Defence of Earth from frequent then attacks of "space pirates"
were used by ancient global supercivilization whose metropolis was
situated in then free from ice Antarctica.
‘Energy of Big Bang’, - which this advanced civilization
could extract through ‘South Polar hypertunnel/Time Machine’,
- they could transform near-Earth vacuum into a kind of impenetrable
uum chain mail’: cf. picture on p. 76 of Feb. ’94
issue of "Scientific American".
this energy could be concentrated into sharply focussed psychokinetic
ray of irresistible power, capable to repel even most heavily armed
spaceships of cosmic aggressors.)
this connection it might be instructive to mention here data of
psychics which are investigating the history of extermination of
Martian civilization. Majority of explorers of Akashic Archives
of Solar System agree that it was destroyed by a frontal hit of
large asteroid, which tore away in a few seconds Martian atmosphere.
Russian psychics say that this "killer asteroid", - which
had been teleported via hyperspace by profe
ssional team of "ET
planet killers", - has emerged into "conventional space"
in front of Mars just a few fractions of second before impact.
of this possessing advanced enough defensive technologies Martians,
- which, however, hadn’t yet established reliable enough "Predictor
Service", capable to warn them timely about coming threats,
- were unable to take necessary measures of self-protection.
data presented in abovementioned "Two-Thirds" & "The
Montauk Project" by P. Nichols & P. Moon (Sky Books, 1992),
it’s possible to conclude that Martians tried (and almost
– before they were exterminated) to instal inside
The Great 5-sided Martian Pyramid (called ‘The Tor’
in "Two-Thirds") so-called ‘Aspis Crystal’;
- whose purpose was to defend entire Solar System from unauthorized
interventions from outside through altering of ‘crystal lattice
of vacuum’ – which’ll become impenetrable to ‘enemy
was demonstrated on abovementioned picture from "Sci. Am.",
this crystal lattice has "multispiral" structure resembling
that of quartz – or of created with the help of advanced ET
nanotechnologies "magic crystal" mentioned in SF novel
of f. DIA officer M. Caidin "Dark Messiah").
guess Russian explorers of history of Martian civilization, Martians’
efforts to realize this project had provoked their extermination;
- as "kangaroo court" of said space pirates (which called
itself by nobly sounding title of "Government of Galactic Federation")
naturally was against this.
may be drawn parallels with (unsuccessful, in this case) attempts
of British government in 18th century (and later) to thwart gaining
of independence by British colonies in America.
‘80s Spiritual Guru of Pentagon Meditation Club the late Swami
Satchidananda put forward the plan of Spiritual Defence I
based on creation, – with the help of
Global Meditation, -
of impenetrable "shield of Spiritual Defence" around entire
Earth; - which could prevent attacks of both inner & outer Enemies
of Earth, - repelling both nuclear missiles launched by "rogue
states" & "killer asteroids" directed by space
Meditations of Global Defence may be organized, using "Internet-upgraded
variant" of developed in ‘70s by Russian defence-oriented
psi-explorers computer-aided technique of precise intersynchronization
of psi-fields of crews of naval & spaceships.
intersynchronization, - allowing to form "group mind"
f ships’ crews, - helped to increase survival abilities of
these ships in emergency/battle situations; - increasing efficiency
of crewmembers’ teamwork & raising the level of captain’s
Sergeyev: director of Special Advanced Research Group of f. Soviet
Navy which had developed these techniques, used in his work research
materials of an eminent Russian Inner Space explorer Dr. Barchenko:
director of opened in ’25 first in the world government-sponsored
psi-research lab; - who had developed, already in ‘20s-‘30s,
efficient designs of collective meditations, - whose purpose was
establishing of psi-contact with Ascended Masters of Shamballa &
advanced cosmic civil
about these designs - also used by members of Dr Sergeyev’s
group - can be found in books of Roerichs’ Teachings. It’s
said that Dr Barchenko was ‘telepathically assisted’
in his work by Masters of Shamballa: Spiritual Capital of Earth;
- which was called in books of Roerichs "military camp of armed
Defenders of Earth".)
beginning of "perestroika", - when heretofore top secret
materials of Dr Sergeyev’s research were partially declassified,
- he addressed to his colleagues in other countries (which were
aware of his work thanks to ‘70s "international psychotronic
bestseller": known to all members of global psi-research community
book of S. Ostrander & L. Schroeder "Psychic Discoveries
behind The Iron Curtain") with proposition to use developed
by his group collective computer-aided ESP training technologies
for fast training of entire human crew of endangered Spaceship Earth
in difficult but necessary art of Defence of our Common Global Home.
meteor may have been what residents in Oklahoma, Texas and parts
of the south-central United States saw Wednesday night, officials
National Weather Service said it had received numerous reports of
a fireball in the sky around 9:30 p.m. from central and southwestern
Oklahoma to northern Texas and other parts of the South.
discussions with the Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency
Management Agency, the weather service said officials concluded
that what residents saw was likely a large meteor.
Clabes, a regional spokesman for the Federal Aviation Administration,
said there were no reports of missing aircraft in the area.
Tulsa, John Southern said he saw what he
thought was an airplane
on fire while driving near U.S. 75 in Tulsa.
looked like an airplane going down in flames really hard or fast
_ or space debris," said Southern, a freelance photographer.
"It was coming from a southwesterly direction."
he got a closer look, he saw that the object had a definite central
was just like a blob," Southern said. "I wouldn't say
it was a UFO, but I don't know. I thought surely something had happened."
aid the object flew to the southeast before he lost sight of it.
was just a flash in the pan. It was over in about three seconds,"
phenomenon occurred Dec. 1, 2001, when residents in Oklahoma, Texas
and Nebraska witnessed space debris breaking up as it entered the
reported seeing long streaks of light moving across the sky and
breaking into about 30 "little balls with tails."
you saw an unusual object light up the night sky Wednesday, you
people – some of whom thought a plane had crashed –
notified authorities and media outlets acros
s North Texas about
they saw was a meteor, said Alan Moller of the National Weather
Service in Fort Worth.
they're very small objects, they burn like mad," when they
enter the Earth's atmosphere, he said.
Barton, a member of the Texas Astronomical Society, agreed the object
might have been a meteor or what's called a bolide, an exploding
tend to be larger and move a little slower," he said. "They
will be in the sky for 10 to 15 seconds. Someone at a game can use
their vide o camera and capture it. ... If it was a bright, slow-moving
bolide, it could have been caught. There's been a spate of bolides
Barton said the object also might have been space junk, but he noted
that the Aquarids meteor shower is visible from mid-July to mid-August.
scientists sometimes can predict when meteors will make their entry,
this one was unexpected.
can expect another spectacular performance later this summer.
to NASA, the Perseid meteor shower will start in mi
d-July and peak
Aug. 12. It will be more visible in the Northern Hemisphere.
shower occurs as Earth travels into the periphery of a cloud of
debris from the comet Swift-Tuttle.
challenge standing view of how and when galaxies formed
Wednesday, July 07, 2004
glimpse back in time into the universe's early evolution has revealed
something startling: mature, fully formed galaxies where scientists
expected to discover little more than infants.
until now, we assumed that galaxies were just beginning to form
between 8 and 11 billion years ago, but what we found suggests that
that is not the case," said Karl Glazebrook, associate professor
of physics and astronomy in the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences
at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and co-principal author
of a paper in the July 8 issue of Nature. "It seems that an
pectedly large fraction of stars in big galaxies were already
in place early in the universe's formation, and that challenges
what we've believed. We thought massive galaxies came much later."
the Frederick C. Gillett Gemini North Telescope in Mauna Kea, Hawaii,
Glazebrook and a multinational team of researchers called the Gemini
Deep Deep Survey (GDDS) employed a special technique called the
"Nod and Shuffle" to peer into what had traditionally
been a cosmological blind spot. Called "the Redshift Desert,"
this era - 8 billion to 11 billion years ago, when the universe
was only 3 billion to 6 billion years old - has remained relatively
unexplored until now, mainly because of the challenges inherent
in collecting data from the faintest galactic light ever to be dissec
into the rainbow of colors called a spectrum. In all, the team collected
and analyzed spectra from 300 galaxies, making it the most complete
sample ever taken from the Redshift Desert.
was the most comprehensive survey ever done covering the bulk of
the galaxies that represent conditions in the early universe,"
Glazebrook said. "We expected to find basically zero massive
galaxies beyond about 9 billion years ago, because theoretical models
predict that massive galaxies form last. Instead, we found highly
developed galaxies that just shouldn't have been there, but are."
findings challenge the dominant theory of galactic evo
posits that at this early stage, galaxies
should have formed from
the bottom up, with small pieces crashing together to build small
and then ever larger galaxies. Called the "hierarchical model,"
this scenario predicts that normal-to-large galaxies such as those
studied by GDDS would not yet exist.
are obviously some aspects of the early lives of galaxies that we
don't yet completely understand, Glazebrook said. "We do find
fewer massive galaxies in the past, but there are still more than
we expected. This result is giving us a big clue as to how stars
form from invisible gas in the hierarchical model, which is something
not well understood under current theories. Some new ingredient
is required to make more stars form earlier in the big gala
But what that ingredient is, we don't yet know." [...]
July 9 (Xinhuanet) -- NASA scientists say solar s
torms might have
torn away the water that used to cover
parts of Mars.
monitored the after-effects of a monster solar storm that hit Earth
in last October and November. CRIENGLISH.com reported Friday.
think repeated battering by this kind of space weather could have
ripped away Mars' water veil.
to observations by the Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity, astronomers
believe Mars once had enough surface water to support life, but
they have not determined where that water went some 3.5 billion
think the solar radiat
ion events could have affected the surface
of Mars because the planet has so little protection.
Earth, only isolated zones of Mars has a protective magnetosphere
that guards the planet against bombardment by high-energy particles
during a solar storm.
blasts from unseasonable solar storms seen in late 2003 are just
now reaching the edge of the Solar System, scientists reported on
than a dozen coronal mass ejections - eruptions of super-heated
gas triggered by tangled magnetic fields on the Sun's surface -
shot from the star over a period of 20 days last October and November.
the events, which pointed in different directions because of the
Sun's rotation, radiation and high-speed particles surged ahead
of gas from the blasts themselves. On 28 and 29 October, that gas
reached Earth in record time - about 20 hours, sweeping past the
planet at five million miles per hour.
you look at the overall speed of the events - the sheer momentum
of it - it's the biggest event we've measured in space," University
of Michigan astronomer Thomas Zurbuchen told reporters at a NASA
unprecedented number of spacecraft tracked the blasts as they sped
outward from the Sun, producing a trove of data that may help scientists
predict the effects of future space storms. The blasts produced
auroras as far south as Flori da in the US, shut down power in a
city in Sweden, and forced astronauts aboard the International Space
Station to duck into a relatively well shielded service module.
hours after reaching Earth, the blasts hit Mars, which has no global
magnetic field to shield it from solar storms. The events disabled
a radiation-monitoring instrument on the orbiting spacecraft Mars
Odyssey. And computer simulations suggest they also blew
off part of the planet's upper atmosphere, an effect that
may have helped erode the planet's surface water over 3.5 billion
know there used to be a lot more water than there is right now.
Where did it go?" Zurbuchen said. "One of the key ideas
people are talking about is the connection to these space storms."
Ulysses spacecraft near Jupiter and the Cassini spacecraft near
Saturn both detected radio waves when the blasts slammed into the
planets' magnetic fields.
April, the blasts - slowed to 1.5 million miles per hour - even
caught up with the Voyager 2 probe, which has travelled about 7
billion miles from the Sun since its launch in 1977. And preliminary
data suggest they may have reached the Voyager
1 spacecraft, nearly
9 billion miles from the Sun this
Tuesday, eight months after erupting
from the star.
those distances, the Sun's magnetic influence begins to wane as
solar wind particles come into contact with particles from interstellar
space. The blasts are expected to temporarily expand - by 400 million
miles - the boundary of this heliosphere, which they will probably
reach by early 2005.
The "Halloween" solar storms in October-November 2003
launched billions of tons of electrified gas (plasma) that blasted
by Earth within a day and past Mars hours later.
The Halloween storms were the most powerful ever measured.
The storms broke all-time records for X-ray intensity and for speed
and temperature of the solar wind observed near Earth. About a third
of the total particle radiation emitted by the Sun in the last decade
in the deadly 30-50 MeV energy range came from these st
though the solar activity cycle was well pas
t its maximum.
The shocks created by the storms in the inner solar system not only
accelerated electrons and protons to high energy, they also trapped
the particles in the inner heliosphere. This resulted in elevated
radiation levels everywhere between Venus and Mars that decayed
only gradually over a period of weeks. This kind of event will have
significant implications for radiation protection requirements for
explorers who venture outside of the Earth's protective magnetosphere
-- Astronomers have discovered a planet orbiting a star in the constellation
Orion - without ever actually seeing it. They watched the star,
about 140 light-years or roughly 800 trillion miles away, and deduced
the presence of a planet by how much the star wiggled.
planet, called HD 37605b, is a gas giant at le
ast 2.8 times the
mass of Jupiter. HD 37605b zips around its star - HD 37605, near
the bright star Betelgeuse - once every 54 days.
is 123rd planet known beyond the solar system.
astronomers made the discovery, reported in Thursday's online edition
of The Dallas Morning News, using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope.
will be the first of many planets coming out of the HET," said
William Cochran, an astronomer at the University of Texas at Austin
and leader of the research team.
e uses 91 mirrors, each in the shape of a hexagon, to gather
light across a surface 30 feet across.
at the Gulf of Finland witnessed an unusual light phenomenon in
the sky on Monday night. This was due to a meteor shower rarely
seen in the area.
teams across the Gulf of Bothnia were inundated with calls reporting
red balls of light in the skies above the towns of Pietarsaari,
Kokkola and Himanka in central Finland.
to the air-sea rescue center in Vaasa, these were not distress rockets
sent by boaters, but a type of meteor shower rarely seen in Finland.
reported seeing balls of light moving quickly over the area, sending
out sparks clearly visible to the human eye. Later they changed
into white light balls, leaving a trail of smoke behind them.
SPACE.com -- A mission to smash
into a space rock to deflect it and study its structure has been
given priority over five other poten tial asteroid projects by
the European Space Agency.
slam-bang 'Don Quijote' mission would help scientists figure out
how to deflect or destroy any asteroid in the future that might
be found to be on a collision course with Earth. The project uses
the Spanish spelling of Don Quixote, the protagonist in Cervantes'
novel who has chivalrous ideas that tend toward the impractical.
lofty modern-day Don Quijote would help solve a practical problem.
don't know enough about asteroid insides to predict how one would
respond to attempts to nudge it off an Earth-impact course or turn
it into harmless dust. While no asteroids are curren
tly known to
be on track to hit the planet, experts say a regional catastrophe
is inevitable in the very long run-- over millennia. And run-ins
with small asteroids that could incinerate a large city occur ever
few thousand years.
want to investigate the internal structure of an asteroid, and at
the same time develop and test the technology necessary, in a worst
case scenario, to deflect a sizeable asteroid," says Andrea
Milani, an asteroid expert at the University of Pisa who is helping
to plan the mission.
largest city and the communist gia
nt's gleaming business hub, Shanghai
has decided to build a 60,000-square-metre multipurpose 'underground
multi-level 'underground city', four-storeyed in some places, will
be equipped with stores, garages, restaurants and all kinds of entertainment
centres and facilities, a Shanghai-based newspaper said.
is scheduled to be completed in 2006 and has been listed as a major
scientific and technological programme by the Shanghai municipality,
the Jiefang Daily reported.
construction of the 'underground city' will comprehensively utilise
the underground room o
f and around the existing subway pivots as
well as thei
r ground facilities.
reports quoting experts from the Shanghai municipal government said
due to lesser and lesser ground space in big cities, city dwellers
have now begun to favour underground stores and garages.
also said that they will build a sound ventilation system in the
'underground city' and introduce sunlight to build a greenbelt system
in places where conditions permit.
is China's largest city with a population of over 17 million.
649 has produced three X-class solar
flares: two on July 15th (0141 UT and 1824 UT) and
one, so far, on July 16th (0206 UT).
solar wind gust from the indicated coronal hole could reach
Earth on July 16th or 17th. Image credit: SOHO Extreme UV
of these explosions hurled a coronal mass ejection directly toward
Earth, so the chances for bright auroras remain
low despite the high solar activity.
solar activity should continue for days to come. Sunspot 649 has
a tangled "beta-gamma-delta" magnetic field that harbors
energy for more X-class solar flares. Meanwhile,
another big sunspot appears to be hidden on the far side of the
sun. Solar rotation will carry it over the sun's
eastern limb, and into plain view, as soon as July 17th.
were on alert in Finland on July 12th when reports of emergency
flares poured in from the Gulf of Bothnia. They soon realized that
no ship was in distress. The flares were "meteors." Johan
Geisor was on a photo-expedition in the Gulf; he saw a bright fireba
and took this picture of its smoky debris at 9:16 p.m. GMT: (continued
reports of the event (#1,
describe a slow-moving fireball, red and sparkling, perhaps shedding
sounds remarkably like a piece of re-entering space
junk--e.g., an old rocket engine or a satellite. Yet no such objects
to decay over Finland on July 12th. Likewise, no intense meteor
showers were due. What was this display? Probably
a small space rock disintegrating in Earth's atmosphere.
There have been two more X class flares
today, Friday, including one that clocks in at 3.1.
five in two days. And they're telling us the solar maximum
was three years ago Look at this graph:
instrument orbiting Mars may have detected a whiff of life on the
from a spectrometer aboard the European Space Agency's Mars Express
probe appears to have recorded radiation indicating pungent ammonia
gas in Mars' atmosphere, BBC News Online reports.
ammonia can survive for only a few hours in the Martian atmosphere
before breaking down, it must be constantly replenished from one
of two possible sources: active volcanoes — of which none
have been found on Mars — or microbes.
could be the key to finding life on Mars," a NASA scientist
told the BBC. "There are no known ways for ammonia to be present
in the Martian atmosphere that do not involve life."
is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen atoms. Nitrogen is rare in
the Mars environment, and researchers say the presence of ammonia
may indicate that Martian microbes may be hoarding it.
Signal -- Developed and planned over many years, the pioneering
Rosetta mission is one of the most challenging ever undertaken
in the history of space exploration.
In May 2003, however, engineers were
presented with a new challenge when ESA's Science Programme Committee
announced that comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko would replace comet
46P/Wirtanen as Rosetta's objective. [...]
historic touchdown on the pristine surface of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko
is expected to take place in November 2014. "We anticipate
a landing on the 'summer' side of the nucleus, where there is
maximum illumination," said Philippe
Kletzkine's email states:
Subject: Article re Rosetta
website contains an article about "Rosetta Ready to Land
on Larger Comet".
publication infringes on copyrights. In addition, some material
you have added is factually incorrect. Other cannot be correctly
you removed key material.
are requested to remove this article from your publication immediately.
European Space Agency
which Ark responded:
Subject: Re: Article re Rosetta
Date: 16/07/2004 16:16
believe you mean http://quantumfuture.net/signs/signs303.htm
the case that concerns you, there is no "article" to
remove. We are quoting representative paragraphs (in this particular
case 8 lines), with links to the original publications.
it is physically impossible to remove "the article".
you never heard about "fair use", or you have wrong
understanding of what it means.
for what is factually correct or incorrect, you are invited to
send us a correction, and we will publish it and respond to it.
dr. Arkadiusz Jadczyk
which Mr Kletzkine responded:
To: Arkadiusz Jadczyk
Subject: Re: Article re Rosetta
Date: Fri, 16 Jul 2004
Allied Signal has nothing to do with the Rosetta achievement.
Quoting "Allied Signal" at the very beginning of the
article robs the European Space Agency and the companies that
did participate in this achievement of receiving proper credit.
This is not "fair use". Therefore I ask you again to
remove your item, whether you call it an "article" or
whether you call it something else. Besides, the 8 lines that
were arbitrarily extracted, because they leave out information
contained in the original article, make it sound like it was a
sudden whim of the Science Program Committee that changed the
target comet and are therefore projecting an inaccurate image
of ESA's programs.
European Space Agency
given high priority by Europe's space agency
's space chiefs have backed a suicide mission which will end in
a head-on collision with an approaching asteroid.
so far know of about 1,200 objects in space more than half a mile
across which might one day
collide with Earth.
impact with a large object from space 65m years ago helped wipe
out the dinosaurs. Even a much smaller object
could cause widespread
devastation. But so far, the in
terception of asteroids has happened
only in Hollywood disaster movies.
European Space Agency's near-Earth object advisory panel has recommended
high priority for a Spanish mission to smash into a distant asteroid.
you think about the chain of events between detecting a hazardous
object, and doing something about it, there is one area in which
we have no experience at all and that is interacting directly with
an asteroid, trying to alter its orbit," said Alan Harris,
chairman of the advisory panel.
mission, named Don Quijote, will use two spacecraft. One, called
Sancho, will head for a target asteroid 500 metres (1,540ft) in
diameter and go into orbit around it for at least seven months.
It will drop detectors to measure the asteroid's internal structure.
second spacecraft, Hidalgo, will be launched at the same time but
approach on a longer orbit - and smash into the asteroid at more
than 22,000mph, while the first spacecraft watches the fireworks.
collision would hardly stop the asteroid in its tracks but it might
slow it on what could be a collision course with Earth.
is just to test a technique: can we change their orbits by runnin
a kinetic energy impactor?" said Matt Genge, an
at Imperial College, London.
we change its orbit by less than a centimetre per second? If we
ever find an asteroid that is on collision
course with Earth, at some point in the future, whether it is 10
orbits away, or 20 orbits away, just giving it a small nudge will
make it miss the Earth."
year Dr Genge calculated that a steady push might be more effective
in steering an asteroid away from a collision course.
worked out that a thrust equivalent to that from a Reliant Robin
could deflect a 1bn tonne asteroid in just 75 days.
Don Quijote mission takes its name from Cervantes' novel, and the
scene in which Don Quijote tilts at windmills while Sancho Panza
watches from a distance.
this case, Don Quijote is fighting an asteroid," said José
Gonzales of Deimos Space, which planned the mission.
Spanish scientists will now look for partners for the mission. With
international cooperation, Don Quijote could be launched between
2010 and 2015. Hidalgo will be the first true attempt at deflecting
it won't be the first direct assault on one of the solar system's
loose cannonballs. In December Nasa will launch Deep Impact, which
will fire a copper projectile into a comet, deliberately gouging
out a crater.
a European space mission called Rosetta is on its way to an encounter
with a distant comet in 2014.
9 July 2004, the Near-Earth Object Mission Advisory Panel recommended
that ESA place a high priority on developing a mission to actually
move an asteroid. The conclusion was based on the panel's consideration
of six near-Earth object mission studies submitted to the Agency
in February 2003.
the six studies, three were space-based observatories for detecting
NEOs and three were rendezvous missions. All addressed the growing
realisation of the threat posed by Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) and
proposed ways of detecting NEOs or discovering more about them from
a close distance.
of six experts, known as the Near-Earth Object Mission Advisory
Panel (NEOMAP) assessed the proposals.
Harris, German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Berlin, and Chairman of NEOMAP,
task has been very difficult because the goalposts have changed.
When the studies were commissioned, the discovery business was in
no way as advanced as it is now."
a number of organisations
are building large telescopes on Earth
that promise to find a very large percentage of the NEO population
at even smaller sizes than visible today."
a result, the panel decided that ESA should leave detection to ground-based
telescopes for the time being, until the share of the remaining
population not visible from the ground becomes better known.
need for a space-based observatory will then be re-assessed. The
panel placed its highest priority on rendezvous missions, and in
particular, the Don Quijote mission concept.
you think about the chain of events between detect
ing a hazardous
object and doing something about it, there is one area in which
we have no experience at all and that is in directly interacting
with an asteroid, trying to alter its orbit," explains Harris.
Don Quijote mission concept will do this by using two spacecraft,
Sancho and Hidalgo. Both are launched at the same time but Sancho
takes a faster route.
it arrives at the target asteroid it will begin a seven-month campaign
of observation and physical characterisation during which it will
land penetrators and seismometers on the asteroid's surface to understand
its internal structure.
will then watch a
s Hidalgo arrives and smashes into the asteroid
at very high speed. This will provide information about the behaviour
of the internal structure of the asteroid during an impact event
as well as excavating some of the interior for Sancho to observe.
the impact, Sancho and telescopes from Earth will monitor the asteroid
to see how its orbit and rotation have been affected.
says, "When we do actually find a hazardous asteroid, you could
imagine a Don Quijote-type mission as a precursor to a mitigation
mission. It will tell us how the target responds to an impact and
will help us to develop a much more effective mitigation mission."
9 July, the findings were presented to the scientific and industrial
community. Representatives of other national space agencies were
also invited in the hope that they will be interested in developing
a joint mission, based around this concept.
Galvez, ESA's Advanced Concepts Team and technical officer for the
NEOMAP report says, "This report gives us a solid foundation
to define programmatic priorities and an implementation strategy,
in which I also hope we are joined by international partners".
international cooperation, a mission could be launched as early
meteorites impact our planet several times a year, and—despite Hollywood's doomsday scenarios—life
on Earth survives. Almost all of these meteorites are from asteroid
collisions that occurred 3 to 60 million years ago.
study suggests, however, that the violent destruction of an asteroid
can create a long-lasting rain of meteorites. The space rocks would
be delivered to Earth by a "meteorite express," the study
travel time to our planet: a mere hundred thousand years.
research, which is described in tomorrow's edition of the science
ournal Nature, was conducted by scientists who studied meteorites
preserved in 480- million-year-old sediments in southern Sweden.
scientists found that the meteorites contained gases produced by
cosmic rays that suggest the meteorites' transfer to Earth occurred
much faster than for more recent ones.
data led researchers to conclude that a violent collision in our
solar system's distant asteroid belt 500 million years ago produced
meteorites that traveled to Earth in a relatively scant hundred
the first physical confirmation of unusually short transfer times
[of meteorites] after a major asteroid collision,&
quot; said Philipp
Reza Heck, the report's lead author. Heck studies cosmochemistry
at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.
research was partially funded by a grant from the National Geographic
Society's Committee for Research and Exploration.
general term "meteor" comes from the Greek meteoron, meaning
"phenomenon in the sky." Meteoroids, in particular, are
fragments of asteroids produced by collisions.
in our solar system spend most of their time in the asteroid belt
betwee n Mars and Jupiter, unless they encounter a phenomenon known
as orbital resonance and change course.
is a meteoroid that reaches the surface of the Earth without being
completely vaporized by the Earth's atmosphere.
most meteoroids are rocky in composition, some are almost pure metal.
meteorite showers can only occur after a very large collision between
asteroids. Such events have been rare in the last billion years
of the solar system's history.
say that meteorite showers are also r
are because Jupiter's titanic
gravitational pull diverts much of the space debris before it has
a chance to venture toward Earth.
phenomenon known as orbital resonance plays a key role in the "meteorite
express" described in the new study. Resonance occurs when
two orbiting bodies exert a gravitational influence on each other.
Heck explained: "If a [meteoroid] goes into an important orbital
resonance with Jupiter, for example the 3:1 resonance, then while
Jupiter goes once around the sun, the [meteoroid] circles the sun
small object experiences periodically a gravitational tug from
Jupiter, and its orbit gets changed quite fast," he said.
efficient transfer of asteroid material into the inner solar system—the
basis of the so-called meteorite express—only happens when
an asteroid collision occurs close to a resonance, however.
the fragments are injected into the resonance, their orbital shape
is changed rather quickly until they become Earth-crossing,"
Heck said. This is what has happened in the distant past, scientists
and his colleagues studied meteorites that measured several centimeters
in diameter. They were found in Thorsberg, a rock quarry in southern
500 million years ago the meteorites, of a type known as chondrites,
fell into a shallow sea. There, they were covered with fine-grained
marine sediments and well preserved.
analysis showed the meteorites were all of the same class, the so-
called L chondrites class. Scientists believe that L chondrites
come from a precursor to the Flora family of asteroids, a prominent
group of asteroids circling the sun near the inner edge of the asteroid
belt. Most L chondrites experienced a major gas loss 500
million years ago, which is best explained by a violent collision
transfer time [of these meteorites] to Earth is around a hundred
thousand years, consistent with a long-lasting rain of meteorites
after the destruction of an asteroid and the existence of at least
one trajectory [in which] material was flung towards the inner solar
system," Heck said.
findings do not contradict present scientific thinking about the
rate at which meteoroids can travel. But the short transfer times
suggested by the new study are at the very low end of theoretical
analysis shows again what happened hundreds of millions of kilometers
away can eventually make for a real bad day on Earth," said Bruce
Betts, director of projects at the Planetary Society in Pasadena,
sunspot number soared this weekend when sunspot 652 and its companion
'spot 653 emerged over the sun's eastern limb. Sunspot 652 is big,
about the size of the planet Jupiter, and easily seen from Earth.
Both sunspot 652 and, especially, sunspot 649 pose a threat for
powerful X-class solar flares.
NOAA forecasters estimate a 40% chance of such
a flare during the next 24 hours. Warning: Don't look directly at
CAIRO (Reuters) - A series of f ires in the southern
Egyptian province of Sohag has destroyed some 160 houses, giving
rise to rumors that spirits are at work or mysterious balls of fire
are falling from the sky, a local official said Sunday.
the causes are mundane -- kerosene stoves, cigarette butts and electrical
short circuits, Brigadier Ezzat Aboul Kassem told Reuters. Flaming
pigeons, their feathers set alight in the blazes, may explain talk
of balls of fire, he added.
children have died in the fires, which started last month, and about
30 people have been injured, either from burns or from smoke inhalation,
security officials said.
Aboul Kassem, who is director of police
investigations in Sohag, said the number of fires was higher than
usual this year, at 25 for the first half of July against 15 in
the same period last year, possibly because the weather has been
have shown that there are burned pigeons on top of some of the burned
houses and it's probable that they fell there after catching fire
at other houses," he said. "Maybe that explains the rumors
of balls of fire falling from the sky."
sunspot group aimed squarely at Earth has grown to 20 times the
size of our planet and has the potential to unleash a major solar
amorphous mix of spots, together called Number 652, has been rotating
across the Sun and growing for several days. On Friday, it sat at
the center of the solar disk.
are areas of intense magnetic energy, cooler and darker than the
surrounding surface of the thermonuclear furnace. Sometimes the
magnetic fields let loose and huge amounts of radiation and charged
particles are hurled into space.
The Sun's last bout of intense
storminess occurred last fall, when a string of 10 major flares
over two weeks knocked out satellites, damaged others, and forced
the FAA to reroute airlines away from exposed polar routes.
one can say if this sunspot group will let loose with a major storm,
but it has the characteristics of a potentially big event.
implications of this spot have scientists on the edge of their seats,"
NASA said in a statement Friday. "If the active region generates
coronal mass ejections (CMEs), massive explosions with a potential
force of a billion megaton bombs, it w ill be a fairly direct hit
to Earth and its satellites and power grids."
Sun is now in a generally quiet period of a well-known 11-year cycle
of activity. But sunspots and flares can occur at any time. Scientists
do not fully understand why the spots appear or how they erupt.
Summer is the season for shooting
stars, and this year could be among the best as the annual Perseid
meteor shower promises to be better than usual.
Anyone gazing at the summer night sky for even a short length of time
now through the end of August is likely to spot a few streaks of
otherworldly light. In general, the Earth encounters richer meteoric
activity during the second half of the year.
best meteor display of the summer comes during the second week of
August, during the Perseid event. At its peak around the nights
of Aug. 11 and 12, the shower can produce 50 to 100 fast, bright
meteors per hour for any observer with a wide-open view of a dark
year will be a n excellent one to watch for the Perseids, partly
because bright moonlight will not interfere as in past years, and
also because Earth might encounter a heavier concentration of meteoric
debris, astronomers predict, leading to better than normal meteor
the southern Austrian province of Carinthia, a "very bright"
appearance of light has been observed on 2.35 on Monday, 26. July.
According to local astronomers at the observatory in Klagenfurt,
the phenomenon was, "with high degree of probability",
an unusually large meteor.
eyewitnesses claim that the size of the apparition was comparable
to the full moon.
article claims that meteors burning in the atmosphere can be expected
to be observed two or three times per year at most. However, the
article goes on that on 2.17 (correct time?) another "unusual
light apparition" has been seen in the sky. The astronomer
of the observatory explains that this was caused by one of the 70
satellites belonging to the telephone system "Iridium",
which fly at a height of 300 km above ground and can be "as
bright as the street light of a car" when the sun's light is
caught on its surface.
huge meteor has been seen in the skies over central Victoria.
have been reports of a big red and blue light streaking over the
Castlemaine area just after 1:00am AEST today.
Senior Constable Sharon McEachern says she was on patrol duty with
a colleague in Maldon when she saw the light in the sky.
says it was a spectacular sight that lasted about 15 seconds.
bright blue light going across the sky...not coming straight down
and it just had a large blue tail and a bright red ball and then
as it went across it just exploded into pieces, so I'm not sure
whether it was a comet, or a meteor, or what it was," she said.
were lucky enough to record the spectrum of a bright meteor when
it happened - by sheer chance and against all reasonable odds -
to cross the narrow slit of the FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very
Large Telescope in Chile.
the time of this unlikely event, the telescope was performing a
series of 20-minute spectroscopic exposures of a supernova in a
distant galaxy in order to establish constraints on the dark en
ergy content of the Universe. Thanks to its enormous light-collecting
and magnifying power, the VLT recorded the spectrum of the meteor
trail perpendicular to its path on one of these exposures. "We
really hit the jackpot", says ESO astronomer Emmanuel Jehin:
"The chances of capturing a meteor in the narrow slit of the
FORS1 spectrograph are about as big as for me winning the national
spectra have on occasion been obtained serendipitously during photographic
star spectra surveys. But this is now perhaps the only meteor spectrum
recorded with a large telescope and a modern spectrograph. The spectrum
covers the wavelength range from 637 to 1050 nm, which is dominated
by emission s from air atoms and molecules in the meteor path and
t each us about the collision processes in the wake of a meteoroid.
rapid motion of the meteor across the sky resulted in a very brief
exposure while crossing the narrow spectrograph slit - only 1/50
of a millisecond - and despite the relative brightness of the meteor
it was only thanks to the VLT's great light-gathering power that
any record was procured. The meteor was estimated at magnitude -8,
or nearly as bright as the first-quarter Moon.
it is not possible to be sure from which shower this meteor belongs,
a possible candidate is the Southern May Ophiuchid shower which
appears from a direction just east of the bright star Antares. The
shower contributes only one or two meteors per hour but was one
of the stronger showers of that night.
meteorite which streaked across the lower North Island sky in the
ea rly hours of this morning is believed to have gone into the sea
off the east coast in the southern Wairarapa area.
police central communications centre said the meteorite had been
seen by pilots from several aircraft.
had been described as quite bright, white and green, breaking up
as it crossed the lower North Island, a spokesman said.
had received five reports from people who had seen the meteorite
from Hawke's Bay to the upper South Island.
Radio reported pilots had narrowed the landing point of the meteorite
to the sea northeast of Cape Palliser in southern Wairarapa.
Paul Lee of Masterton police said he had seen a bright orange line
in the sky, brighter in the front and fading away towards the back.
was a flash in the sky, a definite line."
reportedly seen in New Zealand skies early today are thought to
possibly be from the Perseid meteor shower. [...]
was also a report of a meteorite in Waitakere City around 6.35am.
Barlow, a 32-year-old IT worker from Auckland, said he was driving
east on Hobsonville Rd when he saw a bright object about the size
of a softball cross the sky in front of him.
was probably a thousand feet high, and had a tail about 20-feet
long that was a bright luminous green."
Barlow said the meteorite was visible for 5-8 seconds, and he presumed
it had landed in the Hobsonville air force base.
new type of cosmic explosion that occurred late last year could
shed light on the death of massive stars, astronomers say.
was more powerful than supernovae, explosions marking the death
of a huge star, but weaker than gamma-ray bursts, the mysterious
and most brilliant blasts in the universe.
was stunned that my observations ... showed that this event confirmed
the existence of a new class of bursts," said Alicia Soderberg,
of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., who
reported the finding in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature.
"It was like hitting the jackpot."
had thought all gamma-ray bursts had a standard energy and the same
intrinsic brightness until the discovery of the cosmic blast that
occurred on Dec. 3, 2003, and is known by its date of birth, GRB
this new event we realize it is not true. There are sub-energetic
bursts that are less luminous with fainter emission, which means
there is not a standard energy," Soderberg said in an interview.
"Perhaps there is some sort of continuum between the two explosions
that we didn't realize before."
Closer and weaker
The new blast occurred about 1.6 billion light-years away. A light-year
is about 6 trillion miles (10 trillion kilometers), the distance
light travels in a year. It was also much closer than other gamma-ray
bursts and about a thousand times weaker.
do not know what causes gamma-ray bursts. They are thought to occur
when stars collapse possibly to become a black hole, or even when
two black holes merge.
objects are thought to have a huge gravitational pull from which
nothing can escape. But just last month, cosmologist Stephen Hawking
said he believes some material oozes out of black holes over billions
of years through irregularities on their surface.
and future bursts
Scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy
of Sciences, in Moscow, who also observed the cosmic blast and reported
it in Nature, believe other similar blasts have occurred but have
not been detected. In 1998, astronomers reported an extremely faint
gamma-ray burst called GRB 980425.
Swift mission, which is due for launch in autumn and will study
gamma-ray bursts, could provide more information about the explosions.
is an intriguing discovery," said Shrinivas Kulkarni, a pr
ofessor of astronomy and planetary science at the California Institute
of Technology and a co-author of one of the reports.
expect a treasure trove of such events to be identified by NASA's
Swift mission," he said in a statement. "I am convinced
that further discoveries and studies of this new class of hybrid
events will forward our understanding of the death of massive stars."
million years ago it was awash with oceans of water. Now it is desert
dry. But research published today shows that organic life could still
be lurking on Mars.
Scientists will be poring over a slew of papers published by the teams
from the US space agency Nasa reporting the results garnered from
the two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, that landed at the beginning
of this year and are still exploring oppos ite sides of the Red Planet.
Even bef ore today's formal publication in the journal Science, many
scientists were abuzz over the earliest of the findings, which suggested
that water once flowed all over the surface, and is now sequestered
beneath it, probably still in liquid form. Furthermore the gas methane,
normally associated with biological activity, has been detected in
"Their findings such as sedimentary rocks [which indicate oceanic
activity] are very exciting," said Professor Colin Pillinger,
of the Open University, who led the team that developed the European
Space Agency's Beagle 2 lander.
"And they are also saying that there's methane in the atmosphere
there - which must mean a continuous supply, or it would disappear.
My preference is that [methane] is generated through a biolo gical
supply - even the reprocessing of already-dead biological material
by another living source."
For Professor Pillinger the findings lend extra frustration to the
loss of the Beagle 2 lander, last heard of heading towards the Martian
atmosphere on Christmas Eve. But he declined to express regret: "We'll
get there one day," he said. "I wrote a letter to Nasa three
weeks ago suggesting a Beagle 3 lander as a stand-alone element to
be included with their 2009 Mars Science Laboratory mission. "
He has yet to hear back from the agency.
The work represents the most thorough geological examination ever
of a planet other than Earth, offering key insights into how its development
resembled and departed from that of our own.
The key surprise, said Dr Karl Miller, of the planetary science group
at Lancaster University, was the discovery of rock outcrops - which
in turn indicated how the planet's surface was eroded. He said: "Most
of Mars is covered with a thin veneer of dust, from millions of years
of wind erosion. That means you can't see much of what's been going
on, geologically speaking."
But seeing an outcrop told scientists what they needed to know: that
the rocks were formed by water action, and that huge volumes of water
must have flowed over the surface.
"Currently, the surface of Mars is incredibly dry," Dr Miller
said. "But we think there's water in the poles, as ice, and underground.
It must have been driven to the surface by volcanic activity until
relatively recently - about 10 million years ago. That's only 1 per
cent of Mars 's lifetime, because it is 4.5 billion years old. If
it could happen then, it could happen again."
The deep-lying water had to be liquid, because it would be impossible
for a volcano to melt enough ice quickly enough to flood the areas
shown to have been affected. "It would require about one million
cubic metres per second, which would be devastating on Earth,"
Dr Miller said.
The plethora of findings has deepened understanding of Mars, and justified
the $820m (£510m) cost of the landers - which are still working,
having long outlasted their planned mission of 90 Martian days, 92
Earth days. Funding to run the landers runs out at the end of September.
However, Dr Miller said it was still important eventually to send
humans to investigate the planet. "A geologist can notice things
and react in a way a machine can't," he said. "But right
now you can't get humans out there, and robots are becoming extremely
impressive - what these ones did wouldn't have been possible a few
Professor Pillinger cautioned: "I don't think it would be responsible
to send people until we're sure that there's life there. And we should
be very careful about bringing it back."
649, which unleashed five X-class solar flares in July, has returned,
and it's growing again. Witness this 3-day (Aug. 6th - 8th) animation
from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory: [Link]
649 is the one on the left. If the active region continues to develop,
it could soon pose a renewed threat for strong solar flares.
CITY -- It likely was not a UFO that crashed in the desert east
of the city Thursday night, but it also was not an airplane as initially
reported to authorities.
Firefighters and law enforcement officers
were called to the area of Landon Drive and Highway 68 at about
9 p.m. with a report of an airplane that crashed into the desert.
City Fire Marshal Jim Dykens said the reporting party met with authorities
and said they saw what appeared to an airplane exploding and crashing
in the desert somewhere between the highway and Oatman. It was also
reported the explosion was followed by three smaller bursts that
appeared to be emergency flares.
assistance from the Department of Public Safety Ranger helicopter,
the Bullhead City Fire Department searched the area from the north
and the Oatman Fire Department looked from the south, b ut found
outcome was they really believe that it was a large mortar that
was shot off and then some other bottle rockets or other type fireworks,"
peak of Perseid meteor shower is expected in the Arizona skies around
Aug. 11 or 12, said Steele Wotkyns, public relations manager at
the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff
There goes another bug on the windshield. Anyone who's ever driven
down a country lane has seen it happen. A fast moving car, a cloud
of multiplying insects, and a big disgusting mess.
next time that happens to you, instead of feeling grossed out, try
thinking of the experience as an astronomy lesson. Your car is Earth.
The bugs are tiny flakes of comet dust. The carnage on your windshield
... it's a meteor shower
love the analogy: Earth, like a speeding car, races around the Sun
sweeping up everything in its path. There are no insects in space,
but there are plenty of meteoroids, little flakes of dust from comets
and asteroids. They hit Earth's atmosphere--splat--and disintegrate
as fiery streaks of light called meteors.
called bolides--flaming meteors that race across the sky at tremendous
speed and explode. They aren't terribly common. Yet, such a meteor
caught the attention of many around 1 a.m. Monday as it st reaked
above the Chicago area, initiating a sonic boom. The bolide was observed
by an air traffic controller at O'Hare and by the pilots of incoming
aircraft, according to FAA spokeswoman Elizabeth Isham Cory. Ground-based
observers called police in Park Ridge, Norridge and Chicago to report
the event. Area astronomers suggested the fiery meteor may have been
part of the annual Perseids display, which peaked a week ago. But,
it may also have been a piece of earthbound space junk or a "sporadic"--a
single isolated meteor--added astronomer Dan Joyce, who says bolides
can travel at speeds up to 150,000 m.p.h. 50-60 miles above earth,
but slow and heat up as they enter the denser lower atmosphere.
Cassini spacecraft has discovered two new moons at Saturn that may
be the smallest bodies seen so far around the ringed planet, according
to a NASA press release.
moons, provisionally named S/2004 S1 and S/2004 S2, are 3 kilometers
and 4 kilometers across and 194,000kilometers and 211,000 kilometers
from the planet's center. They are between the orbits of two other
saturnian moons, Mimas and Enceladus. The August 16 press release
says one moon, S/2004 S1, may be an object spotted in a single image
taken by NASA's Voyager spacecraft 23 years ago, at that time called
moons were first spotted by Dr. Sebastien Charnoz, a planetary dynamicist
working at the University of Paris. "Discovering these faint
satellites was an exciting experience, especially the feeling of
being the first person to see a new body of our solar system,"
Charnoz said. "I had looked for such objects for weeks while
at my office in Paris, but it was only once on holiday, using my
laptop, that my code eventually detected them. This tells me I should
take more holidays."
smallest previously known moons around Saturn are 20 kilometers
across. Scientists expected that moons as small as S/2004 S1 and
S/2004 S2 might be found in gaps in the rings and perhaps near the
F ring, so they were surpri sed that these small bodies are between
two major moons . Small comets careening around the outer solar
system would be expected to collide with small moons and break them
fact that these moons exist where they do might provide limits on
the number of small comets in the outer solar system, a quantity
essential for understanding the Kuiper Belt of comets beyond Neptune,
and the cratering histories of the moons of the giant planets.
Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European
Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. [...]
woman believes she was struck by a meteorite while hanging out washing.
Aguss, 76, from Lowestoft, Suffolk, felt a sharp pain in her arm
and when she looked down there was a one-inch gash along her forearm
She blamed a peg bag but the next day husband Jack, 76, spotted
a walnut-shaped metallic rock on a garden path.
made inquiries and are pretty certain it was a meteorite fragment.
I knew a linen peg bag couldn't have caused a cut like that,"
metallic sheen and shape of the rock gave clues to its true identity.
Aguss said: "It's rusty coloured and you can see a few crystal
pieces in it.
"They mentioned on TV that a meteorite
shower was due and that's when I first thought that that is what
the piece of rock could be.
dread to think what could have happened if it had hit her on the
head - she was extremely lucky," he added.
meteorite makes it through the atmosphere and falls to Earth each
week on average, according to David Fagg, secretary of Norfolk Astronomers.
there is a only one in a billion chance that anyone will be hit
by one and there are no records of anyone being struck before, he
"This is an extremely rare event. One hit a car in America a few years
ago but, as far as anyone knows, that was the closest a meteorite
has come to a human," said Mr Fagg.
tests would have to be carried out on the suspect meteorite before
anyone could say for certain that it did fall from the sky, he said.
often resembled pieces of rock left over from an industrial smelting
woman believes she was hit by a meteorite fragment while hanging
out her washing.
Aguss was in the garden when she felt a searing pain and noticed
a cut on her arm . She said: "It looked black and peculiar.
I went indoors and put a plaster on."
was not until the next day that her husband Jack found a walnut-sized
rock on the path. Mrs Aguss, 76, of Lowestoft, Suffolk, said: "It
was an odd shape and you could see a few small crystals in it.
is when we realised it might have been a meteorite and now, after
talking to people who know about these things, we are 99 per cent
certain." The odds against being hit by a meteorite are billions
to one. On average one a week falls to earth but most are burned
up as they enter the atmosphere at 40,000mph.
Astronomical Society chairman Mark Lawrick-Thompson said: "There
is a good chance this is a meteorite. It is very rare indeed to
- An international team of astronomers has described five new moons
satellites may be captured asteroids, the researchers
say in T hursday's issue of the journal Nature.
Planetary scientist J.J.
Kavelaars of the National Research Council of Canada in Victoria,
B.C., and his colleagues first announced the discovery in 2003.
the researchers have described the orbit of the five outer satellites.
say the moons orbiting giant planets fall into two classes:
Large moons, orbiting close to the parent planet and in a prograde
manner, meaning they follow the rotational direction of the planet.
Irregular, often small mo ons, distant from the planet and orbiting
in inclined, eccentric and often retrograde or opposite direction
to the planet.
largest moon, Triton, was discovered in 1846 and is as large as
Pluto. Titan follows a retrograde orbit.
discovered in 1949, is small with an eccentric orbit.
Voyageur 2 spacecraft identified six more tiny moons in 1989. Since
then, moons were found orbiting other giant planets, but the absence
of discoveries for Neptune had led scientists to theorize Triton's
violent capture destroyed the planet's outer satellite system.
addition of five new moons of Neptune may cause scientists to cast
aside the theory.
we report the discovery of five irregular moons of Neptune, two
with prograde and three with retrograde orbits," the researchers
wrote. "These exceedingly faint
... moons, with diameters of 30 to 50 km, were presumably captured
researchers theorize the moons may have formed from collisions.
team said the next step is to study the colour of the faint satellites
and look for more satellites to determine the origin of the moons.
using satellites have mapped huge craters under the Antarctic ice
sheet caused by an asteroid as big as the one believed to have wiped
out the dinosaurs 65m years ago.
Frans van der Hoeven, from Delft University in the Netherlands,
told the conference that the evidence showed that an asteroid measuring
between three and seven miles across had broken up in the atmosphere
and f ive large pieces had hit the Earth, creating multiple craters
over an area measuring 1,300 by 2,400 miles.
effect would have been to melt all the ice in the path of the pieces,
as well as the crust underneath. The biggest single strike caused
a hole in the ice sheet roughly 200 by 200 miles, which would have
melted about 1% of the ice sheet, raising water levels worldwide
by 60cm (2ft).
the climatic conditions were different at the time of the strike
- about 780,000 years ago - from when the asteroid that is believed
to have wiped out the dinosaurs struck Yucatan in Mexico.
impact created dust storms and fires that, by blocking o ut the
sun, cooled the Earth's atmosphere so much that the dinosaurs could
not survive. The Antarctica strike occurred during an ice age, so
even tidal waves would have been weakened to mere ripples by the
calming effect of icebergs on the ocean.
Van der Hoeven first realised that there may have been a giant asteroid
strike in the Antarctic while on an expedition across the continent
in 1960 when he noticed severe anomalies in the gravity from the
rocks below, indicating a crater. By coincidence another scientist
had concluded that a giant event must have occurred around 780,000
years ago somewhere in the southern hemisphere, probably Antarctica.
it was not until this year, when two satellites operating above
Antarctica began to map the anomalies in the gravity, that the scale
of the crater emerged. The mapping showed that the holes in the
rock created by the strike had refilled with a mixture of ice, rock
and other debris far less dense. This material, called breccia,
shows where and how deep the craters are.
Van der Hoeven said: "The extraordinary thing about this meteor
strike is that it appeared to do so little damage. Unlike the dinosaur
strike there is no telltale layer of dust that demonstrates the
history of the event. It may have damaged things and wiped out species
but there is no sign of it."
One thing that did happe n at exactly the same
time was the reversing of the Earth's magnetic field. There is no
other explanation as to why this took place and Prof Van der Hoeven
believes it was caused by the impact.
A few mysterious rocks were found
on Tuesday at a resident’s home in Turlock. Home owner’s
Albert and Lisa Darmousseh believe that the rock fell from the sky.
The couple thinks the fist-sized rocks are meteorites, possibly
from Mars, but it has not been confirmed the small boulders are
anything other than ordinary rocks.
people were watching the Olympics on Monday night, including the
Darmoussehs, until Lisa was disrupted by a loud noise that she described
as a thump.
thought a tree fell in my backyard because the noise was so loud
so I went outside and didn’t see anything. The n ext day I
went in the backyard to walk my dog and disco vered the first meteor.
At first I thought it was left over from my dog but then I noticed
it was smoking, Lisa Darmousseh said.
was not expecting this at all. I am very excited and I feel lucky
that it happened here. Something like this to happen to us is amazing,
Albert Darmousseh said. At first I was shocked and didn’t
know what it was. I never saw anything like it. I thought it was
a mushroom or poop but then I saw that is was smoking and when I
picked it up, it was hot so then I thought maybe it came from the
closest observed asteroid yet to skim past the Earth without hitting
the atmosphere, was reported by astronomers on Sunday.
previously unknown object, spanning five to 10 metres across, has
been named 2004 FU162. It streaked across the sky just 6500 kilometres
- roughly the radius of the Earth - ab ove the ground on 31 March,
although details have only now emerged.
MIT Lincoln Laboratory's asteroid-hunting LINEAR telescope in Socorro,
New Mexico,US, observed the new object four times over a 44-minute
period, several hours before its closest approach in March.
astronomers, who have discovered over 40,000 asteroids and comets
since 1980, quickly recognised the object came exceptionally close,
and posted their findings for confirmation on a web page run by
the Minor Planet Center at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
by the time it was posted the object had moved into the daytime
sky, so follow-up observations were impossible and the listing was
quickly removed. A search for prior observations yielded no results.
-- Jupiter's atmosphere still contains remnants of a comet impact
from a decade ago, but scientists said last week they are puzzled
by how two substances have spread into different locations.
The new study also discovered two previously undetected chemicals in Jupiter's
what chemical compounds are in and above the Jovian clouds and how
they move about could help scientists understand planets outside
our solar system, too, said the researchers who produced the work.
July 16 through July 22, 1994, more than 20 fragments of Comet P/Shoemaker-Levy
9 collided with the gaseous planet, all coming in at about the same
latitude, 45 degrees south. Fragments up to 1.2 miles (2 kilometers)
sent plumes of hot gas into the Jovian atmosphere. Dark scars lasted
Shocks created by the impacts led to high-temperature chemical
reactions that produced hydrogen cyanide, which remains in the air
but has been spread around a bit in the years since. The comet also
delivered carbon monoxide and water, which through an interaction
with sunlight, scientists suspect, was converted to carbon dioxide.
Cassini spacecraft, now at Saturn, examined Jupiter as it swung
by. The new study draws on infrared data from Cassini collected
in 2000 and 2001.
hydrogen cyanide has diffused some both north and south, mixed by
wave activity, explained Michael Flasar of NASA's Goddard Space
Flight Center. Jupi ter's cloud bands carry material around the
planet swif tly, but the bands do not mix easily. Not surprisingly,
hydrogen cyanide is most abundant in a belt at the latitude where
the comet was absorbed. At five degrees of latitude change in both
directions, its presence drops off sharply.
highest concentration of carbon dioxide, however, has shifted away
from the latitude of the impact. It is most prevalent poleward of
60 degrees south and decreases abruptly, toward the equator, north
of 50 degrees south. Another smaller spike in its presence occurs
at high northern latitudes, around 70 to 90 degrees north.
the two chemicals got distributed at different altitudes, and are
being moved around by different currents, Flasar said. Or maybe
the formation of the carbon dioxide was more complex than thought.
He said it might have involved carbon monoxide first moving away
from the impact area and then interacting with other substances
at higher latitudes before being converted to carbon dioxide.
high latitudes, precipitation of energetic oxygen ions probably
occurs, associated with Jupiter's magnetically induced lights, known
as aurora," Flasar explained. "These energetic ions could
react with Jupiter's atmosphere to produce hydroxyl, which can oxidize
carbon monoxide to produce carbon dioxide."
all that sounds complicated, you're not alone in wondering what's
scratching our heads, and we need to work through these, and perhaps
other, scenarios," said Flasar, who is principal investigator
for Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer.
study, led by Virgil G. Kunde of the University of Maryland, was
published Thursday in the online version of the journal Science.
work also uncovered two new compounds, diacetylene and a so-called
methyl radical, which are products of the breakup of methane by
ultraviolet radiation from the sun. These were expected but had
not been observed at Jupiter before.
far as astronomers know, the more than 100 giant planets found outside
our solar system might be something like Jupiter. Only one has had
its atmosphere probed. Better knowledge of the substances in Jupiter,
and how things move around, should help set the stage for grasping
the formation and evolution of gaseous extrasolar planets, the researchers
understanding of the processes governing the composition and distribution
of chemical species in Jupiter's atmosphere is required to successfully
understand the chemical composition of extrasolar planets,"
they write in the journal.
in Georgia's Dodge and Bleckley counties have for years picked up
small pieces of natural glass called "Georgiaites," which
were produced by an unknown asteroid or comet impact millions of
years ago. Just where these small, translucent green objects came
from, however, was unclear.
researchers at the University of Georgia, studying a kaolin mine
in Warren County, have found a layer of tiny grains, which indicate
that the grains and the Georgiaites were products of a recently
discovered impact that left a huge crater beneath the waters of
the Chesapeake Bay. "We knew we had these tektites here, but
we'd never found them in place," said Michael Roden, a geologist
and part of the research team. "We believe this layer is further
evidence that the Chesapeake Bay impact was an enormous event with
research was published in the August issue of the journal Geology.
The work was spearheaded by UGA g raduate student Scott
Harris (now with Brown University) in collaboration with Roden,
Paul Schroeder and Steven Holland of UGA, Ed Albin of Fernbank and
Mack Duncan of J.M. Huber Corporation.
are brown to green glassy objects, generally small and rounded,
and thought to be of extraterrestrial origin. The only other state
in the United States where tektites have been found in abundance
is Texas. Some 1,700 have been found in Georgia to date, and potassium-argon
geochronology has dated them to around 35 million years of age.
Chesapeake Bay impact crater was only discovered about a decade
ago, but before the current discovery, there was no known dep osition
layer from it extant, and it was unclear whether Georgiaites were
the result of the cataclysmic collision of the Chesapeake Bay bolide
with the Earth. ("Bolide" is a generic term for an impacting
now-unused kaolin mine in Warren County where the discovery was
made was near the sea's edge in ancient times. This former shore,
now across the central part of Georgia, is more or less coincident
with the Fall Line, and marks the place where ancient seas lapped
the land. The impact in the Chesapeake Bay clearly caused a huge
amount of material, both from the Earth and the asteroid, to become
airborne, and the layer -- discovered at a depth of 25 feet in the
kaolin mine -- was probably laid d own by the event.
was an active time: In the period
between 34 million and 37 million years ago, at least five comets
and/or asteroids collided with the Earth. Since some of the events
may have caused climate alterations and caused at least regional
disruptions of ecosystems, knowing more about the
ejecta from the impacts is important.
layer reported in Geology is perhaps the most easily accessible,
undisturbed layer of materials that probably came from the Chesapeake
Bay impact and can therefore add knowledge about that event. The
search for the layer, led by Harris, led to the discovery of so-called
shocked quartz -- grains whose physical "thumbprint" mark
them as having originated from the extremely high pressures characteristic
of an impact event.
how big the explosion was when this celestial visitor hit the Earth
is unclear, but Roden said it was many times bigger than such events
as the explosions of Mt. St. Helen's or even Krakatoa.
- A layer of quartz grains found in an east Georgia kaolin mine
have been traced to the impact of a giant asteroid that crashed
near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay 35 million years ago.
54-mile-wide crater left by the meteor, the sixth-largest in the
world, has previously been identified as the source of
a rare mineral called Georgiaite. Small, glassy, olive-green beads
of it have been found for decades in more than a dozen middle Georgia
are a type of impact-produced natural glass called tektite.
Albin, a tektite expert at Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, steered
research into the substance toward the open kaolin mines that dot
the center of the state. Sandwiched between layers of clay in an
abandoned kaolin mine in Warren County, a team of researchers headed
by University of Georgia graduate student Scott Harris, found traces
of the impact.
analysis, reported in the curren t issue of the journal Geology,
revealed a 3-inch-thick layer of "shocked quartz" - a
form of the mineral produced only under intense pressure like that
of an impact - that dated to 35.5 million years ago,
when a space rock slammed into the Earth about 120 miles
southeast of present-day Washington.
asteroid, believed to be about two miles wide, was traveling at
tens of thousands of miles an hour when it struck on what is now
the Chesapeake's Eastern Shore.
estimate that the debris from the blast rose more than 30 miles
into the air, spreading melted bits of sand and sediment - including
Georgia's tektites and the newly discovered layer of sho cked quartz
- for thousands of miles.
the Warren County discovery is the first known deposit of its kind,
scientists say the diagnostic layer of glassy quartz grains - which
probably blanketed much of the East Coast - could, with the discovery
of deposits in other locations, become a valuable yardstick for
There were reports of a meteor
in the skies over central and southern New South Wales and Victoria
last night. font>
stations from the New South Wales central coast to Shepparton in
Victoria received calls about the object.
Joe Fitzpatrick from Goulburn Police saw the object at 11.30pm AEST
while on patrol.
the north of the town, I saw a very bright light in the sky - similar
to a very large flare. It just illuminated the entire sky for a
very brief time and disappeared," he said.
Fitzpatrick says it looked like a fireworks display.
"Well it had a slight tail.. .it was like a skyrocket,
but extremely large."
may have caused a stir on earth, but a bright light over south-western
NSW last night was not a meteor, an astronomer said today.
stations from Mount Druitt to Goulburn received dozens of phone
calls reporting an extremely bright light and two explosions about
11.3 0pm (AEST) yesterday.
Goulburn police sergeant Joe Fitzpatrick
was on patrol in his police car when he saw an intense light in
the sky to the north-west.
was a bluey-green colour ... certainly bright enough to attract
the attention of all those around me," Sgt Fitzpatrick said.
moving light brightened for several seconds and then burned out,
I first saw it I thought it was a firework or a flare. I'd compare
it to the PolAir helicopter turning its light on," he said.
The light was most likely caused by nothing more than space
junk burning up, said astronomer Vince Ford, from Canberra's Mount
like a bit of space junk, a piece of old rocket casing or a fuel
cell," Mr Ford said.
best guess: a small bit of aluminium rocket casing, causing an extremely
bright blue-green light as it burned (out)."
said the metal was unlikely to have made a sound entering the atmosphere
30km above Earth.
tens of thousands of pieces of discarded shuttle materials congesting
earth's atmosphere such sightings were becoming more frequent, Mr
many people believe to be shooting stars are actually stray nuts
and bolts burning up on re-entry," he said.
up to 10 meteors were visible in an hour in a dark sky, spotting
a piece of space junk as large as last night's sighting was still
reasonably rare, he said.
some people still believe the devastating Siberian event was caused
by space aliens
Thursday, Aug. 26, 2004
any people are more gullible about Unidentified Flying Objects than
Americans, it's the Russians. And if any group of professionals
is more gullible than Russians about UFOs, it's the journalists.
This truism was confirmed again this month when, around the world,
wire services and other press outlets straight-facedly reported
a new claim that a UFO had been involved in the great Tunguska catastrophe.
Tunguska? T hat's the then-uninhabited
region in Siberia where in 1908 a mammoth explosion leveled and
charred trees and killed wildlife over an area of 800 square miles.
That night in northern Europe and western Russia, the skies glowed
with an eerie light and in London, for example, it was light enough
outside to read a newspaper. The lone human being in the area, a
trapper living near the periphery of the blast, was blown off the
porch of his shack, but survived. Had the explosion occurred over
London, say, or New York, the casualties would have been counted
in the hundreds of thousands.
scientists today believe that the Tunguska event was caused by an
asteroid or a comet that heated so rapidly upon plunging into the
atmosphere that it blew up some five miles above the surface with
an explosive force of 10 to 15 megatons. But that conclusion is
far too rational for Russians like scientist Yuri Lavbin, who heads
the Tunguska Space Phenomenon public state fund. It was Lavbin who
in July announced that he would lead an expedition to Siberia and
stated, "We intend to find proof that not a meteorite but an
extraterrestrial spaceship crashed with the Earth."
might suggest that Lavbin was predisposed to making a remarkable
discovery. And that is precisely what happened. A Russian scientific
team headed by Lavbin scoured the Tunguska site early in August
and breathlessly announced that it had found the remnants of an
extraterrestrial spacecraft, in the form of a large metallic block.
After sending a 50 kilogram chunk of the block to a laboratory for
testing, Lavbin chose not to await the results. "I can make
an official announcement that we were saved by some forces of a
superior civilization," he proclaimed. "They exploded
this enormous meteorite headed toward us with tremendous speed.
Now this great object that caused the meteorite to explode is found
announcement was greeted by loud raspberries from reputable scientists.
Interviewed by Space.com, British researcher Benny Peiser, who runs
the CCNet website, a scholarly forum devoted largely to asteroid
impacts and other potential natural threats, called the Russian
report "a rather stupid hoax." He was equally critical
of the press: "It's a rather sad comment on the current state
of anything-goes attitudes among some science correspondents that
such blatant rubbish is being reported."
this came as no surprise to science writer James Oberg. In his 1982
book, "UFOs and Outer Space Mysteries," he had traced
the origins of the Russian Tunguska UFO obsession to a science fiction
writer named Kazantsev, who wrote a story attributing the mighty
blast to an exploding nuclear power plant of a spaceship from Mars.
Other Russians took the bait. Astronomy lecturer Feliks Zigel, who
was also a flying saucer enthusiast, became a spokesman for the
"spaceship" theory of Tunguska, and a scientist named
Aleksey Zolotov, be gan claiming, almost annually but without proof,
that h e had found radioactivity at the blast site.
predicted that the Tunguska spacecraft story, in various forms,
would endure and that gullible members of the press would continue
to be hoodwinked by Russian UFOlogists. More than two decades later,
his prediction stands unchallenged.
This little article is quite interesting in that it reminds us of
a remark made by Charles Fort as follows:
a wretch of an ultra-frowsy thing in the Scientific American,
7-298, which we cond emn ourselves, if somewhere, because of the
oneness of allness, the damned must also be the damning. It's
a newspaper story: that on June 5, 1852, a powerful blast, in
Dorchester, Massachusetts, cast out from a bed of solid rock a
bell-shaped vessel of an unknown metal: floral designs inlaid
with silver; "art of some cunning workman." The opinion
of the Editor of the Scientific American is that the
thing had been made by Tubal Cain, who was the first inhabitant
of Dorchester. Though I fear that this is a little arbitrary,
I am not disposed to fly rabidly at every scientific opinion.
are not disposed to fly rabidly at the scientific opinion expressed
in this piece for the simple reason that we, too, are convinced
that the Tunguska explosion was "caused by an asteroid or a
comet that heated so rapidly upon plunging into the atmosphere that
it blew up some five miles above the surface with an explosive force
of 10 to 15 megatons."
fact, we are rather convinced that such events have happened at
many points in the history of the earth. Laura Knight-Jadczyk has
written in her book, Ancient
the outskirts of Brno, Moravia, there is a quarry where workers
uncovered the bones of a wooly mammoth. There, in the quarry, was
discovered a 160 foot deep sequence of multiple soil cycles. Each
climate cycle from warm to cold was expressed as a sequence of gradational
soil types reflecting the change from a moist, deciduous forest
to an arid, frozen tundra, cracked by deeply penetrating permafrost.
Midway through each cycle, there are numerous bands of fine windblown
dust delivered in what must have been monstrous storms of continental
scale. Expert speculations suggest that this dust must have shrouded
the earth for weeks or months at a time and must have produced a
refrigerating effect on Europe's climate. In the colder part of
each cycle, the environment had become so dry that even large rivers
seems that the ice sheets that repeatedly advanced southward were
accompanied by the development of vast, but temporary deserts thr
oughout Russia and Ukraine, even extending into southeast Europe
and to the shores of the Black Sea. Every passage back from freezing
cold to warm was abrupt in every cycle.
from Turkey, Russia, Bulgaria and the United States teamed up to
explore the Black Sea. Using sound waves and coring devices, they
discovered that the Black Sea was once a vast freshwater lake. Glenn
Jones of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution dated the samples
from the bottom of the Black Sea and confirmed that around 7,500
years ago, the seas had burst through the Bosporus valley and the
salt water of the Mediterranean poured into the lake with unimaginable
force. What was evident was that it had happened suddenly and almost
instantaneously. What was also noted was that the massive amounts
of salt water pouring into the Black Sea had been deficient in Oxygen.
searching for the answers to this mysterious event, cores of coral
were drilled from the ocean in order to determine the rates of growth
on a year by year basis going back 20 thousand years. Apparently,
ice melt affects the rate of coral growth. The results of these
cores showed that there was a huge spurt of ice-melt around 12,000
years ago. The meltwater from this event was enormous. It filled
up dozens of lakes that no longer exist - lakes formed by the sag
in the Earth's crust caused by the weight of the huge ice dome.
Immediately following this melt, the ice age returned for a brief
period called the Younger Dryas. [...]
Otto Muck's book
- The Secret of Atlantis - is based on his ideas about
the causal relationship between isotherms and favorable climate
in northwestern Europe, and the unobstructed flow of the Gulf Stream
across the Atlantic. Muck attempts to use this flow to make a case
for the prior existence of a large body of land in the Atlantic
whose subsidence changed the ocean currents and warmed the British
Isles about 10,500 years ago, give or take a day or two. Based on
a varied and interesting collection of hard data, Muck suggests
that the submarine massif of the Azores was once above water and
could have blocked and deflected the Gulf Stream, preventing the
circulation of the warmer waters, and thus contributing to the freezing
temp eratures of the British Isles. Muck writes:
we then date the transition from the Quaternary to the Quinternary
Age at 12,000 years ago, or around 10,000 BC, we are doing so
on the authority of contemporary geologists and paleontologists.
We are at the same time fixing the date when Barrier Island X,
which had hitherto prevented the Gulf Stream from reaching the
coasts of Europe, sank beneath the Atlantic ... a point in time
... when the warm water and rain-bearing winds brought by the
Gulf Stream were no longer deflected back to the west by the Atlantic
island barrier, but flowed freely eastward because the barrier
had sunk beneath the waves. We have uncovered the traces of the
greatest cataclysm on Earth that has been experienced by man.
For there can be no doubt that this catastrophe of 12,000 years
ago is the most terrible event that has ever taken place in all
the dramatic history of mankind.
what Muck did was to note that the geologically recorded isotherms
moved significantly at this point in time. I still think his book
is one of the better ones on the subject because he assembles a
lot of interesting hard data, even if I don't necessarily agree
that there was a big island that "sank beneath the Atlantic."
There are other solutions to the problem of the isotherms including
current day research showing that this can result from global warming.
While we don't deny that it's possible for such severe lithosphe
re disruption as Muck suggests to occur, and we aren't playing soft
with the idea of mass destruction of species, it just seems that
an event that would produce the sinking of so vast a body of land
so completely would be an event from which absolutely nothing on
the earth would survive.
Otto Muck draws our attention to the meteor craters in the Carolinas.
The Carolina bays are mysterious land features often filled with
bay trees and other wetland vegetation. Because of their oval shape
and consistent orientation, they are considered by some authorities
to be the result of a vast meteor showe r that occurred approximately
12,000 thousand years ago . What is most astonishing is the number
of them. There are over 500,000 of these shallow basins dotting
the coastal plain from Georgia to Delaware. That is a frightening
virtually any other bodies of water or changes in elevation, these
topographical features follow a reliable and unmistakable pattern.
Carolina Bays are circular, typically stretched, elliptical depressions
in the ground, oriented along their long axis from the Northwest
to the Southeast. [T]hey are further characterized by an elevated
rim of fine sand surrounding the perimeter. [...]
The last twenty years have seen an explosion of evidence
that earth has often encountered objects that profoundly alter
our environment. For instance, it is now commonly accepted that
an impact with a large object in the Gulf of Mexico caused the
extinction of large dinosaurs - a theory considered bizarre and
irresponsible at the time Kacrowski studied the Bays.
Kobres, an independent researcher in Athens, Georgia, has studied
Carolina Bays for nearly 20 years in conjunction with his larger
interest in impact threats from space. His recent, self-published,
investigations have profound consequences for Carolina Bay study
and demand research by academia as serious, relevant and previously
unexamined new information. The essence of Kobres' theory is that
the search for "debris," and the comparison of Bays
with "traditional" impact craters, falsely and naively
assumes that circular craters with extraterrestrial material in
them are the only terrestrial evidence of past encounters with
objects entering earth's atmosphere.
goes a logical step further by assuming that forces associated
with incoming bodies, principally intense heat, should also leave
visible signatures on the earth. And, finally, that physics does
not demand that a "collision" of the bodies need necessarily
occur to produce enormous change on earth. To verify that such
encounters are possible outside of the physics lab, we need l
ook no further than the so-called "Tunguska event."
June 30, 1908, in the vicinity of the Tunguska River deep in Siberia,
a tremendous explosion instantly leveled 2000 sq. km. of tundra,
felling trees by the millions, all left pointing outward from
a central area. News accounts of the day told of Londoners being
able to read newspapers from the glow of the night sky for days
afterward. Seismographs worldwide recorded an apparent cataclysm
in Siberia. Unfortunately (or fortunately as the case may be)
the explosion had occurred in an area so remote, and during a
time of such political turmoil, that no researcher pinpoi nted
or even managed to travel to the suspected impac t site for more
than two decades. Not until pioneer Russian meteoritic researcher
Leonard Kulik managed to gain entry to the inhospitable area in
1927, did anyone but local tribesmen view the devastation and
its peculiar nature.
the epicenter of the explosion lay not a large crater with a "rock"
in it, as might be expected, but nothing more than a number of
"neat oval bogs." The Tunguska literature generally
mentions the bogs only in passing, since Kulik failed in digs
there to locate any evidence of a meteorite and went on to examine
other aspects of the explosion. [George A. Howard, The
Carolina Bays] [.. .]
site viewed from the air in 1933.
most widely used method for determining the age of fossils is to
date them by the "known age" of the rock strata in which
they are found. At the same time, the most widely used method for
determining the age of the rock strata is to date them by the "known
age" of the fossils they contain. In this "circular dating"
method, all ages are based on uniformitarian assumptions about the
date and order in which fossilized plants and animals are believed
to have evolved. Most people are surprised to learn that there is,
in fact, no way to directly determine the age of any fossil or rock.
The so called "absolute" methods of dating (radiometric
methods) actually only measure the present ratios of radioactive
isotopes and their decay products in suitable specimens - not their
age. These measured ratios are then extrapolated to an "age"
determination. The problem with all radiometric "clocks"
is that their accuracy critically depends on several starting assumptions,
which are largely unknowable. To date a specimen by radiometric
means, one must first know the starting amount of the parent isotope
at the beginning of the specimen's existence. Second, one must be
certain that there were no daughter isotopes in the beginning. Third,
one must be certain that neither parent nor daughter isotopes have
ever been added or removed from the specimen. Fourth, one must be
certain that the decay rate of parent isotope to daughter isotope
has always been the same. That one or more of these assumptions
are often invalid is obvious from the published radiometric "dates"
(to say nothing of "rejected" dates) found in the lite
One of the most obvious problems is that several samples
from the same location often give widely divergent ages. Apollo
moon samples, for example, were dated by both uranium-thorium-lead
and potassium-argon methods, giving results, which varied from 2
million to 28 billion years. Lava flows from volcanoes on the north
rim of the Grand Canyon (which erupted after its formation) show
potassium-argon dates a billion years "older" than the
most ancient basement rocks at the bottom of the canyon. Lava from
underwater volcanoes near Hawaii (that are known to have erupted
in 1801 AD) has been "dated" by the potassium-argon method
with results varying from 160 million to nearly 3 billion years.
It's really no wonder that all of the laboratories that "da
te" rocks insist on knowing in advance the "evolutionary
age" of the strata from which the samples were taken -- this
way, they know which dates to accept as "reasonable" and
which to ignore.
precisely, it is based on the assumption that nothing "really
exceptional" happened in the meantime. What I mean by "really
exceptional" is this: an event theoretically possible, but
whose mechanism is not yet understood in terms of the established
paradigms. To give an example: a crossing of two different universes.
This is theoretically possible, taking into account modern physical
theories, but it is too speculative to discuss its "probability"
and possible conse quences.
Could such an event change radioactive decay data? Could
it change the values of some fundamental physical constants? Yes,
it possible that similar events have happened in the past? Yes,
it is possible. How possible it is? We do not know. We do not know,
in fact, what would be an exact meaning of "crossing of two
different universes." In addition to considering the idea of
cataclysms that could have destroyed ancient civilizations more
than once, there is another matter to consider in special relationship
to radioactive decay: that ancient civilizations may have destroyed
themselves with nuclear war.
dates for Pleistocene remains in northeastern North America, according
to scientists Richard Firestone of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
and William Topping, (Terrestrial
Evidence of a Nuclear Catastrophe in Paleo-Indian Times):
are younger-as much as 10,000 years younger- than for those in
the western part of the country. Dating by other methods like
thermo-luminescence (TL), geoarchaeology, and sedimentation suggests
that many radiocarbon dates are grossly in error. For example,
materials from the Gainey Paleoindian site in Michigan, radiocarbon
dated at 2880 yr BC, are given an age by TL dat ing of 12,400
BC. It seems that there are so many ano malies reported in the
upper US and in Canada of this type, that they cannot be explained
by ancient aberrations in the atmosphere or other radiocarbon
reservoirs, or by contamination of data samples (a common source
of error in radiocarbon dating). Assuming correct methods of radiocarbon
dating are used, organic remains associated with an artifact will
give a radiocarbon age younger than they actually are only if
they contain an artificially high radiocarbon keel. Our research
indicates that the entire Great Lakes region (and beyond) was
subjected to particle bombardment and a catastrophic nuclear irradiation
that produced secondary thermal neutrons from cosmic ray interactions.
The neutrons produced unusually large quantities of Pu239 and
substantially altered the natural uranium abundance rations in
artifacts and in other exposed materials including cherts41, sediments,
and the entire landscape. These neutrons necessarily transmuted
residual nitrogen in the dated charcoals to radiocarbon, thus
explaining anomalous dates. [...]
C14 level in the fossil record would reset to a higher value.
The excess global radiocarbon would then decay with a half-life
of 5730 years, which should be seen in the radiocarbon analysis
of varied systems. [...]
increases in C14 are apparent in the marine data at 4,000, 32,000-34,000,
and 12,500 BC. These increases are coincident with geomagnetic
ex cursions. [...]
enormous energy released by the catastrophe at 12,500 BC could
have heated the atmosphere to over 1000 C over Michigan, and the
neutron flux at more northern locations would have melted considerable
glacial ice. Radiation effects on plants and animals exposed to
the cosmic rays would have been lethal, comparable to being irradiated
in a 5 megawatt reactor more than 100 seconds.
overall pattern of the catastrophe matches the pattern of mass
extinction before Holocene times. The Western Hemisphere was more
affected than the Eastern, North America more than South America,
and eastern North America more than western North America. Extinction
in the Great lakes area w as more rapid and pronounced than elsewhere.
Larger animals were more affected than smaller ones, a pattern
that conforms to the expectation that radiation exposure affects
large bodies more than smaller ones.
evidence that Firestone and Topping discovered is puzzling for a
lot of reasons. But, the fact is, there are reports of similar evidence
from such widely spread regions as India, Ireland, Scotland, France,
and Turkey; ancient cities whose brick and stone walls have literally
been vitrified, that is, fused together like glass. There is also
evidence of vitrification of stone forts and cities. It seems that
the only explanation for such anomalies is either an atomic blast
or something tha t could produce similar effects...[...]
Firestone and Topping
propose that this evidence of nuclear radiation is a result of "cosmic
ray bombardment" from, perhaps, a supernova. D.S. Allan, a
biologist at Cambridge, and J. B. Delair, coauthor of Cataclysm,
published in 1995 in the U.K, also like the supernova hypothesis.
Evidence of a supernova explosion, in the form of aluminium 22 (along
with other scientific and mythological evidence), found in concentration
at the edge of our solar system, helped Allan and Delair conclude
that a stellar blast probably caused the massive destruction. Iron
ore in the earth from about 11,000 years ago shows that its magnetic
polarity violently reversed. This certainly suggests an extraterrestrial
encounter with a magnetically po werful agent at that period. The
supernova explanation, however, does not account for all the evidence,
most particularly the mythic and geological evidence of massive
bombardments of comets.
Paul LaViolette, author of Earth Under Fire, claims that
he has discovered evidence of a different sort of cataclysm, a volley
of cosmic waves resulting from an explosion in the galactic core.
Entering our solar system, this galactic super wave (the most powerful
energetic phenomenon in the galaxy) would have interrupted the solar
wind's ability to repel most intruding cosmic dust particles.
builds a mythological foundation for his scientific theory, the
shakiest part of which is that he suggests that galactic core explosions
are a cyclical event, recurring every 26,000-year cycles, a period
that relates to the precession of the equinoxes. He claims that
this is a great clock, and that the precessional cycle is the duration
of one Great Year recognized by the ancient Greeks, Zoroastrians,
and Chinese. La Violette's theory is weak because galactic core
explosions, like other nuclear phenomena, are only statistically
probable. Further, the record shows a frequency greater than every
26,000 years, and his attempts to introduce "mini-explosions"
to account for this come across as so much prestidigitation of the
data. Also his theory does not account for all of the evidence,
most particularly the geological evidence of massive bombardments
of cometary bodies. What is more, La Violette's claim that the p
recessional cycle is the "great clock," assumes that the
current polar orientation has remained stable for eons, and the
very mythic evidence he tries to use as his foundation contradicts
all of this searching high and low for Atlantis, and comparing the
paleontogical records and geological records and archaeological
records with the story of Plato, the one major thing that everybody
seems to be forgetting is this: Plato's tale was about a war
followed by cataclysm.
to Plato's story, Atlantis was the center of a country of extreme
economic wealth and military power that sought to enslave all of
Europe. The Atlanteans were quite successful in defeating ma ny
European countries; however, the great civilization of Athens repelled
their attacks and eventually succeeded in driving them back out
of Europe. Unfortunately, almost all records of this great achievement
were lost due to a very powerful flood that wiped out most of Athens
and the whole continent of Atlantis in one day and one night. Over
and over again, what we see is the fact that something terrible
happened on the earth around 12,000 years ago. This time period
comes up over and over again in many disciplines having to do with
the study of the past. And it just happens to be the period designated
by Plato's characters as the time of the destruction of Atlantis
following a terrible war in which Atlantis was defeated after attempting
to conquer the entire world at the time of what is remembere d as
the greatest deluge in human history: The Flood of Noah. [...]
described Atlantis as an "island empire" that "in
a single day... disappeared in the depths of the sea." But
he also tells us that this "island" was bigger than Libya
and Asia Minor combined. Right away we perceive that his terms are
a bit different from what we would use. We might think that his
term "island," meant simply that this body of land was
not connected to Eurasia or Africa - that it was a distinct body
of land surrounded by water - except for something else he added:
Plato also told us that Atlantis was "the way to other islands,
and from these you might pass to the whole of the opposite continent.&
quot; This suggests to us an unusual land formation - a n isthmus.
expression that it "disappeared into the depths of the sea"
may have been meant to suggest that it was swept by vast tsunamis
as the result of some cataclysmic event. So, considering these clues
- its vast size, the definition of the term "navigable,"
and the idea that "disappearing into the depths of the sea"
may have meant swept by terrifying walls of water, let take a peek
through the Pillars of Hercules. What do we see? Well, we see the
Americas. We see North and South America connected by an isthmus.
We also see a lot of little islands in the Caribbean.
clue that Plato gives us is that Atlantis had a l ot of elephants.
catastrophic happened to the large mammals roaming the world during
the Pleistocene Epoch. Woolly mammoths, mastodons, toxodons, sabre-toothed
tigers, woolly rhinos, giant ground sloths, and many other large
Pleistocene animals are simply no longer with us. The fact is, more
than 200 species of animals completely disappeared at the end of
the Pleistocene approximately 12,000 years ago in what is known
to Paleontologists as the "Pleistocene Extinction."
the same time that the paleontologists are dealing with the unsettling
notion of such a recent mass death, geologists are confronted with
the evidence of terrifying geol ogical changes which took place:
extensive volcanism an d earthquakes, tidal waves, glacial melting,
rising sea levels, and so on. The Pleistocene Epoch didn't end with
a whimper, for sure. It went out roaring and thundering.
already know that Geologists and Paleontologists don't like catastrophism
- it keeps them up at night. They fought long and hard against the
Catastrophists. But in the present day, scientists in both fields
have to face the fact that the Catastrophists were mostly right
from the beginning - even if they might have gone overboard and
explained everything in terms of catastrophe. It is evident that
there are "gradual" changes, but that most of what happens
on the Big Blue Marble in terms of significant changes is catastrophic.
One of the major facts that both
paleontologists and geologists and archaeologists have had to face
is the stupendous number of frozen carcasses in Canada and Alaska
in the western areas, and in Northern Russian and Siberia in the
eastern areas - all dated to about 12000 years ago. This suggests,
of course, that something dreadful happened on the planet, and its
effect on the Northern hemisphere was more severe than on the Southern
in the 1940s Dr. Frank C. Hibben, Prof. of Archeology at the University
of New Mexico led an expedition to Alaska to look for human remains.
He didn't find human remains; he found miles and miles of icy muck
just packed with mammoths, mastodons, and several kinds of bison,
horses, wolv es, bears and lions. Just north of Fairbanks, Alaska,
the members of the expedition watched in horror as bulldozers pushed
the half-melted muck into sluice boxes for the extraction of gold.
Animal tusks and bones rolled up in front of the blades "like
shavings before a giant plane". The carcasses were found in
all attitudes of death, most of them "pulled apart by some
unexplainable prehistoric catastrophic disturbance."
evident violence of the deaths of these masses of animals, combined
with the stench of rotting flesh, was almost unendurable both in
seeing it, and in considering what might have caused it. The killing
fields stretched for literally hundreds of miles in every direction.
There were trees an d animals, layers of peat and moss, twisted
and tangled and mangled together as though some Cosmic mixmaster
sucked them all in 12,000 years ago, and then froze them instantly
into a solid mass.
north of Siberia entire islands are formed of the bones
of Pleistocene animals swept northward from the continent
into the freezing Arctic Ocean. One estimate suggests that some
ten million animals may be buried along the rivers of northern Siberia.
Thousands upon thousands of tusks created a massive ivory trade
for the master carvers of China, all from the frozen mammoths and
mastodons of Siberia. The famous Beresovka mammoth first drew attention
to the preserving properties of being quick-frozen when buttercups
were found in its mouth.
What kind of terrible
event overtook these millions of creatures in a single day?
Well, the evidence suggests an enormous tsunami raging across the
land, tumbling animals and vegetation together, to be finally quick-frozen
for the next 12,000 years. But the extinction was not limited to
the Arctic, even if the freezing at colder locations preserved the
evidence of Nature's rage.
George G. Simpson considers the extinction of the Pleistocene horse
in North America to be one of the most mysterious episodes in zoological
history, confessing, "no one knows the answer." He is
also honest enough to admit that there is the larger problem of
the extinction of many other species in America at the same time.
The horse, giant tortoises living in the Caribbean, the giant sloth,
the saber-toothed tiger, the glyptodont and toxodon. These were
all tropical animals. These creatures didn't die because of the
"gradual onset" of an ice age, "unless one is willing
to postulate freezing temperatures across the equator, such an explanation
clearly begs the question."
piles of mastodon and saber-toothed tiger bones were discovered
in Florida. Mastodons, toxodons, giant sloths and other animals
were found in Venezuela quick-frozen in mountain glaciers. Woolly
rhinoceros, giant armadillos, giant beavers, giant jaguars, ground
sloths, antelopes and scores of oth er entire species were all totally
wiped out at the sam e time, at the end of the Pleistocene, approximately
12,000 years ago.
event was global. The mammoths of Siberia became extinct at the
same time as the giant rhinoceros of Europe; the mastodons of Alaska,
the bison of Siberia, the Asian elephants and the American camels.
It is obvious that the cause of these extinctions must be common
to both hemispheres, and that it was not gradual. A "uniformitarian
glaciation" would not have caused extinctions because the various
animals would have simply migrated to better pasture. What is seen
is a surprising event of uncontrolled violence. In other words,
12,000 years ago, a time we have met before and will come across
again and again, something terrible happened - so terrib le that
life on earth was nearly wiped out in a single day.
P. Lippman admits that the magnitude of fossils and tusks encased
in the Siberian permafrost present an "insuperable difficulty"
to the theory of uniformitarianism, since no gradual process can
result in the preservation of tens of thousands of tusks and whole
individuals, "even if they died in winter." Especially
when many of these individuals have undigested grasses and leaves
in their belly. Pleistocene geologist William R. Farrand of the
Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, who is opposed to catastrophism
in any form, states: "Sudden death is indicated by the robust
condition of the animals and their full stomachs ... the animals
were robust and healthy when they died." Unfortunat ely, in
spite of this admission, this poor guy seems to have been incapable
of facing the reality of worldwide catastrophe represented by the
millions of bones deposited all over this planet right at the end
of the Pleistocene. Hibben sums up the situation in a single statement:
"The Pleistocene period ended in death. This was no ordinary
extinction of a vague geological period, which fizzled to an uncertain
end. This death was catastrophic and all inclusive."
conclusion is, again, that the end of the Ice Age, the Pleistocene
extinction, the end of the Upper Paleolithic, Magdalenian, Perigordian,
and so on, and the end of the "reign of the gods," all
came to a global, catastrophic conclusion about 12,000 years ago.
And, as it happens, even before this evidence was brought to light,
this is the same approximate date that Plato gave for the sinking
of Atlantis. [...]
and over again we find these odd clues that point to an ancient
civilization that existed something over 12,000 years ago. There
has been a raging controversy for generations between pro-Atlanteans
and anti-Atlanteans about this. There seem to be sufficient archaeological
remains to justify a serious scientific study based on such a hypothesis
but so far, there are no "takers" in the mainstream scientific
community. Archaeology and ethnology, being observational sciences,
and not experimental sciences, have built their entire framework
u pon the study of those remains. And when we look closely at the
array of discoveries in those fields, we note bits and pieces of
cultures of almost unspeakable age. The fact that uniformitarian
science barely allows the idea of cataclysmic destruction to be
part of the hypothesis cripples archaeologists and, in the end,
may make fools of them all.
the algorithm of cyclic cataclysm, archaeologists cannot fully understand
what they observe, nor can they explain the anomalies here and there,
and the lack of other evidence that ought to be here and there (if
one assumes great antiquity of civilization with no cataclysms).
The fact seems to be that, what does continue to exist in terms
of archaeological remains from times before 7,000 or more years
ago, have been subjected to geo logical and cosmic cataclysms of
almost incomprehensible violence and few major relics remain for
perusal. Those few, however, are cast aside as the anomalies of
archaeology and ethnology, and their very existence is buried or
denied in efforts to avoid toppling the house of cards so laboriously
established by those sciences.
we find that all over the globe, with few exceptions, these studies
break down almost completely right around 7,000 to 10,000 BC, at
which point they meet with what mathematicians call a "discontinuity."
Immediately after this discontinuity, all of the hot-spots of ancient
civilization that archaeologists accept as valid suddenly appear
with no indication of gradual, uniformitarian development. What
is more, there seems to be considerab le indication that these developments
were degenerate remnants of something already lost in the mists
libraries of books have been written demonstrating this antiquity
of man and his civilizations, but it has not yet been accepted,
even in principle, by any branch of modern science. The scientific
thought police oppose any type of cataclysmic change in the structure
of the earth and will go to any extremes to avoid coming to grips
with its evidence. And yet, as we will see, science breaks down
again when it is forced to contemplate the origin of man's intellectual
the basis of the evidence of an antiqu ity, we postulate the ancient
development of some kind of science. In either case, it is of great
importance to consider these matters in terms of the how's and why's
and who's. Most books on these subjects approach the matter from
one of these assumptions or the other, with little regard to what
might be behind it all when considered in light of present day observations.
For us, the most telling thing about this is that either angle is
abhorrent to science and to most religions.
the end, nothing but the existence of an extremely ancient high
civilization answers all of the problems presented by observed and
recorded facts. And that is what led us to ask the questions about
what is the wellspring of our beliefs, what is the source of our
denial and rejection of what is observab le in favor of an imposed
belief system? [...]
we consider ancient archaeological evidence, most of which consists
of fragmentary bits and pieces of skeletons or stone tools, we do
not get the idea of an ancient worldwide, advanced civilization.
However, there is something about this that we need to consider
before we discard such an idea.
first thing to think about is the fact that our own "history"
is a mere 5,000 years old. When we talk about the possible existence
of man on the earth for literally millions of years, many, many
civilizations could have come and gone, leaving little more than
fragmentary remains. If the rea der will have a look at some books
that show pictures of the ancient structures whose history we know,
and think, for a moment, about what might remain of our own civilization
after a period of ten thousand years, it becomes evident that even
under the best of conditions, little would remain that would be
recognizable as the works of man. I have tried to imagine what the
structures of our civilization would look like after thousands of
years of abandonment. I had to admit that we have not created a
very substantial environment. The prospects of providing future
archaeologists with such elegant ruins are indeed remote And, to
assume that societies which did leave sophisticated metropolitan
centers were primitive in their technologies, and backward, compared
to our own, seems to be the ultimate in absurd conceit.
In fact, in these terms, metal is the least substantial
element of all. Many gravesites have been dug up after only a few
hundred years, and metal objects, aside from precious metals, have
tended to simply disintegrate into powder. So, as a matter of fact,
the things that would be preserved the longest are objects of stone.
So, just because the only remains we find are stone does not prove
that technology of metals was not known. In fact, there is considerable
evidence of metals mining all over the earth far into dim antiquity.
Further, during those inter-civilizational periods when we might
conjecture that man was forced to use whatever implements he could
to survive, stone is always there, always handy, and always works.
Thus it is that repeated periods wherein pri mitive stone tools
are evidence, in no way contradicts the idea of other periods of
is another thing we need to consider about the possible survival
of artifacts: cataclysm. The evidence that repeated worldwide cataclysms
have occurred tells us that it is very likely that, during such
events, the forces of the earth itself would grind up, pulverize,
and bury the works of man so completely that the fact that we find
any traces at all is practically a miracle. You could say that such
artifacts have a very short "shelf life" [...]
it is that we may find that our religious myths and rites are remnants
of narratives - a me ssage in a bottle - designed to explain these
phenomena , and that the monotheistic versions, declaring a Final
End, or a Judgment Day of a final end, are merely distortions of
the myth designed to establish a Control System on our planet. These
distortions are beneficial to those who seek power and wealth, who
are under the control of archetypal forces of another realm of which
our own reality is but a shadow or a reflection. Let me reiterate:
I do not mean, here, to suggest that this other realm is "astral"
or ephemeral or non-material. I am suggesting that it is an intermediate
realm of para- physical, hyper-dimensional beings whose existence
and nature has been carefully concealed from us for millennia -
for a reason that is not to our benefit. [...]
to Plato' s story, Atlantis was the center of a country of extreme
economic wealth and military power that sought to enslave all of
Europe. The Atlanteans were quite successful in defeating many European
countries; however, the great civilization of Athens repelled their
attacks and eventually succeeded in driving them back out of Europe.
Unfortunately, almost all records of this great achievement were
lost due to a very powerful flood that wiped out most of Athens
and the whole continent of Atlantis in one day and one night. Let's
look at an more interesting item from Frank Joseph's book: The
Lost Pyramids of Rock Lake. While reading, keep in mind our
dating problem that was identified since Joseph wrote his book,
so we very likely will have to push the early dates way back.
Someone took an awful lot of raw copper from North America a very long
time ago. Who was responsible for this and what they did with
it represent an enigma of vast proportions that investigators
have been puzzling over for more than a century, although most
Americans are unaware of the story.
around 3,000 BC, in excess of 500,000 tons of copper were mined
in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, with most activity taking place
at Isle Royale, an island in Lake Superior on the Canadian border.
The mines abruptly and inexplicably shut down in 1200 BC, reopening
no less mysteriously 2,300 years later . Until 1320 AD, some additional
2,000 tons were removed, destination unknown. As before, operations
were suddenly suspended for no apparent cause. Tools - mauls,
picks, hammers, shovels and levers - were left by their owners
in place. Octave Du'Temple, a foremost authority on early Michigan,
asks, "Why did these miners leave their operations and implements
as though planning on taking up their labors the next day, and
yet mysteriously never returned." William P.F. Ferguson writes,
"The work is of a colossal nature," and "amounted
to the turning over of the whole formation to their depth and
moving many cubic acres - it would NOT be extravagant to say cubic
MILES - of rock."
prehistoric mines were NOT crude holes in the ground, but incredibly
efficacious operations to extract staggering masses of raw material
as quickly as possible. An average of 1,000 to 1,200 tons of ore
were excavated per pit, yielding about 100,000 pounds of copper
ancient enterprise was a mind-boggling affair, including about
5,000 mines mostly along the Keweenaw Peninsula and the eastern
end of Lake Superior above the St. Mary's river. On the northern
shore, the diggings extended 150 miles, varying in width from
four to seven miles... The pits ran in practically a contiguous
line for 30 miles through the Rockland regions...
of 10,000 men working the mines for 1,000 years seem credible,
as does the conclusion that they were not slaves, bec ause the
miners carried away their dead. No ancient graves nor evidence
of cremations have been found in the Upper Peninsula. Indeed,
virtually all they left behind were their tools, literally millions
of them. As far back as the 1840s, 10 wagonloads of stone hammers
were taken from a single location near Rockland. The mauls appeared
to be mass produced in various sizes and types to serve different
Holmes succinctly writes, "It is unlikely, however, that
any considerable amount of the shaping work was conducted on the
island. It seems to me more likely that the pieces of metal obtained
were carried away to distant centers of population to be worked
by skilled artisans a nd we may justly assume that a considerable
trade exi sted in the raw material." Those "distant
centers of population" were Rock Lake and Aztalan, which
were connected to the Great Lakes mining areas by a belt of similar
mounds. One upper Peninsula temple-mound was 10 feet tall, 15
feet long at the sides and virtually identical to Aztalan's Pyramid
of the Moon. As we shall see, the ancient copper miners and the
inhabitants of Rock Lake-Aztalan were one and the same people.
ancient copper mines represent the key to unlocking Rock Lake's
deepest secrets. The grandiose mining enterprise began suddenly
around 3,000 BC and terminated just as abruptly 1,800 years later.
[...] When prehistoric America's copper mining ceased all at once
in 1200 BC, the Michigan pits were abandoned for the next 21 centuries.
They were suddenly opened in 900 AD, an event that can only mean
that, despite the virtual abandonment of the Rock Lake area for
thousands of years... [somebody KNEW about it - and came back].
[...] Alliance with another mound building people at Spiro, Oklahoma,
near the Arkansas River, provided portage to Mesoamerica Trade
Centers. [...] Roy Ward Drier writes, "That the copper from
which tools, scattered over such a vast area of country, were
manufactured, came from the ancient mines of Lake Superior, does
not admit of doubt. Although large and numerous deposits of copper
ore are scattered through Arizona, New Mexico, Mexico and Central
and South America, there is no evidence that the aborigines had
s ufficient metallurgical knowledge or skill to reduce the ores
to refined copper. The shores of Lake Superior have the only known
workable deposits of native copper in the world. The term virgin
copper is well used to denote its purity. In this latter day,
it outranks all others in the markets of the world." [...]
Archaeological excavations in the 1930s at Aztalan discovered
the remains of a large rectangular building containing an abundance
of unworked copper, establishing the site's identity as a mining
Joseph found some very strange pyramidal type structures in Rock
Lake, Wisconsin. They were different from other pyramidal structures
- being conical - and he was astounded some years later to see identical,
unusual, pyramidal structures in the Canary Islands.
original inhabitants of the Canary Islanders referred to themselves
as "Canari" long before the Romans arrived. The name
appears to have had a similar meaning in both Latin and the native
speech, which was a mixed Indo-European language with at least
several Latin cognates.
to the 1st century AD, the Atlantic group was known throughout
the Mediterranean World as the Blessed Isles, the Fortunate Isles,
the Hesperides, or the Isles of the Blessed. Forgotten for all
of classical civilization, they were isolated from outside contact
for almost 1,000 years until their rediscovery by Portuguese sailors
in the 14th century. The Canari more commonly referred to themselves
as Guanches (men) a once civilized race that had slowly degenerated
over millennia of interbreeding, while their level of society
slid back, quite literally, into the caves...
their virtual elimination, some studies were made of the Guanches,
a white people, fair complected and with red, auburn, and occasionally
blond hair. Despite their genetically debased condition, they
preserved traditions from long gone ages of civilized greatness
and still gathered at the ruined stone monuments of their ancestors
for special events. Some of these cyclopean walls, called tagora,
survive as crumbling rectangular enclosures, circles, and even
Santa Cruz, capital of Tenerife, largest of the islands, I was
surprised to learn that regular, ancient contacts between the
Canaries and North America were generally acknowledged by the
academic community. Talk of possible pre- Columbian visitors from
Europe is taboo throughout professional circles in the United
States, but Tenerife's leading historical scholar, Professor Lopez
Herrera, writes: "One fact about which we may be certain
is that there existed a relation in ancient times between the
people of Canarian origin and the inhabitants of America."
Tenerife I took a ferry to Lanzarote, which is 125 miles closer
to North Africa than any of the rest of the seven islands. After
docking at the capital port of Arrecefe and checking into my hotel,
I walked through the ocean-front park, intent only on some casual
sightseeing, when I was thunderstruck to confront the very object
that had been sought in the depths of Rock Lake for more than
50 years: a 20 foot conical pyramid. It exactly matched the sunken
structure seen in the lake in 1937. [...]
In all my travels throughout Europe and studies of classical
and preclassical societies, I had never found so much as a reference
to a conical stone pyramid such as this one, and, as far as I
knew, nothing of the kind existed anywhere else except under the
waters of Rock Lake, Wisconsin.
Rock Lake and the copper mines remnants of the civilization known
by Plato as Atlantis? Adding 10,000 years to Joseph's dates, as
suggested by Firestone and Topping, would put these sites into the
timeframe indicated by Plato.
evidence that Firestone and Topping discovered is puzzling for a
lot of reasons. But, the fact is, there are reports of similar evidence
of possible Nuclear War from such widely spread regions as India,
Ireland, Scotland, France, and Turkey; ancient cities whose brick
and stone walls have literally been vitrified - fused together like
glass. There is also evidence of vitrification of stone forts and
cities. It seems that the only reasonable explanation for suc h
anomalies - taken in conjunction with the rest of the evidence -
is an atomic blast. This fits with Plato's story of a war between
the Atlanteans and "Athens."
the Americas were "Atlantis," and if there was a war going
on prior to the cataclysm, it seems that - fitting the descriptions
together - North America was the hardest hit. There is not only
the evidence of the nuclear activity, but the massive bombardments
of exploding cometary bodies which blasted away nearly all traces
of civilization. [...]
have looked at the Americas as the possible ancient empire of Atlantis.
It is now time to reiterate certain observati ons. We have noted
earlier that the practice of human sacrifice seems to have originated
and spread in the Southern Hemisphere. We have also noted that human
sacrifice was most closely associated with Solar deities. The further
north you go, the less importance the Sun had, the more importance
the Moon was given, and the incidence of human sacrifice diminished.
At certain points, where the two "types" mingled, it was
not uncommon to find Moon worship associated with human sacrifice,
or Sun worship divorced from Human Sacrifice. But what is evident
from tracking the myths and folktales and artifacts, is that Human
Sacrifice was primarily a Southern Hemisphere production. It would
be almost impossible to track the ancient peoples with firm accuracy,
but the point is that there is evidence that the religion of the
Jews came from South America via India to the Middle East, bringing
its bloodthirsty, flesh flaying, genital mutilating god along. [...]
easy to look back on history and see where this or that group was
"misled" in their beliefs and this distorted their thinking,
which then led them to perpetrate unspeakable horrors. We can point
to the genocide advocated by the God of the Hebrews, whether it
was actually committed or not, or the religious- zeal-run-amok of
the Catholic church when it instituted the Inquisition and the Crusades.
We can see the twisted version of the desire to create a "genetic
superman" that led to the holocaust. It's easy to discern these
errors of the past, because we "know more now."
We know more now. How much
more can we learn? Can we be certain that the current beliefs of
our reality are not similar manipulations? How much more will we
know in the future about our own present situation? Do we have any
clues around us pointing out that something is dreadfully amiss
as were present in the years preceding the Holocaust? How many people
at that time ignored all the warning signs until it was too late?
How many people didn't "get it" until they were bombed
back to the Stone Age? Can we compare any of our present reality
to such a scenario? After all, a smart man learns from his mistakes;
a genius learns from the mistakes of others.
the present ti me, there are, indeed, indicators that we are being
man euvered into a certain mind-set, a certain belief system. The
"reality game" has just gotten more and more complex,
but the same essential errors keep getting repeated. What is at
the root? Will our descendants look back on our own time and shake
their heads in dismay at how ignorant we were, how manipulated our
thinking was, and how great an error we made because of our beliefs?
As the reader will discover, it seems that we are presently facing
just such a grand illusion; one that may be the grandest of them
all, and if we do not find our way to the light whereby our eyes
can be healed, we shall be, indeed, the householder who lost all
he possessed because he was bound and blinded by "demons."
And if we are blind, and follow the blind, we will most certainly
all fall into a pit; one that we may not be able to get out of for
a very long time.
know that this question, "why is life the way it is?"
is one that we don't like to face. But, when we awaken late at night,
alone in our thoughts, with no distractions of daily life to fill
the void, we are face to face with our existential dilemma. And
it is a terrible silence. In those moments of cold clarity, the
bleakness and futility of our existence in cosmic terms rises up
to confront us as it has confronted all of humanity throughout millennia.
back at history, we see that, to escape this monstrous "dark
night of the soul," human beings will accept any answer-any
religious belief or philosophy-that may be off ered, because the
cold, abyssal silence that follows the question must be filled at
any cost. The sad fact is, there are plenty of people willing to
try to convince us that they have "the answer to all our questions."
These blind leading the blind can be found in the pulpits of nearly
every church across the land, and in the seminars and lecture circuit
of the New Age. But, these answers generally consist of confusing
the discernment of reality with personal opinion which results in
a judgment upon reality by refusing to acknowledge it as it really
is. Those parts of reality that are not acknowledged have a way
of biting us. "Those who do not learn from history are doomed
to repeat it."
- The skies around Sherman and the village of Clam Lake undoubtedly
turned from blue to black.
Chicago, flames were racing through the city and in Peshtigo, Wi
s., people were running for their lives. Flames from the woods near
Manistee invaded the town on a quiet Sunday - and people fought
for their homes.
three days of the fires, thousands were homeless, hundreds from
Chicago, Wisconsin and Michigan dead, and many pioneers faced the
winter without a home or crops to eat.
the month of the Perseid Meteor shower, it is interesting to ponder
- could a disintegrated comet be the cause of the fires?
Upper Peninsula systems design engineer thinks so, as does a former
physicist with McDonnell Douglas Corp.
a statement by the Detroit Post on Oct. 10, 1871: "In all parts
of the state, as will be noticed by our correspondence during the
past few days and also today, there are numerous fires in the wood,
in many places approaching so near to towns as to endanger the towns
Holland, fire destroyed the city, in Lansing flames threatened the
agricultural college and in the Thumb, farmers trying to establish
homesteads soon would be diving into shallow wells to escape an
inferno some newspapers dubbed: "The Fiery Fiend." Many
did not escape.
threatened Muskegon, South Haven, Grand Rapids, Wayland and reach
ed the outskirts of Big Rapids. A steamship passing the Manitou
Islands reported they were on fire.
story? Yes. And so real that historic markers to the event can be
found at Manistee and in the Thumb. Lots has been written about
the storm of fire that killed 2,000 in Peshtigo, Wis., and the Great
Chicago Fire and the fires that devastated the Lower Peninsula of
for the fires are many - but one thing is certain, the devouring
flames showed up at the same time.
historians point to the dry weather of the summer and the poor logging
practices of the day for creating conditions ripe for a hot dry
wind from the southwest that blew into the area whipping up small
fires already s moldering and carrying destruction through the state.
for the Chicago and Michigan fires include Mrs. O'Leary's cow knocking
over the lantern and then firebrands from Chicago being driven across
the lake to ignite Michigan. But there is another interesting theory
th at continues to make the rounds on the Web and in at least one
presentation by a retired physicist who worked for McDonnell Douglas
1871, fire erupted in Chicago, Wisconsin and northern Michigan at
the same time. Some believe a mete orite or comet was to blame.
The Discovery Channel reported on
its Web site in March a presentation by Robert Wood, a retired McDonnell-Douglas
physicist, who theorizes fragments of a comet discovered in the
early 1820s possibly caused the fires.
theorized that small pieces of frozen methane, acetylene or other
high combustive materials hit the earth sparking the flames.
theory also resounds with Munising's Ken Rieli who believes he found
a chunk of meteorite in the waters off the Port Sanilac shore a
few years ago.
started doing an investi gation on where the meteorite came from,"
he said. His investigation also took him back to the Comet Biela
that was discovered in 1821 and returned every six years and nine
months. It was last seen in 1866 and never showed up in 1872.
was supposed to recycle and it wasn't there," Rieli said. He
questions how fires could start simultaneously in Chicago, Minnesota,
Wisconsin, Michigan and Ontario. He also notes how dry summers and
strong winds since have never produced a similar result in America's
these are coming down like buckshot with real dry conditions ..."
Rieli theorizes how flaming space rocks could have ignit ed fires
in many places. He said he's been contacted by relatives of survivors
of the Peshtigo fire who shared stories from their ancestors about
seeing fire falling from the sky.
Wood in his report cited eyewitness reports of spontaneous ignition
and "fire balloons."
said Canadian geologists found a huge impact crater 200 feet below
Lake Huron in the Port Huron area in the early 1990s. He said he
has a relative who participated in drilling for a water pipeline
to serve the Detro it in the same area at the same depth. He said
crews discovered meteorite-like rock as they bored a hole for the
uot;They were bringing it out and piling it up," he said. He
said the rock was reformulated and either was volcanic or a meteorite.
another piece of evidence that the Michigan area and parts of Canada,
Illinois are ground zero for an active meteor strike zone."
State University's David Batch, director of the Abram's Planetarium,
said he had not heard the theory before and is skeptical that a
comet or meteorite could have caused the fires.
said meteorites that have come through the atmosphere and hit the
ground are never hot when people have had the oppo rtunity to run
over to the piece of space rock immediat ely.
they run over to them, there is a frost to them," he said.
"There's no known evidence of a comet or a meteorite causing
a fire in history."
said comet particles are mostly ice and would not survive to hit
the ground while the meteorite only glows hot in the very outer
surface as it passes through atmosphere.
only heated to those temperatures for a very short time," he
said. "It's like the outer millimeter that is heated up. The
rest of it stays cold."
Rieli counters that if the meteorite chunk exceeds one pound and has
enough mass, it will not cool by the time it hits the ground.
only true under a certain mass of rock," he said.
said the Comet Biela had to have hit an asteroid belt when it broke
up around Jupiter and likely the debris carried a mixture of rock
and ice when the Earth plowed through the field in October 1871.
The result was hund reds of hot rocks flying through the atmosphere
and in many cases striking tinder-dry woods.
residents around the state battled flames, information about the
area around Cadillac, then Clam Lake, is fuzzy. The firs t newspaper
did not start until 1872.
village began the same year as the firestorm and by October of that
year there was a sawmill, hotels, a general store some boarding
houses, along with other buildings, according to Judge William Peterson's
"The View from Courthouse Hill."
recounts near Sherman, the area between Mesick and Sherman Hill,
there were numerous fires at the same time Manistee and Chicago
were burning down.
was said sparks from the fires in Wisconsin that summer or the great
Chicago fire in October or the conflagration that destr oyed Manistee
at the same time, started a large number of fires in the Sherman
area," Peterson wrote.
the losses were a sawmill and the prosecutor's house.
acknowledges his theory is controversial. His Web site is meant
to spark conversation - but he believes his chunk of carbonaceous
chondrite meteorite bolsters his theory. Any certainty would require
just a present thing we are doing," he said. "People need
to expand their minds."
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