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Complete map of Roman city revealed by radar for first time

Roman
© L Verdonck/PA
Ground-penetrating radar image of newly-discovered temple in the Roman city of Falerii Novi, Italy
Archaeologists have mapped a complete Roman city for the first time using ground-penetrating radar, revealing highly detailed images that they say could revolutionise our understanding of how such sites worked.

As well as a bath house, theatre, shops and several temples, the team from the universities of Cambridge and Ghent have discovered a large public monument of a kind never seen before, which may relate to the religious practices of the people who lived in the area before the Romans.

The detailed scanning of the town of Falerii Novi, just over 30 miles (50km) north of Rome, has uncovered the layout of the city's water system, offering new clues to how it was planned and laid out.

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Magnify

The CIA Coup against 'The Most Loyal' Ally' is history's warning in 2020

Gough Whitlam
© Unknown
The Australian High Court has ruled that correspondence between the Queen and the Governor-General of Australia, her viceroy in the former British colony, is no longer "personal" and the property of Buckingham Palace. Why does this matter?

Secret letters written in 1975 by the Queen and her man in Canberra, Sir John Kerr, can now be released by the National Archives - if the Australian establishment allows it. On November 11, 1975, Kerr infamously sacked the reformist government of prime minister Gough Whitlam, and delivered Australia into the hands of the United States.

Today, Australia is a vassal state bar none: its politics, intelligence agencies, military and much of its media are integrated into Washington's "sphere of dominance" and war plans. In Donald Trump's current provocations of China, the US bases in Australia are described as the "tip of the spear".

Comment: See also from 2014: Prime minister Whitlam and Australia's forgotten US coup against him


Blue Planet

Saxons did not invade Britain after Romans left

Romans

Romans occupied England for hundreds of years after their invasion in the first century BC (pictured). After this Empire fell, it was thought Saxons invaded Britain in the 5th century. However, one expert claims this is a myth
The 'Anglo-Saxon era' that is widely believed to have followed the withdrawal of the Romans from Britain in 410AD may have never existed, according to a University of Cambridge expert.

Schools teach that, after Romans left Britain, Britain was invaded and colonised by a throng of German-speaking barbarians from Europe, known as the Saxons.

This, common wisdom dictates, then gave birth to the so-called Anglo-Saxon era which endured in some guise until the Norman conquest of 1066.

This theory is based on the prevalence of German-based languages and questionable interpretations of historical records.

However, Professor Susan Oosthuizen believes the invasion and colonisation, which is thought to have occurred in the 5th century, never happened.


Comment: As noted in the link above, the island experienced cataclysmic events in the period that followed the Roman departure, and it's likely these depopulation events were the primary driver of the eventual shift in demographics in the country. In Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets: Damages, Disasters, Injuries, Deaths, and Very Close Call s Laura Knight-Jadczyk writes:
Until that point in time, the Britons had held control of post-Roman Britain, keeping the Anglo-Saxons isolated and suppressed. After the Romans were gone, the Britons maintained the status quo, living in towns, with elected officials, and carrying on trade with the empire. After AD 536, the year reported as the "death of Arthur", the Britons, the ancient Cymric empire that at one time had stretched from Cornwall in the south to Strathclyde in the north, all but disappeared, and were replaced by Anglo-Saxons. There is much debate among scholars as to whether the Anglo-Saxons killed all of the Britons, or assimilated them. Here we must consider that they were victims of possibly many overhead cometary explosions which wiped out most of the population of Europe, plunging it into the Dark Ages which were, apparently, really DARK, atmospherically speaking.

[...]

Gildas, who was writing at approximately 540 AD, says that the island of Britain was on fire from sea to sea " ... until it had burned almost the whole surface of the island and was licking the western ocean with its fierce red tongue."[5] . In "The Life of St. Teilo" contained in the Llandaf Charters, of St. Teilo, who had recently been made Bishop of Llandaf Cathedral in Morganwg, South Wales, it says:

" ... however he could not long remain, on account of the pestilence which nearly destroyed the whole nation. It was called the Yellow Pestilence, because it occasioned all persons who were seized by it to be yellow and without blood, and it appeared to men a column of a watery cloud, having one end trailing along the ground, and the other above, proceeding in the air, and passing through the whole country like a shower going through the bottom of valleys. Whatever living creatures it touched with its pestiferous blast, either immediately died, or sickened for death ... and so greatly did the aforesaid destruction rage throughout the nation, that it caused the country to be nearly deserted".
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Sherlock

The Sword of Damocles over Western Europe: Follow the trail of blood and oil

obama killer
In Part 1, we left off in our story at the SIS-CIA overthrow of Iran's Nationalist leader Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1953. At this point the Shah was able to return to Iran from Rome and British-backed Fazlollah Zahedi, who played a leading role in the coup, replaced Mosaddegh as Prime Minister of Iran.

Here we will resume our story.

An Introduction to the 'Shah of Shahs', 'King of Kings'

One important thing to know about Mohammad Reza Shah was that he was no fan of British imperialism and was an advocate for Iran's independence and industrial growth. That said, the Shah was a deeply flawed man who lacked the steadfastness to secure such a positive fate for Iran. After all, foreign-led coups had become quite common in Iran at that point.

He would become the Shah in 1941 at the age of 22, after the British forced his father Reza Shah into exile. By then, Persia had already experienced 70 years of British imperialism reducing its people to near destitution.

SOTT Logo Radio

MindMatters: Ibn Arabi, the Unlimited Mercifier: Interview with Stephen Hirtenstein

ibn arabi stephen hirtenstein
For many in the West, their first encounter with the 13th-century sufi mystic Ibn Arabi will be in the Turkish drama Resurrection: Ertugrul, available on Netflix and YouTube, where he is portrayed as a wandering spiritual master and adviser, always ready to dispense with the perfect wisdom in any given situation. But who was Ibn Arabi in real life? And why is he called the "Greatest Master"?

Today on MindMatters, we interview Stephen Hirtenstein, editor of the Journal of the Ibn Arabi Society, co-founder of Anqa Publishing, and author of several translations of Ibn Arabi's works as well as the book we discuss today: The Unlimited Mercifier: The Spiritual Life and Thought of Ibn Arabi. We discuss some of Ibn Arabi's major works, the visions that inspired them, his own remarkable spiritual development, and some of the core meanings unveiled in his prolific output.


Links: Running Time: 01:46:21

Download: MP3 — 97.4 MB


Red Pill

To understand Iran's 150-year fight, follow the trail of blood and oil

iran
© REUTERS/Raheb Homavandi
This past Sunday, April 17th, a dispute between Iran and the U.S. occurred over the U.S.' decision to increase its military presence in Caribbean and Eastern Pacific waters, with the purported reason being a counter-narcotics campaign.

Iranian foreign minister Mohammad Javad Zarif wrote to the UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres this past Sunday, that the real purpose for this move by the U.S. is to "intervene and create disruption in the transfer of Iran's fuel to Venezuela." In the same letter, Zarif expressed concern over "the United States' intention to consider dangerous, unlawful and provocative measures against Iranian oil tankers engaged in perfectly lawful international commerce with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela."

The Iranian deployment consists of five tankers carrying around $45.5million of gasoline and related products, as part of a wider deal between Iran and Venezuela. The U.S. has imposed sanctions on both nations' oil exports.

Blue Planet

Aguada Fenix: Major discovery of oldest and largest ceremonial structure in Mexico

Aguada Fénix
© Takeshi Inomata
A 3D image of the monumental platform at Aguada Fénix (in dark brown). The structure, built some 3,000 years ago, was detected by an airborne laser tool known as LiDAR.
An enormous 3,000-year-old earthen platform topped with a series of structures, including a 13-foot-high pyramid, has been identified as the oldest and largest monumental construction discovered in the Maya region, according to a paper published today in the journal Nature. It's the latest discovery to support the emerging view that some of the earliest structures built in the Maya region were significantly larger than those built more than a millennium later during the Classic Maya period (250-900 A.D.), when the empire was at its peak.

The discovery took place in Mexico's Tabasco State at the site of Aguada Fénix, about 850 miles east of Mexico City. It is in a region known as the Maya lowlands, from which the Maya civilization began to emerge.

In 2017, researchers conducted a LiDAR survey that detected the platform and at least nine causeways leading up to it. The groundbreaking laser technology typically is used from aircraft to "see" structures beneath dense tree canopy below, but in this case it revealed a stunning discovery sitting unnoticed in plain sight in Tabasco's semi-forested ranch lands for centuries, if not millennia.

Comment: There are a number of fascinating insights that can be drawn from the findings above, and the similarities with other cultures around the world abound, but the "cache of precious jade axes" is particularly interesting because in Mary Settegast's book Plato Prehistorian she investigates and speculates about the possible origin and proliferation of green stone axes found throughout Eurasia beginning in the late 9th millennium BC:
As the other weapon used by Zeus against Typhon was his thunderbolt, one notes with equal interest the appearance of a
single polished greenstone axe at Mureybet III. Similar polished stone celts were known elsewhere in Syria and Palestine during this period (fig. 46); they were hereafter to enjoy a long and illustrious career in Old World archaeology. Ancient explana-
tions show these implements to be universally designated as "thunderstones" and associated with the sky god (Zeus in
Greece). Among later Greeks, Neolithic celts were given the name of astropelekia, denoting thunderbolts, and greatly
valued as charms. Their deeper religious significance is demonstrated by the engraving of Mithraic subjects on a serpentine
celt from the Argolid (fig. 48), and by the claim that Pythagoras was purified by the thunderstone of Zeus in the Idaean Cave
of Crete. Five thousand years earlier, the first polished green-stone axes known to Greek archaeology were laid in a shrine
at the sixth millennium settlement of Nea Nikomedeia, today judged ceremonial objects by their excavator.

That polished stone celts already held special significance in the late ninth and early eighth millennia is suggested by the
miniaturization of these forms in Near Eastern sites of this period. Often pierced for suspension in the following epoch
(fig. 47), these "axe amulets" 209 were the first of a long series of apparently sacred elements. (Many millennia later a Minoan
grave at Phaistos yielded a small stone celt with a hole in the top, "doubtless worn as an amulet.") If the ninth millennium
valuation of stone celts already derived from an association with the thunderbolts of the sky god, their extraordinary spread both large and miniature forms after 7500 B.C. (detailed in Part III) suggests a continuation of his worship. As in the myth, the sovereignty of Zeus-Baal-Teshub seems to have been intact, after the late ninth and early eighth millennium hostilities in
whose midst polished greenstone axes first appeared.
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Sheeple

Evidence for oldest prehistoric textiles in Scotland discovered in Orkney

Brodgar
© Dr Scott Pike
Ness of Brodgar is a large Neolithic site in Orkney
Evidence of woven Neolithic textile has been confirmed at the University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute research excavation at the Ness of Brodgar.

Only one other such example has been found in Scotland. The archaeologists at the site don't physically have a piece of 5,000-year-old fabric, but the impression it leaves when pressed against the wet clay of a pot.

Organic material from prehistory does not survive often unless in very specific oxygen-free conditions in the archaeological record, so the study of Neolithic textiles has to rely on secondary evidence.

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Attention

How Barack Obama destroyed Libya

libya
© REUTERS/Esam Omran Al-Fetori
Libya's long-running civil war has taken a new turn in recent weeks after the Turkish-backed Government of National Accord launched an offensive against would-be strongman Khalifa Haftar, pushing him and his Libyan National Army out of Tripoli and a number of near-by strongholds. But anyone who thinks that peace is at hand after nine years of anarchy and collapse should think again. Odds are all but certain that all it will do is introduce new chaos into a country that has already seen more than its fair share.

But before we speculate about the future, let's pause for a moment to consider the past and how the craziness began. When historians conduct their post-mortem analyses, chance are good that they'll zero in on one date in particular - Apr. 13, 2011. That's the day Barack Obama welcomed Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, emir of Qatar, to the White House. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton had just spent weeks lining up support for the effort to topple Libyan strongman Muammar Gaddafi in the wake of the Arab Spring. But in mid-March, she decided that the coalition was too western, too Euro-centric, for delicate post-colonial sensibilities, and so she set out to woo energy-rich Qatar as well. When Al-Thani at last agreed to come on board, his reward was an audience with His Coolness himself, the U.S. president.

But Obama should have paused before leaping into the unknown. Although Qatar enjoys a benign reputation thanks to its extensive economic and cultural ties with the west, its political profile has long been strangely bifurcated - liberal in some respects, increasingly Islamist in others. By the late 1990s, it was making a name for itself as a center for the ultra-austere branch of Islam known as Salafism. By 2003, reports were growing that local charities were funneling money to Al-Qaeda. But Washington paid little attention. How could such reports be true if Qatar was helping to depose the Gaddafi, long a thorn in the side of American imperialism? If he was working in behalf of U.S. hegemony, which is to say the ultimate good, didn't that mean that he had to be good as well?

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Info

'Lady in the well' sheds light on ancient human population movements

Migration Routes
© Courtesy of Max Planck-Harvard Research center for the Archaeoscience of the Ancient Mediterranean/Handout via REUTERS
West Asia, which includes Anatolia (present-day Turkey), the Northern Levant and the Southern Caucasus is seen in a partial map obtained by Reuters June 1, 2020. An international team of researchers showed populations from Anatolia and the Caucasus started genetically mixing around 6,500 BC and that small migration events from Mesopotamia 4,000 years ago brought further genetic mixture to the region. The orange marker shows the route from Central Asia. DNA from a lone ancient woman revealed proof of long distance migration during the late Bronze age about 4,000 years ago from Central Asia to the Mediterranean Coast.
Washington - The bones of a woman of Central Asian descent found at the bottom of a deep well after a violent death in an ancient city in Turkey are helping scientists understand population movements during a crucial juncture in human history.

Researchers have dubbed her the "lady in the well" and her bones were among 110 skeletal remains of people who lived in a region of blossoming civilization running from Turkey through Iran between 7,500 and 3,000 years ago.

The study provided the most comprehensive look to date of genetics revealing the movement and interactions of human populations in this area after the advent of agriculture and into the rise of city-states, two landmarks in human history.

The remains of the "lady in the well," found in the ruins of the ancient city of Alalakh in southern Turkey, illustrated how people and ideas circulated through the region.