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Wed, 02 Dec 2020
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Colosseum

Mycenaean necropolis of Trapeza reveals hierarchical society and ancestor worship

mycenaean
© MOCAS
View of chamber of Tomb 1
A large number of grave offerings and high-quality burial items were discovered during the five-year excavation programme at the Mycenaean necropolis of Trapeza, seven kilometers southwest of Aegion. The findings testify to the region's amazing cultural and social vitality. The plateau is identified with the city of Rhypes, the metropolis of Croton in Magna Graecia during the colonization of the 8th century BC.

The Mycenaean necropolis is located on the southwestern slope of the plateau and on the ancient road leading to the citadel of historical times. The excavated tombs are arranged on at least three levels of terraces along the south side of Trapeza, a few meters from each other, in a parallel arrangement and with a north-south orientation. These are chamber tombs carved into the soft rock of the subsoil.

Comment: See also:


Caesar

Ultra-rare coin celebrating Julius Caesar's assassination sells for a record $3.5 million

caesar coin

Roma Numismatics Limited
An ancient gold coin described as a "naked and shameless celebration" of the assassination of Julius Caesar, featuring a portrait of one of the men who killed him, has set a new record for a coin sold at auction.

Bought by an anonymous bidder for £2.7 million ($3.5 million), the "aureus" coin features a portrait of Marcus Junius Brutus -- one of the ringleaders in the assassination of Caesar in 44 BC.

It also depicts the daggers used by Brutus and his co-conspirator Cassius to slay the ancient general in the Theater of Pompey in Rome, and a cap of Liberty -- a symbolic garment given to slaves upon their freedom.

Comment: It's rather symbolic that this sale should go ahead at this point in time considering the state of turmoil our planet is in and the ponerized nature of those in power (and who also probably share a lot in common with those who murdered Caesar).

To discover who Caesar really was, check out: And check out SOTT radio's:


Blue Planet

Evidence of megadrought in ancient Turkey also reveals tale of human resilience

Tell Tayinat
© Brita Lorentzen
Microscope image of Iron Age oak twig from Tell Tayinat in Hatay, Turkey.
An examination of two documented periods of climate change in the greater Middle East, between approximately 4,500 and 3,000 years ago, reveals local evidence of resilience and even of a flourishing ancient society despite the changes in climate seen in the larger region.

A new study led by University of Toronto and Cornell University archaeologists working at Tell Tayinat in southeastern Turkey, demonstrates that human responses to climate change are variable and must be examined using extensive and precise data gathered at the local level. The study highlights how challenge and collapse in some areas were matched by resilience and opportunities elsewhere.

The findings published today in PLoS ONE are welcome contributions to discussions about human responses to climate change that broaden an otherwise sparse chronological framework for the northern part of the region known historically as the Levant, which stretches the length of the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's:


Pirates

Wild conspiracy theory? The truth behind the biggest threat to the 'War on Terror' narrative

Gen. Flynn
© Flickr
General Michael Flynn, former U.S. Secretary of Defense
"If you must break the law, do it to seize power: in all other cases observe it."
- Julius Caesar

The illegal invasion of Libya, in which Britain was complicit and a British House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee's report confirmed as an illegal act sanctioned by the UK government, over which Cameron stepped down as Prime Minister (weeks before the release of the UK parliament report), occurred from March - Oct, 2011.

Muammar al-Gaddafi was assassinated on Oct. 20th, 2011.

On Sept 11-12th, 2012, U.S. Ambassador to Libya Christopher Stevens, U.S. Foreign Service information management officer Sean Smith, and CIA contractors Tyron Woods and Glen Doherty were killed at two U.S. government facilities in Benghazi.

It is officially denied to this date that al-Qaeda or any other international terrorist organization participated in the Benghazi attack. It is also officially denied that the attack was pre-meditated.

On the 6th year anniversary of the Benghazi attack, Barack Obama stated at a partisan speech on Sept 10th, 2018, delivered at the University of Illinois, that the outrage over the details concerning the Benghazi attack were the result of "wild conspiracy theory" perpetrated by conservatives and Republican members of Congress.

Comment: Other articles by Cynthia Chung:


Mail

The invention that forever changed the way we write

ball point pen artwork
© Borja Buenafuente/BBC
Fountain pens were a stylish statement but messy and impractical. Their replacement was a stroke of design genius perfectly in time for the era of mass production.

On 29 October 1945, the New York City branch of Gimbels department store unveiled a new product. Billions upon billions would follow in its wake.

Gimbels was the first to sell a new kind of ink pen, the design of which had taken several decades to come to fruition. The pens, made by the Reynolds International Pen Company, promised an end to the messy mishaps users of fountain pens encountered - leaking ink, smudges and pooling ink blots.

The new ballpoint pens did away with this, using a special viscous ink which dried quickly and didn't leave smudges. At the heart of it, the rolling ball in the nib - and gravity - ensured a constant, steady stream of ink that didn't smear or leave solid pools of ink on the page.

The new ballpoint was clean and convenient. What it wasn't was cheap.

Info

Scientists identify 34,000-year-old early East Asian of mixed Eurasian descent

In a new study, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany and the Mongolian Academy of Sciences present an analysis of the genome of the oldest human fossil found in Mongolia to date. They show that the 34,000-year-old female inherited around 25 percent of her DNA from western Eurasians, demonstrating that people moved across the Eurasian continent shortly after it had first been settled by the ancestors of present-day populations. The study also shows that this individual as well as a 40,000-year-old individual from China carried DNA from Denisovans, an extinct form of hominins that inhabited Asia before modern humans arrived.
Ancient Skullcap
© Institute of Archaeology, Mongolian Academy of Science
The skullcap found in the Salkhit Valley in eastern Mongolia belonged to a woman who lived 34,000 years ago. Analyses Analyses showed: She had inherited about 25 percent of her DNA from Western Eurasian.
In 2006, miners discovered a hominin skullcap with peculiar morphological features in the Salkhit Valley of the Norovlin county in eastern Mongolia. It was initially referred to as Mongolanthropus and thought to be a Neandertal or even a Homo erectus. The remains of the "Salkhit" individual represent the only Pleistocene hominin fossil found in the country.

Ancient DNA extracted from the skullcap shows that it belonged to a female modern human who lived 34,000 ago and was more related to Asians than to Europeans. Comparisons to the only other early East Asian individual genetically studied to date, a 40,000-year-old male from Tianyuan Cave outside Beijing (China), show that the two individuals are related to each other. However, they differ insofar that a quarter of the ancestry of the Salkhit individual derived from western Eurasians, probably via admixture with ancient Siberians.

Evil Rays

A brief history of government-funded electromagnetic, informational weapons and the remote manipulation of the human brain

Electromagnetic weapons
Editors Note:

We bring to our readers this carefully documented review article by Mojmir Babajek first published in 2004.

While the text deals with a number of complex scientific processes, the implications of these findings are far-reaching. This study also has a bearing on the current Corona crisis.

The arsenal of electromagnetic and informational weapons, used to manipulate the human mind of targeted individuals or populations, is an integral part of the weapons system of the New World Order.

The US military possesses a sophisticated arsenal of psychotronic weapons which could be used both domestically and internationally.

Electromagnetic and informational Weapons could be used in conventional wars theatres, without the knowledge of the enemy.

It is therefore essential that we not only take cognizance of these findings, but we mobilize nationally and internationally against the use of brain manipulating technologies.

Michel Chossudovsky, 5 August 2004, 27, October 2020

***

In October 2000, Congressman Denis J. Kucinich introduced in the House of Representatives a bill, which would oblige the American president to engage in negotiations aimed at the ban of space based weapons.

In this bill, the definition of a weapons system included:
"any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means inflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person)... through the use of land-based, sea- based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations"(15).

Comment: And remember, this article was written in 2004. See also:


Key

The revelations of Wikileaks: No. 9 - Opening the CIA's vault

Hollande/Obama
© White House, Pete Souza
French President François Hollande and President Barack Obama, Air Force One
Feb. 10, 2014
As its publisher remains in prison awaiting judgment on his extradition case, we continue our series of looking at WikiLeaks' significant revelations contributing to the public's right to know.

On Feb. 6, 2017, WikiLeaks released documents detailing the Central Intelligence Agency's espionage program in the months leading up to and following France's presidential election in 2012. The agency used spies and cyberweapons to infiltrate and hack into the major political parties with competing candidates — the Socialists, the National Front and the Union for a Popular Movement. Their candidates — respectively François Hollande, Marine Le Pen and incumbent Nicolas Sarkozywere also spied upon individually, as were many other prominent political figures.

The objectives of the program included ascertaining the contending parties' political strategies and platforms, their views of the U.S., and their relations with the European Union, with other European nations (Germany, Britain) as well as Israel, Palestine, Libya, Syria, and others. The CIA's French operation lasted 10 months, beginning in November 2011 and enduring until September 2012, several months after Hollande won the election and formed a Socialist government.

WikiLeaks' disclosure of the agency's project bears a special irony: It was just as WikiLeaks published this material in 2017 that the CIA helped propagate unsubstantiated (and later discounted) "intelligence" that Russian hackers and propagandists were interfering with France's presidential election that year. Similar allegations (similarly lacking in evidence) were floated as the European Union held parliamentary elections in May 2019.

As WikiLeaks reported at the time of the releases on the CIA's covert activities in France, those revelations were to serve "as context for its forthcoming CIA Vault 7 series." WikiLeaks' apparent intent was to display a CIA's hacking operation in action.

Water

Ancient Maya had incredibly effective water filtration system

Maya tikal

Tikal
Water is essential for basic human survival. But it can also be dangerous; contaminated water can spread deadly diseases that have the potential to eradicate whole communities. Safe, clean water offers humanity one of its best chances to thrive.

Several ancient civilisations, including the Greeks, Egyptians, and Romans, filtered their water. Sanskrit writings dating back to 2,000 BCE also mention water treatment methods. Now, archaeologists have discovered the Maya of Central America did too - and their water filtration system was incredibly effective.

In a reservoir in what was once the major Maya city of Tikal, the ruins of which crumble in a rainforest in present-day Guatemala, archaeologists have found zeolite and quartz - minerals that are not local to the area, and which are both effective at helping remove contaminants such as microbes, heavy metals, and nitrogen compounds from water.

Comment: Meanwhile 1,900 years ago in France: The brilliance of ancient engineers shown in watermill complex in southern France

See also: And check out SOTT radio's: MindMatters: America Before: Comets, Catastrophes, Mounds and Mythology


Info

Inks containing lead on Egyptian papyri unveil ancient writings

Analysing 12 ancient Egyptian papyri fragments with X-ray microscopy, University of Copenhagen researchers were surprised to find previously unknown lead compounds in both red and black inks and suggest they were used for their drying properties rather than as a pigment. A similar lead-based "drying technique" has also been documented in 15th century European painting, and the discovery of it in Egyptian papyri calls for a reassessment of ancient lead-based pigments.
Egypt Medical Treatise
© The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection
Detail of a medical treatise (inv. P. Carlsberg 930) from the Tebtunis temple library with headings marked in red ink.
The ancient Egyptians have been using inks for writing since at least 3200 BC, using black inks for the primary body of text and using red inks to highlight headings and keywords. In a new study published today in PNAS, a cross-disciplinary team of researchers from the University of Copenhagen have employed advanced synchrotron radiation based X-ray microscopy equipment to investigate red and black inks preserved on a sample of 12 papyrus fragments from Roman period Egypt (around 100 to 200 AD).

"Our analyses of the inks on the papyri fragments from the unique Tebtunis temple library revealed previously unknown compositions of red and black inks, particularly iron-based and lead-based compounds." says Egyptologist and first author of the study Thomas Christiansen from the University of Copenhagen.

Chemistry Professor and co-author Sine Larsen adds:
The iron-based compounds in the red inks are most likely ocher - a natural earth pigment - because the iron was found together with aluminium and the mineral hematite, which occur in ocher. The lead compounds appear in both the red and black inks, but since we did not identify any of the typical lead-based pigments used to colour the ink, we suggest that this particular lead compound was used by the scribes to dry the ink rather than as a pigment.
A similar lead-based drying technique was used in 15th century Europe during the development of oil painting, and the researchers believe that the Egyptians must have discovered 1,400 years earlier that they could ensure their papyri did not smear by applying this particular ink. According to the researchers, their discovery calls for a reassessment of lead-based compounds found in ancient Mediterranean inks in that drying techniques may have been widespread much earlier than previously believed.