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Fri, 04 Dec 2020
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30,000-year-old twin remains found in ancient grave in Austria

twins ancient
© Natural History Museum Vienna; modified. Communications Biology (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s42003-020-01372-8
Burial 1 with the skeletal remains of two infants recovered as block in 2005 (ind1 on the left, ind2 on the right).
A team of researchers affiliated with multiple institutions in Austria, the U.S. and Portugal has identified the remains of two infants found in an ancient grave in Austria as identical twin babies. In their paper published in the journal Communications Biology, the group describes their study of the remains and the surrounding artifacts and what they learned about the burial.

Back in 2005, archeologists discovered the remains of three very young people buried in a grave at the Krems-Wachtberg, dig site in Austria — all three had been dated to approximately 30,000 years ago. Work at the site has revealed the presence of an ancient settlement called Gravettian. In this new effort, the researchers have studied the remains of the three infants and analyzed other artifacts found in the gravesite with them.

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Better Earth

Submerged 6,000-year-old prehistoric settlement reveals Black Sea level was 5 meters lower

Ropotamo
© archaeologist Kalin Dimitrov, via Radio Free Europe
Parts of the wooden stilts that the prehistoric people used to support their homes already in the Bronze Age, after the sharp rise of the Black Sea level, can still be seen today.
Underwater archaeologists have discovered that a submerged prehistoric settlement near the mouth of the Ropotamo River in Southeast Bulgaria previously thought to be from the Bronze Age was in fact 1,000 years older, going back to the Chalcolithic (Copper Age), and have established that 5,000 years ago, the level of the Black Sea was 5 meters lower than it is today.

Archaeological traces from the submerged prehistoric settlement on the Black Sea coast, near the mouth of the Ropotamo River in Burgas District in Southeast Bulgaria were first stumbled upon in the 1970s.

In 2017-2019, an international archaeological team from the Black Sea MAP project discovered the submerged prehistoric settlement off the coast at the mouth of the Ropotamo River, and judged it to be from the Early Bronze Age.

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Question

When did humans first go to war?

Cain killing Abel
© Titian/Wikimedia
Cain killing Abel.
When modern humans arrived in Europe around 40,000 years ago, they made a discovery that was to change the course of history.

The continent was already populated by our evolutionary cousins, the Neanderthals, which recent evidence suggests had their own relatively sophisticated culture and technology. But within a few thousand years the Neanderthals were gone, leaving our species to continue its spread to every corner of the globe.

Precisely how Neanderthals became extinct remains a subject of fierce debate among researchers. The two main explanations given in recent years have been competition with the recently arrived modern humans and global climate change.

The persistence of Neanderthal genetic material in all modern people outside of Africa shows the two species interacted and even had sex. But it's possible that there were other kinds of interactions as well.

Some researchers have suggested that competition for resources such as prey and raw materials for stone tools may have taken place. Others have proposed violent interactions and even warfare took place, and that this may have caused the Neanderthals' demise.

This idea might seem compelling, given our species' violent history of warfare. But proving the existence of early warfare is a problematic (although fascinating) area of research.

Snakes in Suits

Worth The Price? Joe Biden And The Launch of The Iraq War

Biden worth the price
Worth the Price? Joe Biden and the Launch of the Iraq War is a documentary short reviewing the role of then-Senator Joe Biden (D-DE) in leading the United States into the most devastating foreign policy blunder of the last twenty years.

Produced and directed by Mark Weisbrot and narrated by Danny Glover, the film features archival footage, as well as policy experts who provide insight and testimony with regard to Joe Biden's role as the Chair of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in 2002.


Comment: This sick dimension of Biden's political record is lost on so many of his "progressive" supporters; he's a paid neocon/neoliberal shill that will speak and advocate vociferously on behalf war for war's sake. And is quite probably prepared to do so again, and again, and again - if he's told to do so.


Cookies

5,000 year old skeleton found in Germany shows damage arrival of agriculture had on human health

Bietikow

The "Lady of Bietikow," as she has been named, was found in northeastern Germany and died more than 5,000 years ago
The "Lady of Bietikow," as she has been named, was found in northeastern Germany and died more than 5,000 years ago

German researchers are piecing together the life of a prehistoric woman who died more than 5,000 years ago in the Neolithic period, after her skeleton was found during excavation works for wind turbines.

The "Lady of Bietikow," as she has been named, was found near a village of the same name in northeastern Germany's Uckermark region.

The skeleton had been buried in a settlement in a squatting position, one of the oldest known forms of burial, according to local media.

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Colosseum

Tombstone reveals life of veteran 1st century Roman soldier and his slave

Almus

Ruins of Roman city of Almus
A tombstone inscription in Latin revealing the "sad" life story of a Roman military veteran who served a total of 44 years in the Roman military, an untypically long period, has been discovered during the excavations of the Ancient Roman city of Almus, today the town of Lom on the Danube River in Northwest Bulgaria.

Almus was one of the many substantial Roman settlements on the southern bank of the Danube River. While the main Almus Fortress was in the 3rd - 4th century, during the reigns of Roman Emperors Diocletian (r. 284-305 AD) and Constantine the Great (r. 306-337 AD), an early Roman fortress wall going back to the second half of the 1st century was discovered in 2019.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's:


Microscope 2

Trench fever found in 3rd century Christian community in Roman Syracuse

cemetery

USF associate professor Davide Tanasi leading the excavation of remains from a Roman cemetery in Syracuse, Sicily.
First observed among British Expeditionary Forces in 1915, trench fever sickened an estimated 500,000 soldiers during World War I. Since then, the disease has become synonymous with the battlefield. But now, new research from an international team of scientists has uncovered evidence challenging this long-held belief.

The research, published this week in "PLOS ONE", outlines the discovery of DNA evidence of the disease in civilian remains predating WWI by thousands of years. In total, the team analyzed bone fragments and teeth of 145 individuals alive between the 1st and 19th centuries. Approximately 20% of those remains contained traces of Bartonella quintana, the bacteria responsible for trench fever.

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Better Earth

Adapt 2030: Submerged medieval settlements - Hidden history seawall anomaly

Submerged Medieval Settlements Netherlands
© YouTube/Adapt 2030 (screen capture)
One of the Seven Engineering Wonders of the World placing a seawall across 18 miles of ocean inlet, the Zuiderzee and Delta Works of the Netherlands, unearthed former settlements from 1000A.D and it was claimed that a thousand years ago people of the time built something similar with wood and earth then pumped out cubic miles of sea water settled the land and a storm in 1287 flooded the place and nobody drained the area for eight years until the 1930's. Hidden history what do you think?


Comment: Traces of four "drowned" medieval settlements discovered by Dutch archaeologists


Map

Neolithic construction boom led to mega henges being built across southern Britain

antlers
© Cardiff University
One of the antler picks that were sampled during the research. As these picks were used to dig out the ditches of the henge, they provide a good indication of the date that the monument was constructed.
Frantic building activity around 2500 BC resulted in massive ceremonial structures appearing in southern Britain, a study from Cardiff University says.

Academics used the latest scientific methods to re-examine the remains of the Mount Pleasant 'mega henge', a large prehistoric enclosure, located just outside Dorchester in Dorset. This is the first time accurate dating has been obtained for the major late Neolithic monument and offers new insights into the incredible speed at which construction took place.

Inside Mount Pleasant henge was a large, fenced enclosure and a complex concentric timber and stone monument. On top of the bank was built a great mound. The new analysis shows that all these different elements were completed in less than 125 years - much less time than previously thought. The data shows the site was built only 150 years or so before the arrival of new people from continental Europe, who brought the first metals and different pottery as well as new ideas and religious beliefs.


Comment: It was more than simply the 'arrival' of new people, for the most part the arrival of the Beaker peoples entirely replaced the DNA of those living there at the time.


Comment: Researchers can't be certain that the date they've come to is accurate nor that what dated belonged to the original builders. It's quite possible that they were built much earlier: See also: And check out SOTT radio's:


Better Earth

Traces of four "drowned" medieval settlements discovered by Dutch archaeologists

Noordoostpolder
© Public domain via Wikimedia Commons
A satellite image of the Noordoostpolder, a Dutch municipality where the four settlements were found
Archaeologists have long known that multiple medieval settlements stood along the Zuiderzee, a now-obstructed inlet of the North Sea that used to cut through the Netherlands. Researchers unearthed two such historic towns — Urk and Schokland — in the mid-20th century, but until recently, the locations of other settlements remained unknown.

As Dutch regional broadcaster Omroep Flevoland reports, Yftinus van Popta, an archaeologist at the University of Groningen, has identified four "drowned" medieval villages in the Noordoostpolder, a low-lying tract of land reclaimed from the Zuiderzee in the 1940s, after five years of extensive research. (Per the United States Geological Survey, engineers reclaimed the Noordoostpolder and other flood-prone polders by draining water from the Zuiderzee and building a series of dikes.)

Comment: Research has shown that this was flooding of a kind we've yet to see in our own time: Also check out SOTT radio's: