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Wed, 19 Jan 2022
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Secret History


A brief history of time

Even though time has existed since the beginning of, well, time, it was still necessary to invent it.
The Samrat Yantra
© Jorge Láscar, CC BY 2.0. LEFT: Jakub Hałun CC BY-SA 4.0
The Samrat Yantra is the largest purpose-built sundial in the world, with its gnomon — or tower — standing 73 feet (27 m) high. Built in the early 18th century, the massive instrument is part of the Jantar Mantar observatory in Jaipur, India. The gnomon (below) casts a shadow onto the flanking quadrant arcs, which can indicate the time to an accuracy of two seconds.
Time and astronomy are inseparable. Humans have been using the motions of the stars, Sun, and Moon for thousands of years to regulate their hunting, crops, religion, and lives in every way. And as astronomy developed, so did the need for more precise timekeeping.

There are many ways to ask, "What is the time?" Astronomers can use solar standard time, mean solar time, sidereal time, Universal Time, or Julian Date and its many modified forms. Astronomers describe three different types of twilight, the equation of time, 24 time zones, and an astronomical day. Understanding these different "times" gives us a better idea of our relationship with the sky above, and the spinning Earth on which we live.

The beginning of time

Early civilizations developed two types of calendars. The oldest is lunar in nature. It might seem more logical for the Sun to have been the first timekeeper, but archaeologists have found bones of mammoths and other animals dating over 20,000 years old that appear to have carvings recording phases of the Moon. During that period of human history, hunters tracking game needed to know how long they had been gone from their camp, making the Moon the obvious choice to track the passage of time.

It would be millennia before the Sun replaced the Moon in our modern calendar. This is because Earth and the Moon are involved in a cosmic mashup that is difficult to untangle. Most ancient cultures heralded the beginning of the month when the thin crescent or "New Moon" could be seen after sunset. There are 354 and a fraction days in a lunar year with 12 lunar months. Earth, however, revolves around the Sun every 365.242 days. While this was not a problem in a purely ceremonial or religious calendar, trying to mesh these two calendars was impossible.

The solution to this issue was proposed by Sosigenes of Alexandria, Cleopatra's court astronomer and arguably the most influential astronomer in all of history. Julius Caesar employed Sosigenes to fix the old Roman lunar calendar. By Caesar's time, the lunar calendar had become so out of sync with the seasons that it required a decree from the emperor to remedy the situation. At Sosigenes' suggestion, the old lunar calendar was replaced with one which used only the Sun to delineate the year. The Moon was left to drift through the 12 months of Caesar's new calendar.

This Julian calendar also implemented leap years, adding one extra day every four years. But this was not quite a perfect fix, as the last fraction of a day in a year is slightly less than one-quarter of a day. By the 16th century, the Julian calendar was also out of step with the seasons. This led Pope Gregory XIII to implement updates in 1582 that dictated leap years be skipped on years divisible by 100 except when divisible by 400. So while 1900 was not a leap year, 2000 was. Two thousand years later, the whole world still uses the modified calendar of Sosigenes.

Eye 2

Belgium complicit in killing of popular African leader Prince Louis Rwagasore, book claims

Prince Louis Rwagasore
Prince Louis Rwagasore
Belgium has "overwhelming responsibility" for the killing of Prince Louis Rwagasore, the popular Burundian leader who sought to unite the country's ethnic groups as it gained freedom from the colonial power, new evidence shows.

Weeks after being elected prime minister in a landslide, Rwagasore, the 29-year-old son of a former king, was assassinated in October 1961. The governing Belgian elite masterminded the shooting while Brussels turned a blind eye, according to archived records uncovered by Flemish sociologist Ludo De Witte.

Although the shooter, a Greek national, and five accomplices were executed, De Witte said that probes by the Belgian colonial court, the government of independent Burundi, and the UN all neglected Belgium's role in the killing, which led to decades of war, ethnic tensions, and instability.

Monkey Wrench

Arctic hunter-gatherers were advanced ironworkers more than 2,000 years ago

© CC BY 4.0 S. Nygren, Norrbottens Museum, Carina Bennerhag et al/Antiquity 2021
Discoveries from northeastern Sweden, including this molded bronze buckle (front and back shown), have uncovered advanced iron production and metalworking among hunter-gatherers who lived there more than 2,000 years ago.
Hunter-gatherers who lived more than 2,000 years ago near the top of the world appear to have run ironworking operations as advanced as those of farming societies far to the south.

Excavations in what's now northeastern Sweden uncovered ancient furnaces and fire pits that hunter-gatherers used for metalworking. A mobile lifestyle did not prevent hardy groups based in or near the Arctic Circle from organizing large-scale efforts to produce iron and craft metal objects, say archaeologist Carina Bennerhag of Luleå University of Technology in Sweden and colleagues. In fact, hunter-gatherers who moved for part of the year across cold, forested regions dotted with lakes and swampy patches apparently exchanged resources and knowledge related to metallurgy, the extraction of metals from ores, the researchers report in the December Antiquity.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's: MindMatters: America Before: Comets, Catastrophes, Mounds and Mythology


Ancient petroglyphs in Iran on the verge of destruction

ancient rock-carved petroglyphs
© Tehran Times
TEHRAN – Arrays of ancient rock-carved petroglyphs, scattered in central Iranian plains, are suffering from environmental and physical damage, Mehr reported on Tuesday.
International experts Jan Brouwer and Gus van Veen have examined the Teymareh site estimating its carvings were made 40,000-4,000 years ago.

Having a considerable potential to become a UNESCO World Heritage, the site was named a common cultural heritage between the two provinces of Isfahan and Markazi in 1389 (Mar. 2010 - Mar. 2011), the report said.

It embraces countless petroglyphs from prehistorical times to the (early) Islamic eras, yet, over the past couple of years, some local entities have issued mining licenses and allowed shepherds to graze their livestock there, the news agency said.

According to a local tourism official, currently, mines operations are a serious threat of destruction for this area as miners demolish that landscape that contains ancient petroglyphs to obtain resources for silica (the element needed to make glass)... and they turn them into rubbish.

In 2020, a prehistorical petroglyph, which bears Pahlavi script written by ordinary people of the time, was found during an archaeological survey in Teymareh. "This is the sixth petroglyph, engraved with Pahlavi script, which has so far been found in the highlands of Teymareh. And the petroglyph is estimated to date back to 2,200 years ago," according to Iranian archaeologist Mohammad Nasserifard.


US intelligence errors helped build myth of Nazi Alpine redoubt, says historian with access to classified records

The myth of Nazis setting themselves up on snowy mountaintops later became a staple of such films as Where Eagles Dare, starring Clint Eastwood and Richard Burton.
A US spymaster inadvertently helped the Nazis develop one of the most effective disinformation campaigns of the second world war by spreading rumours about Hitler's plans for a Where Eagles Dare-style Alpine redoubt, a historian with access to classified US military records has found.

The myth that the Nazis were amassing weapons and crack units of 100,000 fanatical soldiers in the spring of 1945 for a last stand in the Austro-Bavarian Alps was without any basis in fact but had a powerful hold on the imagination of American and British military leaders, who feared it could prolong the war for years.

Thomas Boghardt, a German historian at the US Army Center of Military History in Washington DC, argues in a new book that the myth of an Alpine Nazi fortress was not a crucial factor behind American forces abandoning the race to Berlin in favour of a southward push but was one that US spycraft had a hand in making.

Comment: See also:


Bronze Age settlement found under Roman bath complex at Corinth reveals spectacular finds

bronze age
© Greek Ministry of Culture
Spectacular finds from the site of Chiliomodi, ancient Corinth.
A Bronze Age settlement and an elegant Roman bath complex were recently unearthed at the site of ancient Corinth, the Greek Ministry of Culture announced on Wednesday. The excavation at Chiliomodi, Corinth not only confirmed the existence of the extensive nature of the Roman baths but also revealed the existence of a Bronze Age settlement underneath, which had previously been unknown to researchers.

Archaeologists working the dig under the auspices of the Greek Ministry of Culture date the original settlement in Tenea back to the 3rd millennium BC and say that it was one of the first to be created in the northeastern Peloponnesian peninsula of Greece.

The purpose of this year's research, under the direction of Dr. Elenas Korka, was to further excavate the areas of the Roman baths that were excavated in 2019 and 2020, and to investigate the possible expansion of the surrounding market areas that were identified for the first time last year.

Comment: See also:


New report - CIA experimented on hundreds of orphaned Danish children

Children Experimented on!
© Sofie Barfoed
In 1962, a secret research project started, which was supported by the CIA. In a basement at the Municipal Hospital, 311 Danish children, many of whom were placed in orphanages, were used in a number of research experiments.
According to a new documentary out of Denmark, which interviewed former victims, the Central Intelligence Agency secretly carried out experiments on 311 orphaned children. The experiments were meant to reveal psychopathic traits and map out the link between schizophrenia and heredity. According to the report, the children were tortured in clear violation of the Nuremberg Code of 1947 that introduced ethical restrictions for experiments on humans.

Hundreds of Danish orphans were unknowingly used in experiments backed by the CIA, according to Danish Radio, reporting on a new documentary called "The Search for Myself."

According to the report, the experiments began in the early 1960s and spanned the course of two decades. They were conducted to investigate the link between heredity and environment in the development of schizophrenia. However, the children were not told what research they were involved in. Not even after the experiments ended. It was also funded in part by a CIA front associated with the MK-Ultra program.

Eerily, the examinations took place in a basement at the Municipal Hospital in Copenhagen. The director and producer of the documentary, Per Wennick, was actually a victim of the CIA and subjected to these experiments as a child. In the documentary, he recalled being placed in a chair, getting electrodes put on his arms, legs, and chest around the heart and having to listen to loud, shrill noises, which attempted to incite a psychological response.

"It was very uncomfortable", Wennick told Danish Radio. "And it's not just my story, it's the story of many children." By his own admission, he was promised "something funny" before being taken to the hospital. "I think this is a violation of my rights as a citizen in this society. I find it so strange that some people should know more about me than I myself have been aware of."

According to historian, PhD, and museum inspector at the Danish Welfare Museum, Jacob Knage Rasmussen, this was the only known experiment in Danish history that used children under state care for research — and it was funded by the CIA in violation of the Nuremberg Code.

Better Earth

Skeleton of young man killed by tsunami caused by eruption of Thera 3,600 years ago found on Turkish coast

© Vasıf Şahoğlu.
Excavated skeleton of a tsunami victim.
An international team of researchers has found and excavated the remains of a young man killed approximately 3,600 years ago by a tsunami created by the eruption of Thera — a volcano located on what is now the island of Santorini. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes how the remains were found and how they were identified as belonging to a victim of the Thera tsunami.

Prior research has shown that the eruption of Thera was a major event — so powerful that it has been blamed for the decline of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. Prior research has also shown that the eruption occurred sometime during the 1500s to 1600s B.C.

Santorini is located in the eastern Mediterranean, north of Crete, between southern Greece and southern Turkey. And while evidence of the ash that fell from the skies in areas all around the eruption site has been plentiful, there has been scant evidence of the tsunami. This is because tsunamis tend to pull debris and bodies back into the sea, rather than leave covered evidence on shore. And because of that, the remains of the victims of the Thera tsunami have never been found — not one single body — until now.

Comment: In Volcanoes, Earthquakes And The 3,600 Year Comet Cycle, Pierre Lescaudron details how there was much more going on at the time than just the eruption of Thera:
Thera, in the Mediterranean Sea, and Aniakchak, in Alaska, were massive eruptions but apparently they are not the only volcanoes that became active around 1627 BC: From the ratios suggested by Vogel, we can deduce the following:
  • Thera contributed about 5% of total atmospheric dust
  • Vesuvius (Avellino) 15%
  • St. Helens 2.5%
  • Aniakchak 20%
So those four eruptions, despite their exceptional magnitude, only account for about 42% of the total atmospheric dust found in ice cores.

[...] the Chinese annals appear to have recorded something akin to a close cometary passage at the time of the 1600 BC events.

Notice also the mention of earthquakes ("the Earth shook"). As noted, cometary events are closely correlated with seismic activity (along with volcanic activity). The "stars falling like rain," as reported by the Bamboo annals, was obviously not a minor event because 1600 BC also marked the end of the Xia dynasty, which had ruled over Eastern China for four centuries.
See also: Also check out SOTT radio's: MindMatters: The Holy Grail, Comets, Earth Changes and Randall Carlson

Blue Planet

Nits on 1,700 year old Andes mummies shed light on Amazonian ancestry, links with South America's founding lineage

andes mummy
© Universidad Nacional de San Juan
A mummified adult man of the Ansilta culture, from the Andes of San Juan, Argentina, dating back approx 2,000 years.
Human DNA can be extracted from the 'cement' head lice used to glue their eggs to hairs thousands of years ago, scientists have found, which could provide an important new window into the past.

In a new study, scientists for the first time recovered DNA from cement on hairs taken from mummified remains that date back 1,500-2,000 years. This is possible because skin cells from the scalp become encased in the cement produced by female lice as they attach eggs, known as nits, to the hair.

Analysis of this newly-recovered ancient DNA — which was of better quality than that recovered through other methods — has revealed clues about pre-Columbian human migration patterns within South America. This method could allow many more unique samples to be studied from human remains where bone and tooth samples are unavailable.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's: MindMatters: America Before: Comets, Catastrophes, Mounds and Mythology


7,000-year-old evidence of social beer consumption earliest ever found in the Levant

Tel Tsaf
© University of Haifa
A view of the archaeological site at Tel Tsaf, in the Jordan Valley
Israeli researchers say they have discovered the first evidence of social beer consumption within communities in the ancient Middle East, after finding the remains of cereal grains used to produce alcohol in a 7,000-year-old town.

Beer is known to have been used in ancient times for ceremonial and religious purposes, but the find is the earliest indication of social drinking in the Levant prior to the widespread appearance of alcohol in the Bronze Age (circa 3300 BCE).

In the study, archaeologists from the University of Haifa found starch residue from wheat and barley grains in ancient pottery at Tel Tsaf, located in the central Jordan Valley. The town dates back to the Chalcolithic era, from around 5000 BCE.

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