Secret HistoryS

Cow Skull

Vikings invaded with fire, the sword... and MICE: Rodents 'hitched lifts' on longboats in 10th Century

Mice hitched a ride with Vikings to mount their own invasions in the 10th century, research has shown.

Viking longboats carried house mice to colonies in Iceland and Greenland - and their descendants are still alive today.

Scientists compared modern mouse DNA with ancient samples from mouse bones found at archaeological sites.

© UnknownShetland's 'Up Helly Aa' Viking festival: As the Norsemen conquered and colonised areas, they brought with them the pitter-patter of tiny feet - Scientists found that mice in Iceland are descended from 10th century 'hitchhikers'
The analysis showed that the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, hitched lifts with Vikings in the early 10th century from either Norway or the northern British Isles.

Descendants of these stowaways can still be found in Iceland where DNA samples were collected from nine sites.

From Iceland, the mice continued their Viking voyages to settlements in Greenland.

However, no trace of the Norse mice could be found in Newfoundland, even though the Vikings are known to have reached the Canadian province.

Magic Wand

Tuh beh oar nat tuh beh?' That was the question

Shakespeare original language
© Unknown
This radically different pronunciation is, according to a new scholarly recording of Shakespeare's works, much closer to the way the line would have been spoken

"To be, or not to be, that is the question." Or is it "Tuh beh oar nat tuh beh"? If you were to ask the Bard himself, he'd probably say the latter.

This radically different pronunciation is, according to a new scholarly recording of Shakespeare's works, much closer to the way the line would have been spoken by the company of actors who first performed Hamlet 400 years ago.

Far from the haughty clipped vowels we are used to hearing from a thousand actors since Laurence Olivier, the "real" Shakespeare sounds more like a West Country farmer, with a dash of Irish and even a hint of east coast American.

"People from all over the country were coming to Elizabethan London and their accents were fusing," said Ben Crystal, an actor, director and expert in OP (original pronunciation) Shakespeare. "Not long after Shakespeare's time people started getting on the boats to America, and later Australia. Some sounds in modern accents from these places, are the same sounds that would have been heard on the tongues of Shakespeare's contemporaries."


Archaeologists Return to Excavate Major 3,300-Year-Old Bronze Age Site in England

Some of the world's greatest archaeological finds don't emerge as a result of planned investigation. They were accidental. They were stumbled upon. And such was literally the case in 1982 when Francis Pryor, MBE, was in the midst of conducting a survey of dykes in the Peterborough area in England for English Heritage, a public commission responsible for managing historic buildings.

"I was walking back to the pub," says Pryor, "when I caught my foot on a large piece of wood. When I picked up the piece of wood, I looked at it, and then when I spotted the axe marks, about an inch and one-half wide, I knew that it had to be Bronze Age........"
© Wikimedia CommonsBronze Age dwelling at Flag Fen.
For the following several weeks, Pryor and his team proceeded to excavate along the side of a dyke, in the area where the initial wood sample had been found, and recovered hundreds of additional pieces of similar timber.

"It was fantastic," said Pryor. "I didn't sleep for weeks after that."


Remains of dark ages princess found in field in Cambridge

© Cambridge University Archaeological Unit The gold cross following restoration
The remains of a mysterious Anglo-Saxon princess, who died thirteen and a half centuries ago, have been found in a field three miles south of Cambridge. Aged just 16 when she died, and buried lying on a special high status funerary bed, she was laid to rest with a small solid gold, garnet encrusted, Christian cross upon her chest.

Her exact identity is as yet a complete mystery. However, it's likely that she was a member of one of the newly Christianized Anglo-Saxon royal families of the period. She was buried fully clothed, her bronze and iron chatelaine (belt hook) and purse, still attached to her leather belt.

A clue to the circumstances of her death is the presence of three other individuals buried in separate graves alongside her (two women aged around 20 and one other slightly older individual of indeterminate sex, but conceivably female). It's likely that they died at the same time - probably from some sort of epidemic. Significantly, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that England was devastated by the plague in 664 AD (around the very time that the archaeological evidence also suggests they died).

Top Secret

Science and UFOs: Part 1 - The Condon Committee Con Job

© Unknown
The late Dr. James E. McDonald - who held the title "Senior Physicist, Institute of Atmospheric Physics" at the University of Arizona - is one of the very few scientists to actually study the UFO phenomenon. In a prepared statement before the U.S. Congress' House Committee on Science and Astronautics, delivered on July 29, 1968, McDonald said this:
"From time to time in the history of science, situations have arisen in which a problem of ultimately enormous importance went begging for adequate attention simply because that problem appeared to involve phenomena so far outside the current bounds of scientific knowledge that it was not even regarded as a legitimate subject of serious scientific concern. That is precisely the situation in which the UFO problem now lies. One of the principal results of my own recent intensive study of the UFO enigma is this: I have become convinced that the scientific community, not only in this country but throughout the world, has been casually ignoring as nonsense a matter of extraordinary scientific importance." 1
And how did McDonald arrive at that opinion? After several authorized, extended visits to the U.S. Air Force's UFO Project Blue Book, to review its files, he wrote, "There are hundreds of good cases in the Air Force files that should have led to top-level scientific scrutiny of [UFOs] years ago, yet these cases have been swept under the rug in a most disturbing way by Project Blue Book investigators and their consultants."2

McDonald's full statement before Congress may be found in the U.S. Congressional Record, as well as on the Internet. While acknowledging that the overwhelming majority of UFO sightings undoubtedly had prosaic explanations, and that a great many questions about the phenomenon remained unanswered, McDonald succinctly summarized his conclusions regarding the most credible of the unexplained cases: "My own present opinion, based on two years of careful study, is that UFOs are probably extraterrestrial devices engaged in something that might very tentatively be termed 'surveillance.'"3


Mysterious Chinese Fossils May Be New Human Species

Ancient Skull
© Darren CurnoeA view of a skull from the Red Deer Cave People. Researchers found the species had unique features seen neither in modern nor known archaic lineages of humans.

Mysterious fossils of what may be a previously unknown type of human have been uncovered in caves in China, ones that possess a highly unusual mix of bygone and modern human features, scientists reveal.

Surprisingly, the fossils are only between 11,500 and 14,500 years old. That means they would have shared the landscape with modern humans when China's earliest farmers were first appearing.

"These new fossils might be of a previously unknown species, one that survived until the very end of the ice age around 11,000 years ago," said researcher Darren Curnoe, a palaeoanthropologist at the University of New South Wales in Australia.

"Alternatively, they might represent a very early and previously unknown migration of modern humans out of Africa, a population who may not have contributed genetically to living people," Curnoe added.

Chart Pie

Income inequality in the Roman Empire

Roman inequality
© Biker Jun

Over the last 30 years, wealth in the United States has been steadily concentrating in the upper economic echelons. Whereas the top 1 percent used to control a little over 30 percent of the wealth, they now control 40 percent. It's a trend that was for decades brushed under the rug but is now on the tops of minds and at the tips of tongues.

Since too much inequality can foment revolt and instability, the CIA regularly updates statistics on income distribution for countries around the world, including the U.S. Between 1997 and 2007, inequality in the U.S. grew by almost 10 percent, making it more unequal than Russia, infamous for its powerful oligarchs. The U.S. is not faring well historically, either. Even the Roman Empire, a society built on conquest and slave labor, had a more equitable income distribution.

To determine the size of the Roman economy and the distribution of income, historians Walter Schiedel and Steven Friesen pored over papyri ledgers, previous scholarly estimates, imperial edicts, and Biblical passages. Their target was the state of the economy when the empire was at its population zenith, around 150 C.E. Schiedel and Friesen estimate that the top 1 percent of Roman society controlled 16 percent of the wealth, less than half of what America's top 1 percent control.


Lost Da Vinci Found? Mona Lisa Paint Lends Clue

Battle of Anghiari
© Wikimedia CommonsPeter Paul Rubens' copy of Leonardo's "The Battle of Anghiari."

Researchers struggling to solve a longstanding Leonardo da Vinci mystery -- the fate of a lost masterpiece known as the "Battle of Anghiari -- have found intriguing traces of paint hidden behind a 5-inch-thick frescoed wall in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence's 14th-century city hall.

The color is consistent with that used by the Renaissance creator of the Mona Lisa, suggesting that Leonardo's artwork has remained hidden behind that frescoed wall for more than 500 years.

Known as the "Battle of Marciano," the mural was painted by the renowned 15th-century painter, architect and writer Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) in the imposing Hall of the Five Hundred. The hall was a room built at the end of the 15th century to accommodate the meetings of the Florentine Council.

Right behind that wall could lie one of the biggest discoveries in the history of art, according to art diagnostic expert Maurizio Seracini, director of the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture and Archaeology at the University of California, San Diego, who has been searching for the lost masterpiece since the 1970s.

Three months ago Seracini's team drilled six tiny holes into Vasari's fresco, inserted a 0.15-inch-wide probe and micro-cameras and collected samples of red, white, orange and black material.

Analysis with a scanning electron microscope revealed the black material had an unusual chemical makeup of manganese and iron.


Bizarre Mummy With Giant Head Discovered In Peru

Giant head mummy peru
Bizzare mummy discovered in Peru

A very strange abnormal-looking mummy with giant head has been unearthed in Peru.

The discovery was made in the Cuzco region, the heart of Incan civilization.

Researchers find the mummy extremely odd. The mummy simply does not fit in with the version of history that we have all been taught.

The mummy's head is triangular and its eye cavities are very big.

"It's 20 inches tall, which doesn't coincide with the stereotypes of humans. It's head is triangular and the eye cavities are too big.

The lower front part of the jaw has a kind of fin that doesn't exist in any ethnicity in the world.

The opening at the top of the head also calls for attention, and it has wisdom teeth and molars that also don't coincide with any human being," explains anthropologist Renata Davila.

According to Anthropologist Pablo Bayabar, "children's heads are proportionally bigger than their bodies.

Here we have two points.

First, the fontanelle is open, which usually closes at 31 months. And it has molars that usually appears between approximately 13 and 19 months.

So we are looking at a child under two years old with an enormous head."

Bizarro Earth

Severe Weather Responsible for Cahokia's Demise?

Long ago, tens of thousands of residents populated an area east of modern day St. Louis we call today as Cahokia. Starting in about 700 A.D. and lasting about 600 years, this metropolis rivaled in size other large cities such as London. Around 1000 A.D., the area exploded in growth from about 1000 to 15,000 (some say even 40,000) people in just 100 years. With certainty it was the largest and most advanced city north of Mexico before Columbus arrived.
© Cahokia Mounds Museum SocietyArtist's rendition of Cahokia Mounds
One hundred and twenty earthen mounds were built solely with human hands by moving dirt with stone hoes and woven baskets. Five large and extremely accurate cedar pole solar calendars similar to Stonehenge were constructed in a central plaza. Sophisticated wooden buildings were built for ritual and residential purposes. Trade was conducted with other societies thousands of miles away. A defensive wall with watch towers circled the city. They had a prominent, central system of government made up of chiefs, religious leaders and an elite class. Lesser class citizens grew crops for the upper class and other urban residents who were mainly tradesmen and artisans.

And then they were gone.