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Thu, 27 Jan 2022
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Secret History


Possible lunisolar calendar systems at Gobekli Tepe and Karahan Tepe

The following manuscript will soon be submitted for peer-review to an academic journal. It is reproduced here with the permission of the journal. Please see the acknowledgments section for proper attribution of ideas.


Gobekli Tepe is a remarkable ancient archaeological site in southern Turkey featuring several sub-circular temple-like enclosures adorned with many carved symbols. The oldest radiocarbon date obtained, so far, for the site places one of its enclosures, Enclosure D, at the Epipalaeolithic-Neolithic boundary, circa 9,500 BCE. Earlier work provided an astronomical interpretation for some of its symbolism, focussing on the animal symbols which were interpreted in terms of familiar constellations.

Here, that earlier interpretation is extended by showing how V-symbols on Pillar 43 in Enclosure D, in particular, can be interpreted in terms of a lunisolar calendar system, which would make it the oldest known example of its type. Furthermore, it is shown that a stone 11-pillar pool structure at neighbouring Karahan Tepe can also be interpreted in terms of the same lunisolar calendar system.

Other V-symbols at Gobekli Tepe are also interpreted in astronomical terms. Finally, it is shown how the Urfa Man statue and a carving at Sayburc can be interpreted as time-controlling or creator deities. Symbolic links with later cultures from the Fertile Crescent are explored.
Pillar D
© Image courtesy of Alistair Coombs
Figure 1. Left: Plan of Enclosures A to D at Gobekli Tepe. Right: Pillar 43 at Gobekli Tepe, Enclosure D.


Across the Muslim world, Islamism is going out of vogue

Jakarta protest
© Wikimedia Commons
A protest in Jakarta, Indonesia, 2017
Though the Taliban has once again taken power in Afghanistan, they have come back at a rather inopportune time. Across the Muslim world, many seem to be souring on Islamists, defined as those who derive legitimacy from Islam and advocate for modern states to be governed along Islamic precepts, both economically and judicially. Over the last few years, Islamist governments have fallen out of power across the Middle East and Africa, haemorrhaged support in Turkey, and failed to make headway in Southeast Asia.

Islamism was once seen as an unstoppable force throughout most of the Muslim world, its proponents representing the most organized and influential voices in opposition to the often corrupt and incompetent secular leadership of Muslim countries. In more authoritarian states, mosques regularly served as one of the few "safe spaces" for citizens to vent their disenchantment about the state of society, ensuring the institutions of Islam a prominent place in the larger anti-statist opposition. Many Islamist groups further amass popular support by filling the gap left behind by woefully inadequate welfare systems and, in turn, providing their own social services, including schools and hospitals.

The issue is that once Islamists manage to get themselves into power, they frequently prove incapable of delivering on their promises. Islamist governments have often been, at best, incompetent and out-of-touch (as has been the case in the Arab world) and at worst, economically disastrous (as has been the case in Turkey and Sudan). In the more consolidated democracies of Malaysia and Indonesia, Islamist movements are fractious and riven by internal divisions and overly ambitious leaders. The Taliban may be back, but it would be a mistake to overstate the power of Islamist movements around the world.


Archaeological discoveries show Poverty Point is more complex than previously known

Poverty Point Samples
© Photo courtesy of Rinita Dalan
Examining soil core samples at Poverty Point World Heritage Site are, from left, Thurman Allen, a soil scientist retired from the Natural Resources Conservation Service; Mark Brink, Poverty Point WHS manager; Rinita Dalan, Ph.D., of Minnesota State University Moorhead; and Diana Greenlee, Ph.D., Poverty Point WHS station archaeologist, and ULM adjunct professor.
These earthworks, together with a buried, mound-like feature with unique soil properties unlike any of the known earthworks at the site, demonstrate that the Plaza at Poverty Point has a more elaborate construction history than we knew.

Diana Greenlee, Ph.D.
Poverty Point World Heritage Site is slowly revealing her secrets.

Diana Greenlee, Ph.D., station archaeologist at the ancient monumental earthworks and adjunct professor at the University of Louisiana Monroe School of Sciences, said recent archaeological research shows the site is "much more complex than previously realized."

The joint project by ULM and Minnesota State University Moorhead (MSUM ) was funded with a 2019 Preservation Technology and Training Grant from the U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service.

Greenlee, Rinita Dalan, Ph.D., of MSUM, and their colleagues focused on Poverty Point's central Plaza. This 43-acre area was created thousands of years ago by removing the original topsoil and then adding fill dirt to build a raised, near-level surface. To look at the Plaza today, one would not suspect what is hidden below.

Parts of the Plaza were surveyed using a sophisticated ground penetrating radar developed in Norway and used extensively by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Arne Anderson Stamnes, Ph.D., of the university's Terrestrial, Marine, and Aerial Remote sensing for archaeology research group, operated the GPR.

Nearly 2,000 reflectors, which are objects or soil disturbances that reflect the radar signals, were identified. These results were compared to other geophysical surveys.

Then, several targets were tested using a combination of soil coring, analyses of soil samples, and sieving for artifacts, and by lowering a geophysical sensor down the cored holes.

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MindMatters: Wall Street and the Russian Revolution, with Richard B. Spence

richard spence
History is rarely cut and dried, but important historical events are quite often portrayed in a very limited context, providing a very narrow understanding of how the world actually works. Or how the omission of a certain set of facts can almost completely upend our 'map of reality'; the commonly understood factors which brought about the Russian Revolution of 1917 being just such a story.

When we can begin to ask whether or not the U.S. government was actively engaged in undermining the Tsarist power structure in Russia, or how, at the same time, some of the largest and most powerful figures in American banking and industry helped organize and fund radical left causes there, or how U.S.-based media magnates twisted the news out of Russia to fit the agendas of the above - then we may start getting somewhere..

This week we speak with author and historian Richard B. Spence about his book Wall Street and the Russian Revolution, and delving into the data, agendas and dynamics that led to what is arguably one of the most profoundly destructive developments of the 20th century. And if the broader picture presented is more accurate than the more simplistic view, then we will surely be better equipped to see and understand what it is the Western world may be experiencing right now.

Running Time: 01:52:05

Download: MP3 — 154 MB

Bizarro Earth

Is Vesuvius taking an extended siesta?

Located near Naples, Italy, Vesuvius last had a violent eruption in 1944, towards the end of the Second World War. It could be a few hundred years before another dangerous, explosive eruption occurs, finds a new study by volcano experts at ETH Zurich.
Streets of Pompeii
© Jörn-​Frederik Wotzlaw
Pompeii was destroyed in 79 AD during a massive eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
Vesuvius is one of Europe's most dangerous volcanoes. More than three million people live in its immediate vicinity, and in historical and prehistoric times, there were explosive eruptions that destroyed entire settlements and towns in the area.

So, the pressing question is: When will Vesuvius erupt again and how strong could the eruption be?

To answer this question, a research group at ETH Zurich, in collaboration with researchers from Italy, has taken a close look at the four largest eruptions of Vesuvius over the last 10,000 years so that they can better assess whether a dangerous event might be expected in the foreseeable future.

The four eruptions studied include the Avellino eruption of 3,950 years ago, which is considered a possible "worst case scenario" for future eruptions, and the eruption of AD 79 that buried the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The latter was documented by the Roman writer Pliny the Younger, and so all eruptions of this type are referred to as "Plinian" eruptions. Further, the volcanologists studied eruptions of 472 AD and 8890 y BP. The sub-​Plinian eruption of AD 472 is the smallest of the investigated eruptions but still similar in size compared to the recent Tonga eruption.


How the untimely death of RG Collingwood changed the course of philosophy forever

RG Collingwood philosphy
© Nation Portrait Gallery, London. Painting Cortesy Teresa Smith
Robin George Collingwood, philosopher (1889 - 1943)
In the 20th century an unfortunate gulf opened up in philosophy between the "continental" and "analytic" schools. Even if you've never studied the subject, you might well have heard of this one split. But as the British moral philosopher Bernard Williams once pointed out, the very characterisation of this gulf is odd — one school being characterised by its qualities, the other geographically, like dividing cars between four-wheel drive models and those made in Japan.

Unsurprisingly, no one has come up with a satisfactory way of drawing the line between them. Broadly speaking, however, one can say that the continental school has its roots in the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl, and encompasses a range of diverse traditions, including the existentialism of Jean-Paul Sartre, the structuralism of Ferdinand de Saussure, the postmodernism of Jean-François Lyotard and the deconstructionism of Jacques Derrida. The analytic school, meanwhile, has its roots in the work of Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein and has been until fairly recently much more narrowly focused, concentrating mainly on logic and language.

Comment: More on this remarkable thinker: MindMatters: The Triumph of Irrationalism and the Death of Metaphysics

Red Flag

As a former US intelligence officer, I see a red flag in the CIA's latest anti-Russia playbook

© Washington Post
Reports that the CIA is running training programs to prepare Ukrainian forces for unconventional warfare bear an uncanny similarity to a long-exposed Cold War-era project. If history is any judge, it is likely to end the same way.

A tranche of allegations recently published in the press, ostensibly sourced to "five former intelligence and national security officials familiar with the initiative," claims that America's top spy agency has been, since 2015, conducting training for select Ukrainian military and security personnel. According to the speculation, the program aims to develop skillsets associated with unconventional warfare (UW), a form of conflict often referred to as insurgency. These reports say that the training takes place in the US, and is overseen by the CIA's paramilitary arm, the Special Activities Division.

An unconventional approach

The Department of Defense defines UW as:
"activities conducted to enable a resistance movement or insurgency to coerce, disrupt or overthrow an occupying power or government by operating through or with an underground, auxiliary or guerrilla force in a denied area."
The term 'guerrilla force' is further defined as:
"a group of irregular, predominantly indigenous personnel organized along military lines to conduct military and paramilitary operations in enemy-held, hostile, or denied territory."


Metal plate inserted into 2,000 year-old Peruvian warrior's skull may be oldest evidence of surgery

closeup skull surgery elongated peru
© Museum of Osteology
Silver and gold were typically used for this type of procedure,' a spokesperson for the SKELETONS: Museum of Osteology exhibit told the Daily Star
The 2,000 year old skull of a Peruvian warrior was found to have been fused together with metal in one of the world's oldest examples of advanced surgery, according to a museum.

The Museum of Osteology in Oklahoma says the skull, which is in its collection, is reported to have been that of a man who was injured during battle before having some of the earliest forms of surgery to implant a piece of metal in his head to repair the fracture.

Experts told the Daily Star that the man survived the surgery, with the skull now a key piece of evidence in proving that ancient peoples were capable of performing advanced surgeries.



Early hominid in China had biggest known brain of the time

Homo remains from Xujiayao, Shanxi, China
© Wikimedia Org
Homo remains from Xujiayao, Shanxi, China
BEIJING -- A study showed that the ancient relatives of modern humans in northern China may have had an "Einstein's brain" at the time they lived 200,000 to 160,000 years ago.

An international team led by Chinese archaeologists found that the cranial capacity of this hominin reached 1,700 cubic centimeters, an estimate made on the basis of skull fossils excavated in the 1970s from Xujiayao site.

"It is the largest big-headed hominin ever in the Middle Pleistocene," said Wu Xiujie, a researcher at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology under the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Wu's team reconstructed a fairly complete posterior cranium with three fragmented bones from the same young adult.

Xujiayao hominid's brain was slightly smaller than that of its close relative "Xuchang Man," estimated at about 1,800 cubic centimeters, but the former lived approximately 60,000 years earlier than the latter, according to the study published in the latest volume of Journal of Human Evolution.

Treasure Chest

2,000-year-old Celtic hoard of gold 'rainbow cups' discovered in Germany

Celtic coins
© M. Pilekić/MWFK montage
A selection of the 41 Celtic coins discovered in Brandenburg, Germany.
A volunteer archaeologist has discovered an ancient stash of Celtic coins, whose "value must have been immense," in Brandenburg, a state in northeastern Germany.

The 41 gold coins were minted more than 2,000 years ago, and are the first known Celtic gold treasure in Brandenburg, Manja Schüle, the Minister of Culture in Brandenburg announced in December 2021.

The coins are curved, a feature that inspired the German name "regenbogenschüsselchen," which translates to "rainbow cups." Just like the legend that there's a pot of gold at the end of a rainbow, "in popular belief, rainbow cups were found where a rainbow touched the Earth," Marjanko Pilekić, a numismatist and research assistant at the Coin Cabinet of the Schloss Friedenstein Gotha Foundation in Germany, who studied the hoard, told Live Science in an email.

Comment: See: And check out SOTT radio's: MindMatters: America Before: Comets, Catastrophes, Mounds and Mythology