Secret HistoryS


The Milky Way illuminated ancient Egypt's goddess of the sky

Astronomical simulations and ancient Egyptian texts show the Milky Way was linked to the ancient Egyptian sky goddess Nut. This fits within multicultural myths about our home galaxy.

Milky Way over the pyramids in Egypt.
© MarcelC/Getty ImagesMilky Way over the pyramids in Egypt.
The broad band of opalescent light and dark shadow that crosses the night sky has long fascinated humanity. Today it is known, variously, as the Milky Way, the Silver River, the Birds' Path. We see it as the celestial counterpart of major rivers, a path for departed spirits, the birthplace of angels. But how the ancient Egyptians — who left us some of the earliest records of the heavens — viewed the Milky Way has remained a mystery. Recently, I discovered some tantalizing clues that suggest a possible link between an ancient Egyptian goddess and our home galaxy.

The ancient Egyptians were keen observers of the night sky. They worked their astronomical observations into their religion, mythology and timekeeping (they invented such concepts as 365-day years and 24-hour days). The sun was the most important celestial object and was personified by the most important gods (chief among them Re). Scholars have identified the moon, planets and certain stars and constellations in Egyptian texts and tomb murals, some of which date back all the way to the age of the pyramids more than 4,000 years ago. The Milky Way, however, has not been identified conclusively.


'Intriguing' evidence of female mobility during the 630AD Christian Conversion Period

christian cross
A gold and garnet cloisonné cross, found in a 7th-century bed burial at Trumpington, Cambridgeshire.
Recent discoveries of exceptionally well-furnished 7th-century female burials - such as those from Trumpington (CA 343) and from Harpole (CA 395) - have drawn increasing attention to a phenomenon associated with the Conversion Period.

Isotope analysis of three of these elaborate burials has suggested that these women may have come from the Continent as brides, potentially to strengthen links with leading families in Britain and to help promote the conversion to Christianity. Until recently, this idea was based only on a very small number of burials - but to test whether the pattern holds true for the wider early medieval population, a project entitled 'Women of the Conversion Period - a Biomolecular Investigation' was launched, led by researchers from the University of Oxford.

The team initially analysed 86 burials (48 women and 38 men) from six cemeteries, as well as one isolated burial, over half of which were located in Kent, where cross-Channel mobility may have been particularly common. Five individuals were then excluded based on radiocarbon dates which indicated that they probably pre-dated the 7th century. This left a core group of 81 individuals, which were analysed for oxygen and strontium isotopes. By combining these results with previously published isotope data, the researchers were able to compare this core group with a larger dataset of 259 individuals spanning AD 630-800 (131 females and 128 males).

Comment: Recent insights are revealing how this was an incredibly significant period: And check out SOTT radio's:


Roman cavalry parade helmet recreated

The Hallaton Helmet alongside the new replica
© Leicestershire County Council MuseumsThe Hallaton Helmet alongside the new replica.
Working alongside the British Museum conservators who excavated and conserved the assemblage, staff and volunteers at Leicestershire Museums studied the helmet to produce reconstruction drawings with illustrator Debbie Miles. The resulting designs have been realised in 3D to recreate the helmet as it may have looked when it was new with the aim of reaching new audiences.

Rajesh Gogna, a Leicestershire-based silversmith and senior lecturer and practice-based researcher at De Montfort University produced a replica helmet by creating a CAD model which was 3D printed in SLA resin, electroformed, silver-plated and gilded. Rajesh hand finished at various stages including the brass elements like rivets and the pins which attach the cheekpieces to the helmet bowl. The interior of the helmet bowl and cheekpieces have been tarnished to give the impression of the helmet's iron bowl onto which the intricate decoration was applied.

Using this contemporary approach to silversmithing, Rajesh was able to make two identical helmets - one for Harborough Museum, Market Harborough and Hallaton Museum. The Association for Roman Archaeology also made a contribution to Hallaton Museum's replica.

Blue Planet

Newly discovered prehistoric henge reveals centuries-old sacred Christian site in Lincolnshire

© The Anchor Church Field ProjectAn aerial view of the excavation site at Crowland.
Archaeologists from Newcastle University have unearthed evidence for an evolving sacred landscape spanning centuries in Crowland, Lincolnshire. The study is published in the Journal of Field Archaeology.

Crowland today is dominated by the ruins of its medieval abbey. However, local tradition holds that the area was the site of an Anglo-Saxon hermitage belonging to Saint Guthlac, who died in the year 714 and was famed for his life of solitude, having given up a life of riches as the son of a nobleman.

When his uncorrupted body was discovered 12 months after his death, Guthlac was venerated by a small monastic community dedicated to his memory. Guthlac's popularity while he was alive, and the success of this cult and the pilgrimage it inspired, were key factors in the establishment of Crowland Abbey in the 10th century to honor the saint.

Comment: See also:


Archaeologists probe claims of giant skeletons in Nevada caves

lovelock cave giants legends paiutes
© Shutterstock/instacruisingThe entrance to Lovelock Cave in Nevada, where two miners accidentally stumbled upon the remains of dozens of ancient people - some of whom were reportedly abnormally tall.
Discoveries included a 15-inch sandal that had been worn down as well as massive handprints across the walls

Archaeologists have long been baffled about claims that a long-lost group of giant humans who stood up to 10 feet tall once lived in the southwestern US.

Supersized human skulls, 15-inch sandals, and massive handprints have been uncovered in excavations inside a cave in Lovelock, Nevada over the last century, which have continued to spark the curiosity of scientists and the public.

The claims about these 'Giants of Lovelock' originated from Native Americans who told stories about a brutal tribe of pale-skinned, red-haired invaders who waged war on the local groups, before finally being trapped in a cave and exterminated.

Comment: What ever the reality, the vanished tribe of red-headed 'barbarians' made a strong enough impact on the Paiutes to be enshrined in legend. Plus there are those pesky hand prints and other inconvenient artifacts making it difficult to dismiss their oral history.


A 130,000-year-old stingray sand sculpture maybe the world's oldest animal art

This is 90,000 years before cave paintings started to emerge in Europe.

Sting Ray art
© Image courtesy of Jan De Vynck (left) and Paul Cowley and Alan Whitfield (right)Spot the difference: the stingray "sculpture" with measuring bar (10cm) for scale and an illustration of a blue stingray.
At first glance, this might just look like strangely symmetrical rock. However, researchers have recently taken a deeper look at the object and speculate that it may be a prehistoric sand sculpture of a stingray. If that's true, it would make the relic the oldest known artwork of another animal.

It was discovered in 2018 along the cliffs near Still Bay, about 330 kilometers (205 miles) east of Cape Town on South Africa's coast. Along with its remarkable symmetry, some noticed the rock's shape had an uncanny similarity to the shape of a stingray, albeit with its tail snapped off.

In a new study, researchers at Nelson Mandela University investigated this idea and concluded that the object was created as a sand sculpture to depict a blue stingray (Dasyatis chrysonata). The team overlaid images of a blue stingray, a native of Africa's southern coast, with the rocky object and highlighted how they closely match in size and proportions.

To create the object, they contend that a prehistoric human may have come across a stingray along the water's shore and traced around it, a bit like a child making a sandcastle.

"This is the first and thus far the only example that suggests tracing from this time period. The chances of something like this being preserved and amenable to our interpretation are remote, so it is possible that this may be the only example ever identified, but we can always hope that more will become apparent," Charles Helm, lead study author and Research Associate from the African Centre for Coastal Palaeoscience at Nelson Mandela University, told IFLScience.


A circular building with six towers of the Achaemenid period discovered in Iran

Tappe Takhchar-Abad
© Mohsen Dana et al. / AntiquityAerial photograph of the end of the fourth season's excavations at Tappe Takhchar-Abad, Towers 1–6 (figure by authors).
Archaeologists have uncovered an almost circular adobe building with six towers, built in the 6th century BC, near Birjand in South Khorasan.

Excavations in the largely unexplored Khorasan began in 2009 and are one of the few excavations that have continued to the present day. In the east of Iran, only two archaeological sites had previously been excavated: Dahane-i Gholaman in Sistan to the south of Khorasan and Tappe Rivi in the north of Khorasan.

The site, called Tappe Takhchar-Abad is located near Birjand and on the edge of a barren plain; no contemporaneous and related sites have been identified. Since 2009, there have been four excavation seasons.

Tappe Takhchar-Abad sits on a semiconical hill, with a base diameter of 42 meters and a height of 4 meters, around which is a trench about 11 meters wide, with a canal to the northeast that supplied it with water.

After four seasons of excavation, the remnants of an almost circular building made of adobe and pisé (Chineh/pakhsa) with a diameter of eighteen meters, six solid towers, and walls as high as three meters were exposed.

Blue Planet

Links between elusive Denisovans and China's 150,000-year-old 'dragon man' found in new study

female denisovan reconstruction
© Debbie Hill/UPIFILE: A close-up of the 3D printed reconstruction of a female Denisovan. Researchers have found fresh evidence that may connect the mysterious Denisovans to the early human species Homo longi
They remain one of the most elusive groups of humans to have walked on earth. Evidence from the DNA traces left by Denisovans shows they lived on the Tibetan plateau, ­probably ­travelled to the Philippines and Laos in south Asia and might have made their way to northern China more than 100,000 years ago. They also interbred with modern humans.

What Denisovans looked like or how they lived has remained a­ ­mystery, however. Only a jaw ­fragment, a few bits of bone and one or two teeth ­provide any evidence of their physical characteristics.

Their DNA, which was first found in samples from the Denisova cave in Siberia in 2010, provides most of our ­information about their existence.

Comment: See also:


NATO's illegal 1999 bombing of Yugoslavia 'a huge tragedy' - Putin

FILE PHOTO. Novi Sad during the bombing, 1999, Yugoslavia.
© WikipediaFILE PHOTO. Novi Sad during the bombing, 1999, Yugoslavia.
The West's military action was completely unacceptable, President of Russia has said on 25th anniversary

Russia's president Vladimir Putin has said that the US-led NATO alliance had started a war in the center of Europe in 1999, when it launched its bombing campaign against Yugoslavia.

A quarter century on, the agression deserves nothing but condemnation, Putin added.

1) The film, Belgrade, referred to in the article, can be found as "«Белград» Документальный фильм, 2024", (Duration, 59:23) uploaded to several platforms on March 24, 2024, including on YouTube, where the autogenerated Russian can be translated into English subtitles:

The description below this upload, if machine translated is:
''Belgrade'' documentary film 2024

'Belgrade' documentary film by Andrei Kondrashov of the TV channel 'Russia 1'.
25 years ago, NATO troops began bombing Yugoslavia as part of Operation Allied Force. The alliance's airstrikes lasted 78 days and hit not only military but also civilian infrastructure.
The operation took place without the approval of the UN Security Council, which was a gross violation of international law and, in fact, an act of aggression against a sovereign country.
Those events claimed the lives of hundreds of innocent people, marked the beginning of the end of the existence of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and also caused colossal environmental damage to the territory of modern Serbia.
2) Joe Biden was in favour of bombing Belgrade in 1998-1999

3) Other clips and documentaries
There are a few, and sometimes if you go to the channels, there are other uploads in related genres.
The following are ordered according to the time they cover and date of publication.
a) Yugoslavia: The Avoidable War (documentary) (YouTube, 1999)

b) "Sarajevo Ricochet" is a one hour documentary . The original (including Norwegian comments) can be found in six clips on this channel, along with the other Norwegian production, "Srebrenica: A Town Betrayed", uploaded in seven parts. Clips from Sarajevo Ricochet, with English commentary appear in: Exclusive: U.S. Policy on Bosnia Arms Trafficking

c) Srebrenica: A Town Betrayed (Documentary) (Jul 2015 article with a link to the video.)
d) The Weight of Chains: US/NATO Destruction of Yugoslavia (Documentary) (SOTT article with link, 2010)
The Weight of Chains 2 | Težina lanaca 2 (YouTube link uploaded 2018) On the YouTube page of the producer, Boris Malagurski, there is also a third episode: Težina lanaca 3 (2019), (The Weight of Chains 3), some parts are in English, but the autogenerated English translation did not work. However, the director has a link to Vimeo, where you can find it.

e) Stolen Kosovo (2008) is mentioned in SOTT articles: The 'Real Butcher of the Balkans' was NATO and in Madeleine Albright's scrap with pro-Serbian activists in a Prague bookstore. It appears on YouTube as Serbia - Stolen Kosovo [Multisubs] Czech documentary by Václav Dvořák
This version is 1:02:51, about five minutes longer, and has credits at the end. One channel, serbia4kosovo has parts, but also so many other clips from documentaries about the history of the conflict.

f) Michael Parenti - To Kill A Nation A talk by Michael Parenti, author of To Kill a Nation: The Attack on Yugoslavia:
g) Documentary: Зaшto? (Why?) - Revisiting NATO atrocities in Yugoslavia (Mar 2014)
h) Critical Moves: Crime In Yugoslavia, The Successful War Model Of Nato? (TeleSUR English, 2019) NATO was later active in other places, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria, Ukraine...
The spread of Balkanization: US Empire's strategy of barbaric dismemberment of sovereign states began in Yugoslavia (May 2016)
The NATO-led balkanization of South America and the role of aligned fifth columns destabilizing the world (Jul 2018)
Dragana Trifković in the UN Security Council: Western weapons in Ukraine are killing civilians regardless of whether they speak Russian or Ukrainian (Sep 2022),
How NATO undid decades of post-colonial development in mere months (Mar 2024)
i) How did NATO destroy Yugoslavia? 78 days of bombing, YouTube link (Dec 2023) The description of the video.
The headlines are slogans chanted by people taking to the streets. While Christmas arrives, the people of Gaza continue to live through war and violence with no respite for holidays. In this episode, Jan Oberg shares his firsthand experiences from over two decades ago in Yugoslavia, witnessing a sense of déjà vu - the bombings and wars, the lies and deceit, and the destruction of peace, leaving hundreds of thousands displaced. Jan Oberg delves into the recurring pattern of NATO and the United States engaging in warfare, posing the question: Why do they repeatedly become war peddlers? Who did the West pump weapons to? Did they ever pay compensation? Did they ever say they apologize for what they did?
The above video has a viewer comment with a list of assertions that could be tested, but even without sources are hardly surprising at all:
US/UK and NATO helpers did a perfect job in Yugoslavia in 1999. In Serbia today, the Italians took over the entire automotive manufacturing industry, Austrian and Italian banks dominate, US Steel took metals, Germans took the machine and tools sector, Dutch and Swiss bought majority of products brands, Austrians hold major mobile market share, Norwegians are about to take electric grid and the Germans the local telecom. Also for scraps the Arabs took the only major agro business, the Russians took oil and China took the copper and gold mines. Private ownership in Serbian hands reduced to restaurants, a few small farms and hair salons. Its not left-right anymore but global corporate empire and neo-colonialism.
There is a connection between what happened in Yugoslavia in the 1990ies and our world of today.

4) Articles about the war in Yugoslavia and the aftermath
Below is a list of links to some SOTT articles.
One of the most influential contemporary historians and professor at Yale University, Samuel Moyn, says that during the bombing of Yugoslavia, he worked at the White House as an intern and "planted" stories that were published in the Washington Post.
...Levi saw his first hot spot in 1971 as he travelled to East Pakistan to cover the war for separation of would-be Bangladesh from Pakistan. He has seen many flash points afterwards. In 1981 he made a trip to Afghanistan to meet the mujahedeen fighting the Soviet Army. In 1999 he ardently called for bombing Yugoslavia. In 2001 he supported the US intervention into Afghanistan. During the Georgia's invasion of South Ossetia in 2008 he interviewed the President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili. In 2011 he was a fierce supporter of Libya's destruction. Back then he started to vigorously call for toppling the «bloody regime of Bashar Assad».
Engdahl cited Washington Post writer Michael Dobbs' first-hand account of how the Clinton administration engineered Slobodan Milosevic's removal after he survived the 1990s Balkan wars, 78 days of NATO bombing in 1999, and major street uprisings against him. A $41 million campaign was run out of American ambassador Richard Miles' office. It involved "US-funded consultants" handling everything, including popularity polls, "training thousands of opposition activists and helping to organize a vitally important parallel vote count."

Thousands of spray paint cans were used "by student activists to scrawl anti-Milosevic graffiti on walls across Serbia," and throughout the country around 2.5 million stickers featured the slogan "Gotov Je," meaning "He's Finished."

Preparations included opposition leader training in nonviolent resistance techniques at a Budapest, Hungary seminar - on matters like "organiz(ing) strike(s), communicat(ing) with symbols....overcom(ing) fear, (and) undermin(ing) the authority of a dictatorial regime." US experts were in charge, incorporating RAND Corporation "swarming" concepts.

GPS satellite images were used to direct "spontaneous hit-and-run protests (able to) elude the police or military. Meanwhile, CNN (was) carefully pre-positioned to project images around the world of these youthful non-violent 'protesters.' " Especially new was the use of the Internet, including "chat rooms, instant messaging, and blog sites" as well as cell phone verbal and SMS text-messaging, technologies only available since the mid-1990s.

Milosevic was deposed by a successful high-tech coup that became "the hallmark of the US Defense policies under (Rumsfeld) at the Pentagon." It became the civilian counterpart to his "Revolution in Military Affairs" doctrine using "highly mobile, weaponized small groups directed by 'real time' intelligence and communications."

Belgrade was the prototype for Washington-instigated color revolutions to follow. Some worked. Others failed.
With this explanation in mind, consider the description provided by Ian Traynor of the Guardian regarding the "revolutions" and "mass movements" which was taking place in Ukraine, Serbia, Belarus, and Georgia in 2004 and the time of the writing of his article. Indeed, Traynor's depiction of the methodology used by the Foundations, NGOs, and government agencies stirring up dissent and popular revolt is equally illuminating. Traynor writes,
In the centre of Belgrade, there is a dingy office staffed by computer-literate youngsters who call themselves the Centre for Non-violent Resistance. If you want to know how to beat a regime that controls the mass media, the judges, the courts, the security apparatus and the voting stations, the young Belgrade activists are for hire.
They emerged from the anti-Milosevic student movement, Otpor, meaning resistance. The catchy, single-word branding is important. In Georgia last year, the parallel student movement was Khmara. In Belarus, it was Zubr. In Ukraine, it is Pora, meaning high time. Otpor also had a potent, simple slogan that appeared everywhere in Serbia in 2000 - the two words "gotov je", meaning "he's finished", a reference to Milosevic. A logo of a black-and-white clenched fist completed the masterful marketing.

In Ukraine, the equivalent is a ticking clock, also signalling that the Kuchma regime's days are numbered.

Stickers, spray paint and websites are the young activists' weapons. Irony and street comedy mocking the regime have been hugely successful in puncturing public fear and enraging the powerful.

These slogans and symbols are the product of mass marketers employed by State Departments and intelligence agencies for the sole purpose of destabilizing and/or overthrowing a democratically elected or unfavorable (to the oligarchy)government.
The details and techniques of the manipulation of mass numbers of people have only continued to become more and more advanced and sophisticated, particularly with the advent of social media.
The comment to the above article reads:
The above article is largely NATO propaganda along the lines of "history is written by the victors (or aggressors)". For a more accurate account of what has come to be called the "Bosnian war" see the articles at this link. [External source.]
Today, Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo are American client states. But the process of Washington colonizing the Balkans is not yet complete. Standing in the way of the US achieving full mastery over the region are Serbia and Russia.
Much can be learned from studying the case and demise of Yugoslavia. Maybe some people will even feel that it is more accessible to learn about what happened to Yugoslavia, than trying to relate to cases closer to the present time.


Human activity on Curaçao began centuries earlier than previously believed

Curaçao Site
© Journal of Coastal and Island ArchaeologyFigure 1. (A) Map of Curaçao and the Caribbean showing locations mentioned in the text (base map: Google); (B) the Saliña Sint Marie landscape investigated by the CCLP, outlined in red (image: GoogleEarth); (C) view of Saliña Sint Marie surrounded by uplifted limestone terraces; (D) the C-1426 rockshelter site, facing South (Photo: C. Giovas).
New research co-led by Simon Fraser University and the National Archaeological Anthropological Memory Management (NAAM Foundation) in Curaçao extends the earliest known human settlement of Curaçao by centuries, adding pieces to the puzzle of pre-Colombian Caribbean history.

A team of international partners has been collaborating on the Curaçao Cultural Landscape Project since 2018 to understand the long-term biodiversity change of the island and its relationship to human activity.

Findings from the team, published in the Journal of Coastal and Island Archaeology, place human occupation of Curaçao, an island in the southern Caribbean, as far back as 5735 - 5600 cal BP — up to 850 years earlier than previously thought.

This updated timeline was determined by radiocarbon dating charcoal collected from an Archaic period site at Saliña Sint Marie — what is now the earliest known archaeological site on the island — using accelerated mass spectrometry.

Christina Giovas, an associate professor in SFU's Department of Archaeology and co-lead on the study, explains that the settlement of the Caribbean and the origin of its peoples is still highly debated. "What this new information does is push the initial exploration in this region back to a time where other islands to the north of Curaçao are also being settled. This suggests that the movement of people from the continental mainland into those more northern islands might have entangled with some of the movement of the people into Curaçao," says Giovas.