Welcome to Sott.net
Wed, 06 Dec 2023
The World for People who Think

Secret History

Better Earth

Europe's oldest stilt village protected by a barricade of 100,000 defensive spikes uncovered by archaeologists

lake ohrid

Divers search amoung the reeds at an ancient village site on the Albanian shore of Lake Ohrid.
A diver scouring an archaeological site at the bottom of Lake Ohrid in Albania, the site of Europe's oldest stilt village.

Beneath the turquoise waters of Lake Ohrid, the "Pearl of the Balkans", scientists have uncovered what may be one of Europe's earliest sedentary communities, and are trying to solve the mystery of why it sheltered behind a fortress of defensive spikes.

A stretch of the Albanian shore of the lake once hosted a settlement of stilt houses some 8,000 years ago, archaeologists believe, making it the oldest lakeside village in Europe discovered to date.

Radiocarbon dating from the site puts it at between 6000 and 5800 BC.

Comment: Other ancient settlements across Europe, that were situated on similarly wet terrain, even on the bodies of water themselves, seem to point to there being extremely wet periods, in addition to other clues showing defensive measures were of importance, perhaps due to societal unrest: Also check out SOTT radio's:


'Sacred place and astronomical observatory': New research on the Middle Neolithic circular enclosure of Goseck

© State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt
Aerial view of the Middle Neolithic circular enclosure of Goseck.
From the Central and Eastern European Middle Neolithic (first half of the 5th millennium BCE), around 150 so-called circular enclosures are known, circular or elliptical roughly concentric arrangements of ditches and palisades with a diameter between 40 an up to 250 m. Only a few have been comprehensively and systematically examined archaeologically. The function of these large buildings is still discussed intensively. Interpretations such as central places for meetings, cattle enclosures, defensive structures, astronomical observatories or spaces for ritual activities have been proposed.

The recent publication of the research results from the completely excavated circular enclosure of Goseck, Burgenlandkreis, Saxony-Anhalt by Dr. Norma Henkel brings forward new evidence for the interpretation of these still enigmatic constructions. The article is titled "The Middle Neolithic circular ditch complex of Goseck, Burgenlandkreis," from the Publications of the State Office for the Preservation of Monuments and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt — State Museum of Prehistory (German only).

Comment: See also:


Archaeologists have discovered a 4,000-year-old steppe pyramid in Kazakhstan

Steppe Pyramid
© Eurasian National University
Since 2014, the scientists of the Archaeology and Ethnology Department of the Faculty of History of the Eurasian National University have been conducting archaeological excavations at the Kyrykungir complex monument near Toktamys village in the Abai district of the Abai region. As a result of the research conducted with the participation of ENU students and masters, a large-scale steppe pyramid was discovered of the early second millennium BC, that is, four thousand years ago, the Bronze Age, not found before in the Eurasian steppe.

"The steppe pyramid is built with great precision, it is hexagonal. There are thirteen meters and eight rows of stones between each face. It is a very sophisticated complex structure with several circles in the middle. The exterior walls of the structure of this complex are dominated by images of various animals, especially horses.


Database with 2,400 prehistoric sites

The role of culture in human expansions: Large-scale collection of digital data summarizes the results of 150 years of research and can be used by amateurs and scientists alike.
Map of Human Expansion

Human history in one click: For the first time, numerous sites relating to the early history of mankind from 3 million to 20,000 years ago can be accessed in a large-scale database. Scientists from the research center ROCEEH ("The Role of Culture in Early Expansions of Humans") have compiled information on 2,400 prehistoric sites and 24,000 assemblages from more than 100 ancient cultures. The digital data collection is available for free to scientists and amateurs and was recently published in the journal PLoS ONE.

The research center is located at the University of Tübingen and the Senckenberg Society for Nature Research, sponsored by the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, and funded in part through the Union of German Academies.

ROAD, the "ROCEEH Out of Africa Database", represents one of the largest digital collections of information about archaeology, anthropology, paleontology and botany based on 150 years of research history, says Dr. Andrew Kandel, University of Tübingen. By joining information about cultural remains, human fossils, animal bones and plants into a unified geographical and chronological framework, the team created a tool that helps analyze the complex aspects of human evolution.


The evolution of the 21st century 'nation' and why it matters

Uncle Sam wants You
© News Forensics
When was Poland Poland?

Recently I wrote an article on the possibility of war between Russia and Poland and I said that Poland had not really existed as a nation until the end of WWI.

One of my contributors correctly pointed out that what we call "Poland" has a long history going back to the Kingdom of Poland in 1035.

For this intelligent commenter, "nation" means one thing; for me — when I wrote my article at least — it means, or meant, another. We are/were both right — from different perspectives.

For me, history is important. But events in the distant past are of less importance to what is happening today than those most recently. It is the chain of causation that matters. As far as "nations" are concerned — they are all different — and certainly not today as they once were.

The word "nation" comes from the Latin "natio" which means "breed" or "race", not as we define such things now — but in terms of a world that in 100 BC was mostly tribal.

In other words, the core meaning of "nation" has to do with tribalism, which is very clear when we look at the Polish example.

On the other hand, past history tells us much about human nature, which, of course, can inform us as to why things happen as they do in the here and now.

Tribalism, for example has not gone way — just transformed.


Bone discovered in cave in France could indicate the presence of a previously unknown lineage of Homo sapiens

Grotte du Renne cave
© Arkeonews Net
Grotte du Renne cave.
A bone discovered in the Grotte du Renne cave in France may represent the existence of a previously unknown lineage of Homo sapiens. The bone, specifically a hip bone called an ilium, was excavated from the cave several decades ago.

The cave is considered as one of the most fascinating Paleolithic sites in Europe, with Neanderthal remains. The Grotte du Renne cave has been a site of archaeological research for many years, revealing layers of historical significance. The lower layers indicate the time when Neanderthals occupied the cave, while the upper layers represent the period when anatomically modern humans (AMHs) inhabited it. The team discovered an intermediate layer that suggests the co-existence of both hominids.

Researchers identified an ilium (one of the three bones that make up the human pelvis) belonging to a newborn (AR-63) whose morphology required a thorough analysis to compare it to that of 2 Neanderthals and 32 recent individuals deceased during the perinatal period (the period around the time of birth) to explore their morphological variation.

The bone, determined to be from a newborn baby, was found to be neither Neanderthal nor entirely anatomically modern human. By comparing it with other Neanderthal and modern baby bones, researchers noted that its shape differed from both species. This suggests that the bone represents a distinct lineage of Homo sapiens with slight differences from AMHs.


Missing 'body' of ice age animal carving finally found — but nobody knows what the animal is

The long-lost 'body' of mysterious ice age animal carving was discovered in German cave, but archaeologists aren't sure if it's a cave lion or cave bear.
enigmatic animal carving
© Ria Litzenberg/University of Tubingen
The enigmatic animal carving, as seen from the front left.

Archaeologists in Germany have discovered the missing piece of an ice age carving deep in a cave. But the new addition of the ivory carving, originally thought to depict a horse, has actually complicated matters: Now, researchers aren't sure if it portrays a cave lion or a cave bear.

Researchers previously found the head of the 35,000-year-old figurine in the cave Hohle Fels in the mountainous Swabian Jura region in the southern part of the country. The cave, which translates to "hollow rock" in German, is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is well known for its Upper Paleolithic (about 50,000 to 12,000 years ago) artifacts. At the time, the carved head was the first known ivory carving from the cave.

But the newfound "body" part of the carving has thrown the equine interpretation out the window. "We still cannot identify the animal species depicted with certainty," Nicholas Conard, a professor in the Department of Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology at the University of Tübingen in Germany, said at the "Find of the Year" news conference on July 27, according to a translated statement.


Precious Roman gem engraved with mythological figure discovered in Italian lagoon

Rare Gem
© Ca’ Foscari University of Venice
During excavations at Lio Piccolo (Cavallino-Treporti), conducted by Ca' Foscari University, a precious agate stone carved with a mythological figure was found in the flooded site from the Roman period.

Researchers found the ancient piece of jewelry during an excavation dive in Lio Piccolo, a village just north of Venice city.

The cut agate gem is engraved with a mythological figure and is considered an unusual artifact, particularly in an underwater environment. The high quality of the jewelry suggests that wealthy Romans visited the area.

Professor Carlo Beltrame, who led the excavation alongside Dr. Elisa Costa, said in a statement that it was a rare find, especially in an underwater environment.

"In a lagoon environment it is a rather rare find, to date we have news of two other precious gems found in Torcello and at Barena del Vigno," Beltrame said.


Kinship among European settlers, African slaves, at Delaware site revealed in DNA study

© Donald E. Hurlbert, Smithsonian Institution
Archaeologists have uncovered a 17th-century burial site west of Rehoboth Beach, and the earliest African-American gravesites known in Delaware. Shown here are two of 11 people found at Avery's Rest.
Early colonial settlers likely survived the harsh frontier conditions of 17th-century Delaware because they banded as family units to work alongside enslaved African descendants and European indentured servants, according to a new study published this summer in Current Biology.

Anthropological geneticist Raquel E. Fleskes, who was a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow in UConn's anthropology department the last two years, authored the study, along with colleagues from the Smithsonian Institution, Archaeological Society of Delaware, University of Tennessee, and University of Pennsylvania who have been studying the Avery's Rest archaeological site near Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, for decades.

Avery's Rest, a former tobacco farm owned by John Avery and his family from roughly 1675 to 1725, was discovered in 1976, added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, and excavated in the early 2000s. Human remains were found in 2013: seven men, two women, and two children.

Comment: See also:


The Cosmic Context of Greek Philosophy, Part Three


Terracotta sculpture found on the site of Lefkandi (Euboea), dated to c. 950 BCE (Archaeological Museum of Eretria). Reminds one of the many tales of monsters after cosmic catastrophes.
Following the previous post, I am going to include here a little table that lists the dates of the various cosmic catastrophes on Earth based on the four main sources discussed. There are other scientists who research and write on this topic that I discuss elsewhere, but I'm trying very hard (it's difficult) to keep this review as condensed as possible.

Below the table is a short list of comet sightings mostly from the Chinese records. These sightings could, possibly, be associated with a destructive event somewhere on the planet. This list is derived from Yeomans, Donald K. (1991), Comets: A Chronological History of Observation, Science, Myth, and Folklore, Wiley Science Edition.