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Genetic changes in Bronze Age southern Iberia

The third millennium BCE brought about substantial transformations that are visible in the cultures of Bronze Age Europeans. A new study led by researchers from the Max Planck Institutes for the Science of Human History (Jena) and Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig), and the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona documents the arrival of new genetic ancestry to southern Iberia, concomitant with the rise of the Early Bronze Age El Argar culture around 2,200 BCE.

La Bastida (Totana, Murcia)
© ASOME-UAB
The fortified settlement of La Bastida (Totana, Murcia). This is one of the largest and best excavated settlements of El Argar (2,200 to 1,550 BCE).
The third millennium BCE is a highly dynamic period in the prehistory of Europe and western Asia, characterized by large-scale social and political changes. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Copper Age was in full swing around 2,500 years BCE with substantial demographic growth, attested by a large diversity of settlements and fortifications, monumental funerary structures, as well as ditched mega-sites larger than 100 hectares. For reasons that are still unclear, the latter half of the millennium experienced depopulation and the abandonment of the mega-sites, fortified settlements and necropoles.

In southeastern Iberia, one of the most outstanding archaeological entities of the European Bronze Age emerged around 2,200 BCE. This so-called 'El Argar' culture, one of the first state-level societies on the European continent, was characterised by large, central hilltop settlements, distinct pottery, specialized weapons and bronze, silver and gold artefacts, alongside an intra-murial burial rite. A new study explores the relation between dynamic shifts at population scale and the major social and political changes of the third and second millennia BCE by analysing the genomes of 136 ancient Iberians, ranging from 3,000 to 1,500 BCE.

Archaeology

Ancient dagger find helps identify lost Roman battle site in present-day Switzerland

roman dagger lost battle field
© Archaeological Service Graubünden
The ancient iron dagger is richly decorated with inlays of silver and brass. It belonged to a Roman legionary, and may have been buried intentionally as a token of thanks after a victory in battle
An amateur archaeologist in Switzerland has discovered an ornate dagger wielded by a Roman soldier 2,000 years ago.

That discovery, found using a metal detector, led a team of archaeologists to the site, who then uncovered hundreds of artifacts from a "lost" battlefield where Roman legionaries fought Rhaetian warriors as Imperial Rome sought to consolidate power in the area.

Archaeologists think one of those legionaries may have buried the newfound dagger intentionally after the battle as a token of thanks for a victory. Only four similar daggers — with distinctive features like its cross-shaped handle — have ever been found in former Roman territories.

Eye 1

Nazis based their elite schools on top British private schools

guardian 5
© Napola School
Pupils and staff at the Nazi elite school in Ballenstedt prepare for a football match with a private school team from the UK, spring 1937.
Nazi Germany's elite schools, which were set up to train future leaders of the Third Reich, used British private schools such as Eton and Harrow as their models, a new book reveals.

The historian Helen Roche has written the first comprehensive history of Nazi elite schools, known as Napolas. Drawing on research undertaken in 80 archives in six countries as well as testimonies from more than 100 former pupils, Roche discovered just how keen the Nazis were to learn from the "character-forming" example of the British system.

Between 1934 and 1939 there was a blizzard of reciprocal exchanges between British and German schools, with boys from Britain's most prestigious private schools spending extended periods at the Napolas.

Comment: One wonders what else they learnt from British private schools. See also:


Info

Neolithic site excavated in Taiyuan, China

Ancient Pottery
© Taiyuan Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
An unearthed red pottery bowl from the Yangshao Culture relic site in Zhencheng village, Taiyuan
The Shanxi Institute of Archaeology and Taiyuan Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology recently identified a cultural relic site in the provincial capital of Taiyuan as remains from middle to late Yangshao Culture, a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China between 7,000 years and 5,000 years ago.

The relic site excavated from May to July is located 900 meters southwest of Zhencheng village, Baiban township, Jiancaoping district.

A total of 98 ash pits, 11 pottery kilns, two house sites, and six tombs from the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties were excavated at the site. A large number of pottery pieces, stone tools, human bones, and animal bones were discovered.

Pharoah

Another sun temple found in Egyptian desert, 'the most important discovery of the last 50 years'

sun temple egypt

Academics believe when combined with newly discovered architecture, evidence points to the site being one of the rare sun temples
Archaeologists in Egypt have found proof that they are excavating a rare ancient sun temple, the third ever found and the first to be uncovered in 50 years.

These temples were built for pharaohs while they were still alive to grant rulers the status of god, in contrast to pyramids which ensured they were gods in the afterlife as well.

It is believed only six were built and so far only two have been found but now archaeologists digging beneath the remains of one of the known sun temples in Abu Gorab, north of Egyptian archaeology locality Abusir, have found proof of a third one.

Comment: See also:


Laptop

The trackball is older than the mouse, and we can thank Canada for it

5 pin bowling balls

Five-pin bowling balls are small enough to fit in the hand, so they do not have finger holes.
So, as it turns out, before the virtual bowling alley borrowed something from the trackball, the inventors of the trackball borrowed something from the actual bowling alley — specifically, the Canadian variation of it, called 5-pin bowling.

Unlike the giant hulking rocks that tend to get thrown in American bowling alleys, 5-pin relies on a ball slightly less than 5 inches in diameter — larger than a skee-ball (which is 3 inches in diameter) and roughly the size of the ball used in duckpin bowling, but using five pins, instead of 10 (hence the name).

Clearly, this is a fairly novel point about an object that has inspired a lot of other devices that have come since — and its one that hints at its initial creation in the early 1950s. The device is Canadian through and through, a project formulated at the behest of the Royal Canadian Navy by Ferranti Canada, as part of a much larger project — a military information system called Digital Automated Tracking and Resolving, or DATAR.

Book

EXCERPT: How Soros's secret network used Ukraine to cover for Hillary, Hunter, and target Donald Trump

Soros Trump
© Unknown
Philanthropist George Soros • Former US President Donald Trump
The following is an exclusive excerpt provided for National Pulse readers from Matt Palumbo's forthcoming book The Man Behind the Curtain: Inside the Secret Network of George Soros.

The Soros Circle: AntAC

In 2014, Soros's International Renaissance Foundation (IRF) and its grantees were active supporters in the creation of the Anti-Corruption Action Centre (AntAC) of Ukraine, a powerful NGO. Through the end of 2018, 17 percent of AntAC's funding was coming from Soros's group.

AntAC is run by Daria Kaleniuk, an American-educated lawyer. White House logs show Kaleniuk visited on December 9, 2015, reportedly meeting with Eric Ciaramella, the CIA employee many suspect is the anonymous whistleblower that sparked Trump's first impeachment, the source of which was a faultless phone call with Ukraine's president.

Magnify

US government boldly scrutinized: Oliver Stone's new JFK documentary is a must-watch

JFK REVISITED
© Ingenious Media/IMDB
"JFK Revisited: Through the Looking Glass" by Oliver Stone, 2021
Stone's new documentary, JFK Revisited: Through the Looking Glass, isn't perfect, but it's vitally important. He goes back into the assassination case with a fervor and has produced an insightful film that's well worth a watch.

Stone's JFK hit theaters in 1991 and sent shockwaves through Washington and the corporate media because it was a compelling cinematic counter-myth to the equally fantastical Warren Report.

The Praetorian Guards of the establishment in the halls of power and press met the film with ferocity as they set out to debunk and defang it, because it directly challenged their narrative and thus their authority. They failed. JFK was nominated for eight Academy Awards and brought in over $200 million at the box office. More importantly, though, it broke the spell of public indifference and somewhat loosened establishment obstruction with regard to JFK's assassination.

In the film's wake, the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992 was passed, and the Assassination Records Review Board set up and funded.


Comment: And which was supposed to release the files by 'no later than 25 years later', i.e. in 2016. But the Trump administration delayed it twice, citing 'national security'. Just last week, the Biden administration further delayed its release to 2022, citing 'the Covid pandemic'...


Now, some 30 years later, Oliver Stone is back, this time with a documentary streaming on Showtime, JFK Revisited: Through the Looking Glass, which sticks its thumb in the eye of those who mindlessly espouse the 'official' story of JFK's assassination as the truth.


Comment: No doubt it isn't perfect; Stone's JFK was produced by Mossad agent Aaron Milchan:

Billionaire Hollywood producer behind Stone's 'JFK' movie, Aaron Milchan, was secret operative for Israel's illegal nukes program and Mossad arms dealer

See also: Who killed Kennedy: CIA, LBJ, or the Truly "Unspeakable"?


Info

New research suggest clothes from 8000 years ago were made from trees

Restoration of a typical interior at Çatalhöyük
© Elelicht/Wikimedia Commons
Restoration of a typical interior at Çatalhöyük.
New research suggests Neolithic people at the ancient city of Çatalhöyük used a surprising source of fibers to make clothing: trees.

Cloth fragments found at Çatalhöyük were made from the bast fibers of oak trees, according to research published in the journal Antiquity. The authors of the new paper analyzed some of the oldest known woven fabrics in the world, in a finding that speaks to an unappreciated material used during the Stone Age.

The paper subsequently settles a longstanding debate about whether linen or wool was used to make the Çatalhöyük fabrics, as the research found them to be made from neither material. Lise Bender Jørgensen from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology is the first author of the study.

Çatalhöyük (pronounced cha-tal-ho-yook) is one of my favorite archaeological sites in the world. Appearing some 9,000 years ago in what is now Turkey, it's among the world's most ancient settlements. At its peak, the Stone Age city hosted somewhere between 3,500 and 8,000 people, and its timing at the early Neolithic (the last ice age had just barely ended) blurs the boundary between hunter-gatherer culture and the emergence of farming communities. What's more, Çatalhöyük, despite its ancientness (if that's a word), experienced many modern problems, such as overcrowding, sanitation issues, and interpersonal violence.

Archaeologists have explored 18 distinctive layers of sediment since excavations began at Çatalhöyük in the 1950s. Artifacts like baskets, thin ropes, mats, and textiles are testament to the sophistication of Çatalhöyük's inhabitants, some of whom wore human teeth as jewelry. The city petered out around 7,950 years ago, for reasons that aren't entirely clear.

Bizarro Earth

Russian FSB archives release records of WW2 Japanese plans to invade USSR

world war two japanese air planes air force
© Sputnik / Georgy
Japanese airplanes at an airfield during World War Two.
The Japanese Army planned to invade the USSR and seize vast swaths of Siberian territory during World War II, newly declassified information published by Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) revealed on Thursday.

The release of the previously unknown information is timed to coincide with the 73rd anniversary of the completion of the Tokyo trial, the International Military Tribunal for the Far East held from 1946 to 1948, which determined the fate of the central Japanese war criminals.