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'Ancestor' of Mediterranean mosaics discovered in Turkey

Ancient Mosaic
© France24
The assembly of over 3,000 stones was unearthed in the remains of a 15th century BC Hittite temple, 700 years before the oldest known mosaics of ancient Greece.
The discovery of a 3,500-year-old paving stone, described as the "ancestor" of Mediterranean mosaics, offers illuminating details into the daily lives of the mysterious Bronze Age Hittites.

The assembly of over 3,000 stones in natural shades of beige, red and black, and arranged in triangles and curves - was unearthed in the remains of a 15th century BC Hittite temple, 700 years before the oldest known mosaics of ancient Greece.

"It is the ancestor of the classical period of mosaics that are obviously more sophisticated. This is a sort of first attempt to do it," says Anacleto D'Agostino, excavation director of Usakli Hoyuk, near Yozgat, in central Turkey.

At the site three hours from Turkey's capital Ankara, first located in 2018, Turkish and Italian archaeologists painstakingly use shovels and brushes to learn more about the towns of the Hittites, one of the most powerful kingdoms in ancient Anatolia.

"For the first time, people felt the necessity to produce some geometric patterns and to do something different from a simple pavement," D'Agostino says.

"Maybe we are dealing with a genius? Maybe not. It was maybe a man who said 'build me a floor' and he decided to do something weird?"

The discovery was made opposite Kerkenes mountain and the temple where the mosaic is located was dedicated to Teshub, the storm god worshipped by the Hittites, equivalent to Zeus for the ancient Greeks.

"Probably here the priests were looking at the picture of Kerkenes mountain for some rituals and so on," D'Agostino adds.

Archaeology

Bull geoglyph twice as old as Nazca Lines (Peru), predates Uffington Horse (UK) found near Siberia's 'Sacred Sea'

bull glyph siberia nazca lines
© The Siberian Times
The stone bull was part of an Early Bronze Era burial more than 4,000 years ago, making the geoglyth one thousand years older than England's chalk-cut White Horse, and twice as old as the Nazca Lines in Peru
The discovery was made close to the village of Khondergey in the south-west of the Republic of Tuva, close to Russia's border with Mongolia.

The stone bull was part of an Early Bronze Era burial more than 4,000 years ago, making the geoglyth one thousand years older than England's chalk-cut White Horse, and twice as old as the Nazca Lines in Peru.

Only the backside of the bull with the hind legs and a tail was preserved, the front part was unwittingly destroyed in 1940s by road construction.

This is the first such discovery not only for the Republic of Tuva, but across Central Asia.

Colosseum

Etruscans were locals not migrants, contradicting claims by Herodotus, genetic analysis reveals

Etruscan
A genetic analysis of DNA taken from ancient skeletons appears to have answered a conundrum that has captivated researchers for more than 2,000 years: the origin of the Etruscans.

The study, published in the journal Science Advances on Friday, finds that the Etruscans, a sophisticated pre-Roman civilization in central Italy, were of local origin rather than migrants from the Near East, as previously thought.

Geneticists from the Max Planck Institute, Tubingen University, and the University of Florence sequenced the DNA of 82 individuals who lived in central and southern Italy between 800 B.C.E. and 1000 C.E.Their results show that the Etruscans, despite their unique cultural expressions, were closely related to their italic neighbors, and reveal major genetic transformations associated with historical events.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's:


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DNA analysis sheds light on the 'Segorbe Giant' of medieval Spain

Researchers from the University's Archaeogenetics Research Group used ancient DNA analysis to identify a member of a population expelled from medieval Spain known as the 'Segorbe Giant'. The results have shed light on the brutal political decision that led to a dramatic change in population following the Christian reconquest of Spain.
Segorbe Giant
© University of Huddersfield
AN INTERNATIONAL team of researchers led by the University of Huddersfield's Archaeogenetics Research Group, including geneticists, archaeological scientists, and archaeologists, has published the genome sequence of a unique individual from Islamic medieval Spain - al-Andalus - the results of which have shed light on a brutal event that took place in medieval Spain.

The individual, who was discovered in an eleventh century Islamic necropolis from the city of Segorbe, near Valencia in Spain, is known to local archaeologists as the 'Segorbe Giant' because of his unusual height.

His skeleton had suggested that he might have some African ancestry. Most of Spain had been progressively conquered by Arabs and Berbers from Northwest Africa from the eighth century onwards, creating one of the major centres of medieval European civilisation.

Bullseye

The Great Reset: How a 'Managerial Revolution' was plotted 80 years ago by a Trotskyist-turned-CIA neocon

Klaus Schwab
© WEF
Klaus Schwab
Klaus Schwab, the architect of the World Economic Forum (f. 1971), a leading, if not the leading, influencer and funder for what will set the course for world economic policy outside of government, has been the cause of much concern and suspicion since his announcement of "The Great Reset" agenda at the 50th annual meeting of the WEF in June 2020.

The Great Reset initiative is a somewhat vague call for the need for global stakeholders to coordinate a simultaneous "management" of the effects of COVID-19 on the global economy, which they have eerily named as "pandenomics." This, we are told will be the new normal, the new reality that we will have to adjust ourselves to for the foreseeable future.

It should be known that at nearly its inception, the World Economic Forum had aligned itself with the Club of Rome, a think tank with an elite membership, founded in 1968, to address the problems of mankind. It was concluded by the Club of Rome in their extremely influential "Limits to Growth," published in 1972, that such problems could not be solved on their own terms and that all were interrelated. In 1991, Club of Rome co-founder Sir Alexander King stated in the The First Global Revolution (an assessment of the first 30 years of the Club of Rome) that:
"In searching for a common enemy against whom we can unite, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like, would fit the bill. In their totality and their interactions these phenomena do constitute a common threat which must be confronted by everyone together. But in designating these dangers as the enemy, we fall into the trap, which we have already warned readers about, namely mistaking symptoms for causes. All these dangers are caused by human intervention in natural processes, and it is only through changed attitudes and behaviour that they can be overcome. The real enemy then is humanity itself."
It is no surprise that with such a conclusion, part of the solution prescribed was the need for population control.

MIB

Declassified files expose America's double dealing with revolutionary Iran from day one

Iran revolution
© AP Photo/Michel Lipchitz
FILE PHOTO. Demonstrators protest Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in Tehran, Iran, Oct. 9, 1978.
A new academic work, Worlds Apart, provides a documentary history of relations between Washington and Tehran between 1978 and 2018. It tells an extraordinary tale of coups, secret deals, sabotage and cooperation over four decades.

To mark its release, the National Security Archive has published a number of highly illuminating declassified files on the subject, several of which have never been seen before.

The document trail begins on January 3, 1979, when insurrection had been intensifying across Iran for almost a year. With the Western-installed and backed Shah still desperately clinging to power, but only just, an informal National Security Council meeting was convened. Present were President Jimmy Carter, Vice President Walter Mondale, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, and CIA Director Stansfield Turner.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's: Behind the Headlines: Confessions of an Economic Hitman: Interview with John Perkins


Info

Earliest evidence of human activity found in the Americas

Footprints at White Sands National Park in New Mexico confirm human presence over at least two millennia, with the oldest tracks dating back 23,000 years.
Ancient Human Footprints
© Courtesy of David Bustos/White Sands National Park
Human footprints at White Sands National Park in New Mexico show that human activity occurred in the Americas long as 23,000 years ago – about 10,000 years earlier than previously thought.
Footprints found at White Sands National Park in New Mexico provide the earliest unequivocal evidence of human activity in the Americas and provide insight into life over 23,000 years ago.

The findings are described in a Science journal article co-authored by University of Arizona archaeologist Vance Holliday.

"For decades, archaeologists have debated when people first arrived in the Americas," said Holliday, a professor in the UArizona School of Anthropology and Department of Geosciences. "Few archaeologists see reliable evidence for sites older than about 16,000 years. Some think the arrival was later, no more than 13,000 years ago by makers of artifacts called Clovis points. The White Sands tracks provide a much earlier date. There are multiple layers of well-dated human tracks in streambeds where water flowed into an ancient lake. This was 10,000 years before Clovis people."

Researchers Jeff Pigati and Kathleen Springer, with the U.S. Geological Survey, used radiocarbon dating of seed layers above and below the footprints to determine their age. The dates range in age and confirm human presence over at least two millennia, with the oldest tracks dating back 23,000 years.

This corresponds to the height of the last glacial cycle, during something known as the Last Glacial Maximum, and makes them the oldest known human footprints in the Americas.

Info

Stone Age humans used personal ornaments to communicate about themselves

Shell beads found in a cave in Morocco are at least 142,000 years old. The archaeologists who found them say they're the earliest known evidence of a widespread form of human communication.

Shell Beads
© A. Bouzouggar, INSAP, Morocco
The necklace, nametag, earrings or uniform you chose to put on this morning might say more than you realize about your social status, job or some other aspect of your identity.

Anthropologists say humans have been doing this - finding ways to communicate about themselves without the fuss of conversation - for millennia.

Steven L. Kuhn
© University of Arizona
Steven L. Kuhn
But shell beads recovered from a cave in western Morocco, determined to be between 142,000 and 150,000 years old, suggest that this behavior may go back much farther than previously thought. The finding, detailed Wednesday in the journal Science Advances, was made by a team of archaeologists that includes Steven L. Kuhn, a professor of anthropology in the University of Arizona College of Social and Behavioral Sciences.

The beads, Kuhn and his colleagues say, are the earliest known evidence of a widespread form of nonverbal human communication, and they shed new light on how humans' cognitive abilities and social interactions evolved.

"They were probably part of the way people expressed their identity with their clothing," Kuhn said. "They're the tip of the iceberg for that kind of human trait. They show that it was present even hundreds of thousands of years ago, and that humans were interested in communicating to bigger groups of people than their immediate friends and family."

How does this ancient form of communication show up today? It happens often, Kuhn said.

"You think about how society works - somebody's tailgating you in traffic, honking their horn and flashing their lights, and you think, 'What's your problem?'" Kuhn said. "But if you see they're wearing a blue uniform and a peaked cap, you realize it's a police officer pulling you over."

Kuhn and an international team of archaeologists recovered the 33 beads between 2014 and 2018 near the mouth of Bizmoune Cave, about 10 miles inland from Essaouira, a city on Morocco's Atlantic coast.

Blue Planet

Earliest modern humans in Europe may have experienced much colder climates than previously thought

Bacho Kiro Cave
© Sarah Pederzani, MPI-EVA Leipzig, License: CC-BY-SA 2.0
Bacho Kiro Cave is located in a karst valley in north central Bulgaria, with small streams passing close to the cave entrance.
As early Homo sapiens spread across Eurasia about 45,000 years ago, they may have experienced much colder climate conditions than previously thought, according to isotope analyses of animal remains from a Bulgarian cave, which also contains some of Europe's earliest H. sapiens remains.


Comment: And there's reason to believe that humans were around much earlier than that: Previously unknown "proto-hominin" species suggests ancestor of humans evolved in Europe not Africa


The findings* contradict models that suggest warm climates were necessary for human expansion in the region, providing direct evidence that at least some dispersals occurred when air temperatures in the cave were 10°Celsius to 15°C lower than temperatures today.

Current models based on age correlations between archaeological and climatic records propose that H. sapiens spread across Eurasia only during episodes of warm climate. However, these studies tend not to use direct paleoclimate evidence, instead generating models that correlate the ages of archaeological finds with climatic phases documented in ice cores or cave deposits.

Comment: For further insight into the glaring problems posed by the accepted theory of human evolution, check out: Most human origins theories are not compatible with known fossils

See also: And check out SOTT radio's:


Better Earth

Thousands of years of long-distance trade links shaped Siberian dogs

Samoyed

Samoyed takes its name from the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia. These nomadic reindeer herders bred the fluffy white dogs to help with herding.
Analysis of ancient canine DNAs reveals that the inhabitants of Arctic Siberia began importing dogs from Eurasia some 2000 years ago.

Archaeological finds show that people in the Arctic regions of Northwestern Siberia had already established long-range trading links with Eurasian populations some 2000 years ago. The initiation of trading relationships was one of a series of significant social changes that took place during this period. Moreover, these changes even had an impact on the genomes of Siberian dogs, as an international team of researchers led by LMU palaeogeneticist Laurent Frantz has now demonstrated. Based on extensive genetic analyses, the team concludes that dogs were imported into the Siberian Arctic, and that this process ultimately led to the establishment of Siberian breeds such as the samoyed.

Genomes dating from the Stone Age to the Holocene

Comment: See also: