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Mon, 17 Jan 2022
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Monkey Wrench

Arctic hunter-gatherers were advanced ironworkers more than 2,000 years ago

broch
© CC BY 4.0 S. Nygren, Norrbottens Museum, Carina Bennerhag et al/Antiquity 2021
Discoveries from northeastern Sweden, including this molded bronze buckle (front and back shown), have uncovered advanced iron production and metalworking among hunter-gatherers who lived there more than 2,000 years ago.
Hunter-gatherers who lived more than 2,000 years ago near the top of the world appear to have run ironworking operations as advanced as those of farming societies far to the south.

Excavations in what's now northeastern Sweden uncovered ancient furnaces and fire pits that hunter-gatherers used for metalworking. A mobile lifestyle did not prevent hardy groups based in or near the Arctic Circle from organizing large-scale efforts to produce iron and craft metal objects, say archaeologist Carina Bennerhag of Luleå University of Technology in Sweden and colleagues. In fact, hunter-gatherers who moved for part of the year across cold, forested regions dotted with lakes and swampy patches apparently exchanged resources and knowledge related to metallurgy, the extraction of metals from ores, the researchers report in the December Antiquity.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's: MindMatters: America Before: Comets, Catastrophes, Mounds and Mythology


Info

Ancient petroglyphs in Iran on the verge of destruction

ancient rock-carved petroglyphs
© Tehran Times
TEHRAN – Arrays of ancient rock-carved petroglyphs, scattered in central Iranian plains, are suffering from environmental and physical damage, Mehr reported on Tuesday.
International experts Jan Brouwer and Gus van Veen have examined the Teymareh site estimating its carvings were made 40,000-4,000 years ago.

Having a considerable potential to become a UNESCO World Heritage, the site was named a common cultural heritage between the two provinces of Isfahan and Markazi in 1389 (Mar. 2010 - Mar. 2011), the report said.

It embraces countless petroglyphs from prehistorical times to the (early) Islamic eras, yet, over the past couple of years, some local entities have issued mining licenses and allowed shepherds to graze their livestock there, the news agency said.

According to a local tourism official, currently, mines operations are a serious threat of destruction for this area as miners demolish that landscape that contains ancient petroglyphs to obtain resources for silica (the element needed to make glass)... and they turn them into rubbish.

In 2020, a prehistorical petroglyph, which bears Pahlavi script written by ordinary people of the time, was found during an archaeological survey in Teymareh. "This is the sixth petroglyph, engraved with Pahlavi script, which has so far been found in the highlands of Teymareh. And the petroglyph is estimated to date back to 2,200 years ago," according to Iranian archaeologist Mohammad Nasserifard.

Sherlock

US intelligence errors helped build myth of Nazi Alpine redoubt, says historian with access to classified records

Eastwood
© MGM
The myth of Nazis setting themselves up on snowy mountaintops later became a staple of such films as Where Eagles Dare, starring Clint Eastwood and Richard Burton.
A US spymaster inadvertently helped the Nazis develop one of the most effective disinformation campaigns of the second world war by spreading rumours about Hitler's plans for a Where Eagles Dare-style Alpine redoubt, a historian with access to classified US military records has found.

The myth that the Nazis were amassing weapons and crack units of 100,000 fanatical soldiers in the spring of 1945 for a last stand in the Austro-Bavarian Alps was without any basis in fact but had a powerful hold on the imagination of American and British military leaders, who feared it could prolong the war for years.

Thomas Boghardt, a German historian at the US Army Center of Military History in Washington DC, argues in a new book that the myth of an Alpine Nazi fortress was not a crucial factor behind American forces abandoning the race to Berlin in favour of a southward push but was one that US spycraft had a hand in making.

Comment: See also:


Dig

Bronze Age settlement found under Roman bath complex at Corinth reveals spectacular finds

bronze age
© Greek Ministry of Culture
Spectacular finds from the site of Chiliomodi, ancient Corinth.
A Bronze Age settlement and an elegant Roman bath complex were recently unearthed at the site of ancient Corinth, the Greek Ministry of Culture announced on Wednesday. The excavation at Chiliomodi, Corinth not only confirmed the existence of the extensive nature of the Roman baths but also revealed the existence of a Bronze Age settlement underneath, which had previously been unknown to researchers.

Archaeologists working the dig under the auspices of the Greek Ministry of Culture date the original settlement in Tenea back to the 3rd millennium BC and say that it was one of the first to be created in the northeastern Peloponnesian peninsula of Greece.

The purpose of this year's research, under the direction of Dr. Elenas Korka, was to further excavate the areas of the Roman baths that were excavated in 2019 and 2020, and to investigate the possible expansion of the surrounding market areas that were identified for the first time last year.

Comment: See also:


Attention

New report - CIA experimented on hundreds of orphaned Danish children

Children Experimented on!
© Sofie Barfoed
In 1962, a secret research project started, which was supported by the CIA. In a basement at the Municipal Hospital, 311 Danish children, many of whom were placed in orphanages, were used in a number of research experiments.
According to a new documentary out of Denmark, which interviewed former victims, the Central Intelligence Agency secretly carried out experiments on 311 orphaned children. The experiments were meant to reveal psychopathic traits and map out the link between schizophrenia and heredity. According to the report, the children were tortured in clear violation of the Nuremberg Code of 1947 that introduced ethical restrictions for experiments on humans.

Hundreds of Danish orphans were unknowingly used in experiments backed by the CIA, according to Danish Radio, reporting on a new documentary called "The Search for Myself."

According to the report, the experiments began in the early 1960s and spanned the course of two decades. They were conducted to investigate the link between heredity and environment in the development of schizophrenia. However, the children were not told what research they were involved in. Not even after the experiments ended. It was also funded in part by a CIA front associated with the MK-Ultra program.

Eerily, the examinations took place in a basement at the Municipal Hospital in Copenhagen. The director and producer of the documentary, Per Wennick, was actually a victim of the CIA and subjected to these experiments as a child. In the documentary, he recalled being placed in a chair, getting electrodes put on his arms, legs, and chest around the heart and having to listen to loud, shrill noises, which attempted to incite a psychological response.

"It was very uncomfortable", Wennick told Danish Radio. "And it's not just my story, it's the story of many children." By his own admission, he was promised "something funny" before being taken to the hospital. "I think this is a violation of my rights as a citizen in this society. I find it so strange that some people should know more about me than I myself have been aware of."

According to historian, PhD, and museum inspector at the Danish Welfare Museum, Jacob Knage Rasmussen, this was the only known experiment in Danish history that used children under state care for research — and it was funded by the CIA in violation of the Nuremberg Code.

Better Earth

Skeleton of young man killed by tsunami caused by eruption of Thera 3,600 years ago found on Turkish coast

skeleton
© Vasıf Şahoğlu.
Excavated skeleton of a tsunami victim.
An international team of researchers has found and excavated the remains of a young man killed approximately 3,600 years ago by a tsunami created by the eruption of Thera — a volcano located on what is now the island of Santorini. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes how the remains were found and how they were identified as belonging to a victim of the Thera tsunami.

Prior research has shown that the eruption of Thera was a major event — so powerful that it has been blamed for the decline of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. Prior research has also shown that the eruption occurred sometime during the 1500s to 1600s B.C.

Santorini is located in the eastern Mediterranean, north of Crete, between southern Greece and southern Turkey. And while evidence of the ash that fell from the skies in areas all around the eruption site has been plentiful, there has been scant evidence of the tsunami. This is because tsunamis tend to pull debris and bodies back into the sea, rather than leave covered evidence on shore. And because of that, the remains of the victims of the Thera tsunami have never been found — not one single body — until now.

Comment: In Volcanoes, Earthquakes And The 3,600 Year Comet Cycle, Pierre Lescaudron details how there was much more going on at the time than just the eruption of Thera:
Thera, in the Mediterranean Sea, and Aniakchak, in Alaska, were massive eruptions but apparently they are not the only volcanoes that became active around 1627 BC: From the ratios suggested by Vogel, we can deduce the following:
  • Thera contributed about 5% of total atmospheric dust
  • Vesuvius (Avellino) 15%
  • St. Helens 2.5%
  • Aniakchak 20%
So those four eruptions, despite their exceptional magnitude, only account for about 42% of the total atmospheric dust found in ice cores.

[...] the Chinese annals appear to have recorded something akin to a close cometary passage at the time of the 1600 BC events.

Notice also the mention of earthquakes ("the Earth shook"). As noted, cometary events are closely correlated with seismic activity (along with volcanic activity). The "stars falling like rain," as reported by the Bamboo annals, was obviously not a minor event because 1600 BC also marked the end of the Xia dynasty, which had ruled over Eastern China for four centuries.
See also: Also check out SOTT radio's: MindMatters: The Holy Grail, Comets, Earth Changes and Randall Carlson




Blue Planet

Nits on 1,700 year old Andes mummies shed light on Amazonian ancestry, links with South America's founding lineage

andes mummy
© Universidad Nacional de San Juan
A mummified adult man of the Ansilta culture, from the Andes of San Juan, Argentina, dating back approx 2,000 years.
Human DNA can be extracted from the 'cement' head lice used to glue their eggs to hairs thousands of years ago, scientists have found, which could provide an important new window into the past.

In a new study, scientists for the first time recovered DNA from cement on hairs taken from mummified remains that date back 1,500-2,000 years. This is possible because skin cells from the scalp become encased in the cement produced by female lice as they attach eggs, known as nits, to the hair.

Analysis of this newly-recovered ancient DNA — which was of better quality than that recovered through other methods — has revealed clues about pre-Columbian human migration patterns within South America. This method could allow many more unique samples to be studied from human remains where bone and tooth samples are unavailable.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's: MindMatters: America Before: Comets, Catastrophes, Mounds and Mythology




Beer

7,000-year-old evidence of social beer consumption earliest ever found in the Levant

Tel Tsaf
© University of Haifa
A view of the archaeological site at Tel Tsaf, in the Jordan Valley
Israeli researchers say they have discovered the first evidence of social beer consumption within communities in the ancient Middle East, after finding the remains of cereal grains used to produce alcohol in a 7,000-year-old town.

Beer is known to have been used in ancient times for ceremonial and religious purposes, but the find is the earliest indication of social drinking in the Levant prior to the widespread appearance of alcohol in the Bronze Age (circa 3300 BCE).

In the study, archaeologists from the University of Haifa found starch residue from wheat and barley grains in ancient pottery at Tel Tsaf, located in the central Jordan Valley. The town dates back to the Chalcolithic era, from around 5000 BCE.

Comment: See also:


Pharoah

Mummy of pharaoh Amenhotep I digitally unwrapped

The outer mummy of Amenhotep I.
© S. Saleem and Z. Hawass
The outer mummy of Amenhotep I.
For the first time since the 11th century BCE, scientists have unwrapped - virtually, using CT scans - the mummy of pharaoh Amenhotep I (r. 1525 to 1504 BCE), the only royal mummy to remain unopened in modern times. They show that the pharaoh was around 35 years old, 169cm tall, circumcized, and in good physical health when he died, apparently from natural causes.

All the royal mummies found in the 19th and 20th centuries have long since been opened for study. With one exception: egyptologists have never been bold enough to open the mummy of pharaoh Amenhotep I. Not because of any mythical curse, but because it is perfectly wrapped, decorated with beautiful flower garlands, and with face and neck covered by an exquisite lifelike mask inset with colorful stones. But now for the first time, scientists from Egypt have used three-dimensional CT (computed tomography) scanning to 'digitally unwrap' this royal mummy and study its contents. They report their findings in Frontiers in Medicine.

This was the first time in three millennia that Amenhotep's mummy has been 'opened'. The previous time was in the 11th century BCE, more than four centuries after his original mummification and burial. Hieroglyphics have described how at that time, priests restored and reburied royal mummies from more ancient dynasties, to repair the damage done by grave robbers.

"This fact that Amenhotep I's mummy had never been unwrapped in modern times gave us a unique opportunity: not just to study how he had originally been mummified and buried, but also how he had been treated and reburied twice, centuries after his death, by High Priests of Amun," said Dr Sahar Saleem, professor of radiology at the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University and the radiologist of the Egyptian Mummy Project, the study's first author.

Info

8,500-year-old marble statuette found in central Turkey

Ancient Figurine
© Anadolu Agency
An 8,500-year-old marble statuette has recently been discovered in the Neolithic site of Catalhoyuk in central Turkey, according to the head of an excavator team.

The statuette, a 5-centimeter-tall (2-inch-tall) prismatic figurine with a reclining human figure, was found during excavations in the southern mound of Catalhoyuk, one of the first urbanization models in Anatolia, in the Cumra district of Konya province, Ali Umut Turkcan told Anadolu Agency.

Turkcan, who is also an archeology professor at Turkey's Anadolu University, said that the marble statuette is a rare piece and that there are no signs of gender in the figurine. However, he said, the piece "is reminiscent of figurines identified as male leaning back slightly on the back of an animal, similar to those found in excavations in the past."

But, since the excavations began in 2016 in the southern mound at the Neolithic site, the preponderance of the artefacts has been female figurines.

Catalhoyuk, a 9,000-year-old ancient site in what is now central Turkey, was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2012.