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Mon, 17 Jan 2022
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Secret History


Exquisite Bronze Age tomb goods in Cyprus reveal international trade networks

bronze age tomb cyprus
© Peter Fischer, Teresa Bürge
One of the skeletons belonged to a five-year-old buried with lots of gold jewellery, including this tiara.
Archaeologists from the University of Gothenburg have concluded an excavation of two tombs in the Bronze Age city of Hala Sultan Tekke in Cyprus. The finds include over 150 human skeletons and close to 500 objects - including gold jewellery, gemstones and ceramics - from around 1350 BCE.

Since 2010, the New Swedish Cyprus Expedition (The Söderberg Expedition) has had several rounds of excavations in Cyprus. In 2018, archaeologists discovered two tombs in the form of underground chambers, with a large number of human skeletons. Managing the finds required very delicate work over four years, since the bones were extremely fragile after more than 3,000 years in the salty soil.

In addition to the skeletons of 155 individuals, the team also found 500 objects. The skeletons and ritual funeral objects were in layers on top of each other, showing that the tombs were used for several generations.

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Ancient footprints suggest a mysterious hominid lived alongside Lucy's kind

Ancient Footprints
A reanalysis of five footprints previously discovered at Tanzania’s Laetoli site, shown in a photo (top) and in a 3-D contour map (bottom), suggests they were made by a hominid species that lived alongside Lucy’s species around 3.66 million years ago.
An individual from an enigmatic hominid species strode across a field of wet, volcanic ash in what is now East Africa around 3.66 million years ago, leaving behind a handful of footprints.

Those five ancient impressions, largely ignored since their partial excavation at Tanzania's Laetoli site in 1976, show hallmarks of upright walking by a hominid, a new study finds. Researchers had previously considered them hard to classify, possibly produced by a young bear that took a few steps while standing.

Nearby Laetoli footprints unearthed in 1978 looked more clearly like those of hominids and have been attributed to Lucy's species, Australopithecus afarensis (SN: 12/16/16). But the shape and positioning of the newly identified hominid footprints differ enough from A. afarensis to qualify as marks of a separate Australopithecus species, an international team reports December 1 in Nature.

"Different [hominid] species walked across this East African landscape at about the same time, each moving in different ways," says paleoanthropologist Ellison McNutt of Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine in Athens.

The species identity of the Laetoli printmaker is unknown.

Fossil jaws dating back more than 3 million years unearthed in East Africa may come from a species dubbed A. deyiremeda that lived near Lucy's crowd (SN: 5/27/15). But no foot fossils were found with the jaws to compare with the Laetoli finds. The 3.4-million-year-old foot fossils from an East African hominid that had grasping toes and no arch and the unusual fossil feet of 4.4-million-year-old Ardipithecus ramidus aren't a match either (SN: 3/28/12; SN: 2/24/21). So neither of those hominids could have made the five Laetoli prints, says McNutt, who started the new investigation as a Dartmouth College graduate student supervised by paleoanthropologist Jeremy DeSilva.

Better Earth

The mysterious petroglyphs carved in Qatar's deserts

© Dimitris Sideridis
Rare carvings: About an hour's drive north of Doha, Al Jassasiya is the site of some 900 "petroglyph" rock carvings, many of which are unique to the area.
Some shoot out of the soft rock like reptiles bathing in the sun. Others are mysterious depressions resembling an ancient board game played all over the world. And a few are straight-up puzzling.

On a desolate and windswept corner of Qatar's northeastern coast, among the sand dunes of the barren desert, lies Al Jassasiya, the Gulf country's largest and most important rock art site.

Here, people centuries ago used a series of low-lying limestone outcrops as a canvas on which they carved symbols, motifs and objects that they observed in their environment.

Comment: American physicist Anthony Perrat has demonstrated that significant numbers of these petroglyphs, that are found all across the planet, likely depict atmospheric plasma discharge phenomena that was occurring at the time of their creation. Could that have been the case for some of the petroglyphs Al Jassasiya? Also check out SOTT radio's:


'Largest prehistoric structure in Britain': Neolithic pits near Stonehenge shown to be man-made following new tests

stonehenge pit
© Wild Blue Media/Channel 5
The giant pits were dug into hard chalk forming a ring 2km across.
When a series of deep pits were discovered near the world heritage site of Stonehenge last year, archaeologists excitedly described it as the largest prehistoric structure ever found in Britain - only for some colleagues to dismiss the pits as mere natural features.

Now scientific tests have proved that those gaping pits, each aligned to form a circle spanning 1.2 miles (2km) in diameter, were definitely human-made, dug into the sacred landscape almost 4,500 years ago.

The structure appears to have been a boundary guiding people to a sacred area, because Durrington Walls, one of Britain's largest henge monuments, is located precisely at its centre. The site is 1.9 miles north-east of Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain, near Amesbury in Wiltshire.

Comment: See also: Also check out SOTT radio's:


Sophisticated, artistic, trading internationally: What the Culduthel dig tells us about Scotland's pre-historic Highlanders


Various images from the excavation of the Iron Age craft village at Culduthel, Inverness.
Various images from the excavation of the Iron Age craft village at Culduthel, Inverness.

Anyone who imagines the Highlands 2,000 years ago to be wild, woolly and primitive should think again.

The newly-published findings of an archaeological dig at Culduthel, on the southern outskirts of Inverness, have revealed an Iron Age craft village manned by exceptionally skilled artisans, producing goods from iron, bronze and glass for international trade.

The dig was carried out by Headland Archaeology prior to a housing development by Tulloch Homes.

The excavation team at Culduthel, Inverness. Supplied by Headland Archaeology.

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Magic Hat

The origins of the ancient Etruscans

Etruscan bas-relief of a sarcophagus depicting Ulysses
© Leemage/Corbis via Getty Images
Etruscan civilization, 4th century BC : Bas-relief of a sarcophagus showing Ulysses tied to the mast to resist to the song of sirens, from Volterra, Pisa province, Italy - Archaeological Museum, Florence.
Unearthing ancient relics can tell you many things about a ghost civilization, but where you found those relics is not necessarily where those long-lost people came from.

For years, the origins of the Etruscans remained an unsolved mystery. They inhabited central Italy for two thousand years before the Roman Empire flourished and were thought to have emerged there. However, there were suspicions that they migrated from somewhere else (not in an Ancient Aliens type of way). Where their strange — and now dead — language came from is unknown, but it was definitely not Indo-European. So how did they materialize?

Researcher Cosmio Psoth of the University of Tübingen, who recently coauthored a study in Science Advances, revealed they crossed the steppes of what is now Russia and Ukraine to reach the Italian peninsula of Etruria. This disproves the assumption that language and origins are always related in some way or another. Etruscan genes were relatively stable until the Roman Empire took over, and conquering rulers seized foreign lands and brought in new blood.

"The Etruscans carried the steppe-related genetic component derived from populations that likely spread Indo-European languages across Italy. Nevertheless, they preserved their cultural and linguistic identity," Psoth told SYFY WIRE.

Blue Planet

41,500-year-old ivory pendant found in cave in Poland may be oldest human-decorated jewelry in Eurasia

ivory pendant
© Antonino Vazzana/BONES Lab
Two different views of the pendant, crafted from mammoth ivory. The scale bar is 1 centimeter. The decorations might be tied to cycles of the sun or moon.
Archaeologists in Poland have discovered the remains of a 41,500-year-old pendant made of mammoth ivory and decorated with puncture marks, which is the oldest piece of jewelry decorated by modern humans in Eurasia on record.

The pendant, which is now in two pieces, was found during archaeological excavations carried out in Stajnia Cave, Poland, in 2010, and recent radiocarbon work dates it to around 41,500 years ago, a team of scientists reported in a paper published online Thursday (Nov. 25) in the journal Scientific Reports.

"The decoration of the pendant included patterns of over 50 puncture marks in an irregular looping curve, and two complete holes," the team said in a statement. They noted that each puncture could represent a successful animal hunt or cycles of the moon or sun.

Comment: See also: And check out SOTT radio's:


Ancient Chinese society that collapsed more than 4,000 years ago was wiped out by flooding: study

UNESCO World Heritage Centre Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City

UNESCO World Heritage Centre
Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City
More than 4,000 years ago, one of the most advanced societies in ancient China, referred to as "China's Venice of the Stone Age" for its complex water management system, disappeared suddenly.

The reason for the abrupt collapse of Liangzhu City hasn't been clear until now, but according to a new study published in the journal Science Advances, the city was wiped out not by war or famine but by an unusually heavy monsoon season, which flooded the region.

The ruins of Liangzhu City can be found in the Yangtze Delta, around 160 kilometres southwest of Shanghai, all that remains of an advanced society that existed around 5,300 years ago.

Star of David

Jack Ruby: Israel's Smoking Gun

Comment: At the end of this article is a must-watch documentary - Assassination of The Kennedy Brothers - made by the author.

Jack Ruby JFK Oswald
By a strange paradox, most Kennedy researchers who believe that Oswald was "just a patsy" spend an awful lot of time exploring his biography. This is about as useful as investigating Osama bin Laden for solving 9/11. Any serious quest for the real assassins of JFK should start by investigating the man who shot Oswald at pointblank in the stomach at 11:21 a.m. on November 24, 1963 in the Dallas Police station, thereby sealing the possibility that a judicial inquiry would draw attention to the inconsistencies of the charge against him, and perhaps expose the real perpetrators. One would normally expect the Dallas strip-club owner Jack Ruby to be the most investigated character by Kennedy truthers. But that is not the case.

Of course, it is perfectly normal that Chief Justice Earl Warren, when Ruby told him on June 7, 1964, "I have been used for a purpose," failed to ask him who had used him and for what purpose.1 But what about independent investigators? Are only readers of the Forward ("News That Matters To American Jews") worthy of being informed that "Lee Harvey Oswald's Killer 'Jack Ruby' Came From Strong Jewish Background," and that he told his rabbi Hillel Silverman that he "did it for the Jewish people"? Here is the relevant passage of Steve North's 2013 article, relating Silverman's reaction after hearing on the radio that a "Jack Rubenstein" had killed the assassin:


14,000-year-old settlement site discovered on Turkey's west coast

Head of terracotta statuette
© Adriana Günzel
Head of terracotta statuette of the Meter Kybele with its characteristic crown.
In the province of Izmir, between the modern towns of Dikili and Bergama (UNESCO World Heritage Site Pergamon-Bergama), layers from the post-Paleolithic period (Epipalaeolithic) were discovered for the first time in a cave and uncovered in the course of a rescue excavation. They are overlaid by an ancient sanctuary of the Anatolian mother deity Meter-Kybele. As an important natural monument, the site was also frequented in the following Byzantine and Islamic eras before falling into oblivion.

Throughout history, the territory of present-day Turkey has been the site of significant developments and events at the interface between East and West. Most recently, the finds from Göbekli Tepe in Upper Mesopotamia have attracted particular attention. The first monumental architecture and sculptures were created there in the 10th millennium BC. Compared to the Neolithic period, in whose early phase Göbekli Tepe belongs, the older phases of human history (Palaeolithic) are less well known. So far, only a few sites of this period have been excavated in southern and south-eastern Turkey. In western Anatolia, i.e. in the contact zone of the Aegean and at the transition to Europe, there is a gap in the reliable evidence of the Palaeolithic and its transitional phases to the Neolithic.

It was all the more surprising when in autumn 2020, during an archaeological survey of the DAI-Pergamon excavation in a cave between the modern cities of Dikili and Bergama (Pergamon), layers from the post-Paleolithic period (Epipalaeolithic) were discovered that are around 14,000 years old. First horizons with stone tools and bones were documented, whose age could be precisely determined with the help of the radiocarbon method and the examination of the stone tools.