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Evolution of market economy in Ancient Greece revealed in pollen study

Satyrs

Satyrs making wine, Dionysian bas-relief from altar of unknown date, National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Influential economists such as Karl Marx and Max Weber, for example, argued that although markets existed in antiquity, economies in which structures of production and distribution responded to the laws of supply and demand developed only as recently as the 19th century.

A recent study by an international team of researchers, including Adam Izdebski of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, uses palynology - the study of pollen remains extracted from cored sediments - to challenge this belief and provide evidence for an integrated market economy existing in ancient Greece.

Market integration began earlier than assumed

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MindMatters: Picking Matthew Ehret's Brain: How Darwinism Took Over the World, and Why Ertugrul Is Awesome

ehret
When looking at the news, the best analysis quite often comes with a fair bit of 'dot connecting'. Ideally, we seek to understand our world and the major events unfolding as deeply as possible, but we're too often served a dish of two-dimensional news that furthers our knowledge just so much and not much more. So when a writer in the alternative news world manages to draw upon history, philosophy, science, and any number of other areas and disciplines - broadening our perspective in the process - we notice.

This week on MindMatters we are joined by just such a voice: author and lecturer Matthew Ehret. Matthew is like the college prof you wish you had, enlivening his knowledge base with an infectious enthusiasm and command of the relevant facts. A veritable plethora of subject matter is on the table: Darwin and Malthus, Planck and Einstein, Kepler's genius, the retrograde motion of Mars, the nature of conspiracies, and why you need to watch Resurrection: Ertugrul. Join us this week as the owner and contributor of the Canadian Patriot and the Rising Tide Foundation reminds us that academic-level research need not be a dry and listless affair, but can expand our world views in ways not previously anticipated.


Running Time: 01:47:49

Download: MP3 — 98.7 MB


Archaeology

New parts of Herod's palace revealed, including 300-seat personal theater

herod palace excavation theater
© Menahem Kahana / AFP
An aerial view of the Herodium fortress, November 24, 2020m with the King Herod’s tomb site and the theatrerbuilt by Herod the Great in 23-15 BCE in the Judaean desert, southeast of Bethlehem
Israeli authorities are set to unveil previously off-limits structures within King Herod's palace-fortress Herodium, which the tyrannical Roman-era leader interred as his enormous burial plot.

Herodium, a hugely popular tourism destination, is near Bethlehem in the West Bank but falls in an area where Israel exercises full military and civilian control.

Archaeologists say Herod decided toward the end of his life to bury his palace, using ground from below the hill it was perched upon, until the outline of the structure was no longer visible.

Magnify

Why China is NOT your enemy (and what really controls Canada and the US deep state)

deep state
© Canadian Patriot Review
Screenshot
Is China truly the enemy of the west or is there a major psy-op underway to deflect attention from the actual causal hand of British intelligence and direct the attention of fools towards "evil totalitarian China"?

The fact that George Soros explicitly attacked the two greatest threats to his vision for a one world "open society" on January 24, 2020 at Davos as 1) Xi Jinping's China and 2) Trump's USA should be a clue to the answer to the question.

In this presentation delivered to members of the Canada-based GTW Thrive Townhall, the history of British intelligence operations are discussed from the rise of Cecil Rhodes' Roundtable movement under Lord Milner and its permeation of foreign targets starting with the USA with the creation of the Council on Foreign Relations in 1923. We discuss the efforts by British intelligence asset Henry Kissinger whose vision for a Gang of Four-controlled China were opposed by patriotic forces loyal to Zhou Enlai's vision for an anti-colonial/pro-development China more in alignment with the post WWII vision of FDR and JFK.

Info

New evidence that Neandertals buried their dead

Reconstruction of the child's burial by Neandertals at La Ferrassie.
© Emmanuel Roudier
Reconstruction of the child's burial by Neandertals at La Ferrassie.
Was burial of the dead practiced by Neandertals or is it an innovation specific to our species? There are indications in favour of the first hypothesis but some scientists remain sceptical. For the first time in Europe, however, a multi-disciplinary team led by researchers at the CNRS and the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle (France) and the University of the Basque Country (Spain)1 has demonstrated, using a variety of criteria, that a Neandertal child was buried, probably around 41,000 years ago, at the Ferrassie site (Dordogne). Their study is published in the journal Scientific Reports on 9th December 2020.

Dozens of buried Neandertal skeletons have been discovered in Eurasia, leading some scientists to deduce that, like us, Neandertals buried their dead. Other experts have been sceptical, however, given that the majority of the best-preserved skeletons, found at the beginning of the 20th century, were not excavated using modern archaeological techniques.

It is within this framework that an international team1 led by paleoanthropologists Antoine Balzeau (CNRS and Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, France) and Asier Gómez-Olivencia (University of the Basque Country, Spain), analysed a human skeleton from one of the most famous Neandertal sites in France: the La Ferrassie rock shelter, Dordogne. After six Neandertal skeletons were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century, the site delivered a seventh between 1970 and 1973, belonging to a child of around two years old. For almost half a century, the collections associated with this specimen remained unexploited in the archives of the Musée d'archéologie nationale.

Info

Hidden network of Amazonian villages discovered by archaeologists

Amazon LIDAR Scan
© Iriarte et al, Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology, 2020
Using remote laser scanners mounted on helicopters, archaeologists have been able to peer below the forest canopy of the Amazon, revealing the layouts and links of ancient villages laid out like clock faces.

While these so-called mound villages had been spotted before, the new surveying technology has revealed exactly how they were organised at scale, and the data were gathered without the need for laborious work and excavation on the ground.

The findings were made possible through LIDAR scanning technology - the same long-distance, depth-sensing technique that's found in various forms in self-driving cars and even in the newest iPhones from Apple.

"LIDAR has allowed us to detect these villages, and their features such as roads, which wasn't possible before because most are not visible within the best satellite data available," says archaeologist José Iriarte, from the University of Exeter in the UK.

Instead of working from mound to mound, as has happened in the past, the researchers were able to see the layouts of entire villages and the connections between them, via a RIEGL VUX-1 UAV LIDAR sensor monitoring the forest from above.

Blue Planet

Adapt 2030: Overlapping cycles of the ages, floods and civilization

Cycles of the ages
© YouTube/Adapt 2030 (screen capture)
What are the chances that mega-floods centre around 1440 year cycles which are part of the 360 year Grand Solar Minimum cycle that are part of the 11,500 year cycle and the changes of ages with Jupiter and Saturn all in December 2020. This is truly a reset of the ages.


Comment: See also:


Info

Neanderthal Y chromosome is much closer to modern humans than thought

Hominid skull
© Science Photo Library / Trueba, Javier / MSF Partager
Hominid skulls from Sima de los Huesos (Spain), where thousands of bones and bone fragments have been unearthed since the site was discovered in 1984.

DNA analysis has revealed that, between 150,000 and 350,000 years ago, the Y chromosome of the Neanderthals was totally replaced by that of a population from which Homo sapiens is descended.


The evolutionary history of the human lineage is a huge puzzle with many missing pieces. However, the picture is gradually becoming clearer, as new fossils are unearthed and their genes analysed. Sequencing this ancient DNA has, for instance, shown that around 2% of the sequences in the genome of today's Eurasian populations come from Neanderthals.

This legacy shows that hybridisation between these hominids and modern humans (Homo sapiens) was under way some 50,000 years ago, when the two species lived side by side in Europe. Ancient DNA also helped scientists clarify the relationship between today's humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans. "Separation took place about 700,000 years ago, with, on the one hand, the lineage that gave rise to Homo sapiens and, on the other, a sister group comprising the Denisovans in Asia and the Neanderthals in Europe," says Isabelle Crevecœur, a palaeoanthropologist from the University of Bordeaux's PACEA1 laboratory.

Book 2

Plague of Liars: Nuremberg Code Outlaws Forced Medical Procedures, Which INCLUDES Mandatory Vaccinations

Doctors Trial Nuremberg Code
© US Army
The 'Doctors Trial' (USA vs Karl Brandt) during the Nuremberg Trials following WW2, which established the Nuremberg Code regulating the ethics of medical intervention
Some people might not be familiar with the verb "to dissemble", but we all need to become familiar with it, because there is a lot of dissembling going on.

It basically means to deliberately conceal something or obfuscate it, so that one's attention is misdirected or deflected from whatever the Dissembler wishes to obscure. Like the truth. And in this case, the truth about the Nuremberg Code and the protection it provides us from accepting any forced medical procedure or therapy at all.

Together with casting doubts and slander, dissembling is one of the chief tools in the propagandist toolbox.

A few days ago, I wrote an article explaining that forced vaccinations are a violation of the Nuremberg Code. Note the word, "forced". In fact, any forced medical procedure or therapy is against the Nuremberg Code.

All medical procedures and therapies must have fully informed and freely given consent, to the greatest extent possible - which means that people who are conscious and able to decide things for themselves remain in control of their medical destiny.

It's only when you are in desperate straits and unconscious that medical professionals are allowed to step in and make decisions "for you".

Comment: The author has since acknowledged that she mixed up the Nuremberg Code with later codifications under international law that gave primacy to the principles of informed consent and individual choice in public health programs.

The 'Article 6, Sections 1 and 3' she refers to is the following from the 2006 UN Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights:
Article 6, section 1:
Any preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic medical intervention is only to be carried out with the prior, free and informed consent of the person concerned, based on adequate information. The consent should, where appropriate, be express and may be withdrawn by the person concerned at any time and for any reason without disadvantage or prejudice.
Article 6, section 3:
In no case should a collective community agreement or the consent of a community leader or other authority substitute for an individual's informed consent.
The Nuremberg Code in fact consists of the following ten points, laid down in international law during one of the Nuremberg Trials (source: The Holocaust Encyclopedia).
On December 9, 1946, an American military tribunal opened criminal proceedings against 23 leading German physicians and administrators for their willing participation in war crimes and crimes against humanity. This case is known as the "Doctors Trial" (USA v. Karl Brandt et. al). On August 19, 1947, the judges of the tribunal delivered their verdict. But before announcing the guilt or innocence of each defendant, they confronted the difficult question of medical experimentation on human beings.

Several German doctors had argued in their own defense that their experiments differed little from those conducted before the war by German and American scientists. Furthermore they showed that no international law or informal statement differentiated between legal and illegal human experimentation. This argument was a great concern to two US doctors who had worked with the prosecution during the trial, Dr. Andrew Ivy and Dr. Leo Alexander.

As a result, on April 17, 1947, Dr. Alexander submitted a memorandum to the United States Counsel for War Crimes. The memo outlined six points that defined legitimate medical research. The trial's verdict of August 19 reiterated almost all of these points in a section entitled "Permissible Medical Experiments." It also revised the original six points into ten, and these ten points became known as the "Nuremberg Code."

In the half century following the trial, the code informed numerous international ethics statements. Its legal force, however, was not well established. Nevertheless, it remains a landmark document on medical ethics and one of the most lasting products of the "Doctors Trial."

Permissible Medical Experiments

From the trial transcript
The great weight of the evidence before us is to the effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. The protagonists of the practice of human experimentation justify their views on the basis that such experiments yield results for the good of society that are unprocurable by other methods or means of study. All agree, however, that certain basic principles must be observed in order to satisfy moral, ethical and legal concepts:

1. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.

This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision. This latter element requires that before the acceptance of an affirmative decision by the experimental subject there should be made known to him the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and the effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment.

The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity.

2. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.

3. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment.

4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.

5. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the experimental physicians also serve as subjects.

6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.

7. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death.

8. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons. The highest degree of skill and care should be required through all stages of the experiment of those who conduct or engage in the experiment.

9. During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible.

10. During the course of the experiment the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probably cause to believe, in the exercise of the good faith, superior skill and careful judgment required of him that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject.
Clearly, mandatory Covid-19 vaccinations fall foul of the Nuremberg Code, on multiple counts.

The Covidians will of course talk their way around the Nuremberg Code by claiming it only applies to medical experiments, whereas Covid-19 vaccines are rubber-stamped as 'legitimate govt-approved health programs'.

They're not. They're completely experimental, and fall foul even of today's lax vaccine regulations, which have been 'suspended' under the patently false claim that Covid-19 is a 'deadly pandemic' presenting a 'dire threat to global public health'.

Anyone who is involved in pushing through or carrying out mandatory vaccination programs 'because Covid' will be in breach of the Nuremberg Code and international law. As such they will have 'gone Nazi' and be personally liable in any future trials for crimes against humanity.

Remember, post-WW2 trials for crimes against humanity established that "I was just carrying out orders" is NOT a legal defense.
nuremberg code doctors hanging
© ushmm.org
Sentences of death carried out following Doctors' Trial in Nuremberg (1947).



Arrow Up

The Nuremberg Tribunal: 75 years later and still the basis for humanity's survival

Nuremberg Trials
© Facebook/History of Sorts
Nuremberg Trials
"The wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant and so devastating, that Civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored because it cannot survive their being repeated. That four great nations, flushed with victory and stung with injury, stay the hand of vengeance and voluntarily submit their captives to the judgement of law, is one of the most significant tributes that Power ever paid to reason." -Justice Robert Jackson, Nov. 21, 1945
It is often forgotten what sort of a battle occurred after WWII to establish the Nuremberg Trials which gave the world a revolutionary code of law which even today offers many of the remedies to the Gordian Knots blocking our way to a peaceful future. By the end of the war, many European leaders of the allied nations wished to simply put leading Nazis against a wall to face a firing squad and return to "business as usual".

As I've outlined in many recent writings, it was only through the intensive efforts of U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt, and his leading allies in both the USA and Russia that a different course of action was decided upon and an official international tribunal was sanctioned that generated a total legal paradigm shift in international law that has been too easily taken for granted (due largely to the lack of effect these laws have had on post-WWII practice).

Among those revolutionary reforms included the unprecedented mandate that wars of aggression would henceforth be illegal in the eyes of the law. The tendency for those higher officials carrying out inhuman orders to escape responsibility for their actions or omissions of correct action were deemed insufficient defenses under the higher moral principle of "known or should have known".