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Doubts Over Authenticity of 'Ancient Christian' Books

Ancient Fakes_1
© BBC
The metal books, the Lead Codices, range in size and are covered in ancient lettering.

In the cool living room of a stone-built house in Northern Israel I might just have held in my hands the keys to the ancient mysteries of Christianity.

And then again, I might not have.

With the blinds shuttered against the glare of the midday sun my host, Hassan Saeda, lays out a collection of extraordinary books which he says are about 2,000 years old.

Flowing of hair and neat of beard, he bears a distracting resemblance to an illustration of Christ from an old children's Bible. It lends the scene an air of extra gravity.

The books - bindings, pages, covers and all - are made entirely of various metals.

They are inscribed - or engraved, stamped or embossed - with various simple pictures and writing in a variety of languages including Greek and Old Hebrew.

And they are astonishingly heavy. Some are no larger than a credit card but some are the size of large-format modern paperbacks. The largest that I handled probably weighed 4 or 5kg (about 10lbs).

Ancient Fakes_2
© BBC
"I spent so much time and so much money to prove these are real. There are a lot of professors and one of them told me that I'm living in a fantasy”

Hassan Saeda, Owner of metal books.
You can see why the publishing industry was eventually won over by the flexibility and portability of paper.

Gear

What is war good for? Sparking civilization, suggest UCLA archaeology findings from Peru

Image
© Unknown
"Gateway of the Sun", Tiahuanaco, drawn in 1877. Site of Pukara in the northern Titicaca Basin
Warfare, triggered by political conflict between the fifth century B.C. and the first century A.D., likely shaped the development of the first settlement that would classify as a civilization in the Titicaca basin of southern Peru, a new UCLA study suggests.

Charles Stanish, director of UCLA's Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, and Abigail Levine, a UCLA graduate student in anthropology, used archaeological evidence from the basin, home to a number of thriving and complex early societies during the first millennium B.C., to trace the evolution of two larger, dominant states in the region: Taraco, along the Ramis River, and Pukara, in the grassland pampas.

"This study is part of a larger, worldwide comparative research effort to define the factors that gave rise to the first societies that developed public buildings, widespread religions and regional political systems - or basically characteristics associated with ancient states or what is colloquially known as 'civilization,'" said Stanish, who is also a professor of anthropology at UCLA. "War, regional trade and specialized labor are the three factors that keep coming up as predecessors to civilization."

The findings appear online in the latest edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Comment: Perhaps a destructive and associated with "sparking of civilization" process, similar to what is described in the following excerpt from Laura Knight-Jadczyk's article The Golden Age, Psychopathy and the Sixth Extinction occurred also in the Titicaca basin of southern Peru.
I have theorized previously that the cometary destruction associated with the Deluge may have been responsible for mutations in the human population and these mutations led to a variety of psychopathologies that have spread gradually in the population, incrementally corrupting humanity and life on Earth, until we are where we are today. That may have been what happened to Atlantis via an even earlier cataclysmic interaction, and I'm going to explain why I think so. What Atlantis ended up with, according to Plato, and what we have today, was and is a corrupt global system that seeks domination of the entire world. For Atlantis, in the midst of, or immediately after, fighting a war of domination, the Deluge came destroying nearly all life on earth in a single day and night. Rather sobering if you think about it. Makes one feel like going Biblical!
"But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, and knew not until the flood came, and took them all away..." (Matthew 24:37-38.)
So, something corrupted the world of Cro-Magnon man long before this time and whatever it was, it led peaceful hunter-gatherer types to create a complex technological civilization that then took the peoples of the world into an abyss; and this corruption may very well have survived the Deluge and still be present in our own society. It is a system that posits pure materialism as its foundation, and excludes entirely the potentials of consciousness as a factor in human dynamics (except as a by-product or 'excretion' of matter). And when I refer to materialists, I actually include the creationists because their position is actually as entirely materialism-based as the evolutionists.



Cow Skull

Invasion of the Viking women unearthed

Image
© Victor Lambdin
So much for Hagar the Horrible, with his stay-at-home wife, Helga. Viking women may have equaled men moving to England in medieval invasions, suggests a look at ancient burials.

Vikings famously invaded Eastern England around 900 A.D., notes Shane McLeod of the Centre for Medieval and Early Modern Studies at the University of Western Australia in the Early Medieval Europe journal, starting with two army invasions in the 800's, recounted in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. The Viking invaders founded their own medieval kingdom, 'the Danelaw', in Eastern England.
"There is some archaeological evidence for early Norse female settlement, most obviously oval brooches, but this evidence is minimal. The more difficult to date evidence of place names, personal names, and DNA samples derived from the modern population suggests that Norse women did migrate to England at some stage, but probably in far fewer numbers than Norse men," begins the study.

Sherlock

3,000-Year-Old Altar Uncovered in Israel 'Suggests Cultural Links to Jews'

ancient Philistine altar
© Haaretz
The ancient Philistine altar at the Tel Tzafit archaeological site.
Head of the archeological dig on Tel Tzafit, Prof. Aren Maeir says the find indicates that the two peoples thought of as bitter enemies may have been closer than we think.

A stone altar from the 9th century BCE was found in an archeological dig on Tel Tzafit, a site identified with the biblical Philistine city of Gat. The altar is reminiscent of Jewish altars from the same period and sheds light on the cultural links between the two peoples, who fought each other for centuries.

The altar is approximately one meter tall, half a meter wide and half a meter long. It was found by a team of diggers led by Prof. Aren Maeir of the Land of Israel and Archaeology studies at Bar-Ilan University. The most outstanding features of the altar are a pair of horns on its front and a cornice in the middle. Its form is reminiscent of the descriptions of the Jewish altars in the scriptures, with the most noticeable difference being that the altar in the Temple was described as having four horns, while the Gat altar has only two.

Maeir said Monday the altar demonstrates the cultural proximity between the two nations, traditionally cast as the most bitter of enemies in the scriptures. "Every group continues defining itself distinctly, but there's intensive interaction. Think about Samson for a second," he said. "It doesn't matter if the story is real or not. It's true he kills them and they kill him, but on the other hand, he does marry a Philistine woman and take part in their weddings."

Comment: The entire enterprise of 'archaeology' in Israel is geared towards one thing only: corroborating a mythological timeline that was invented in recent times to justify Zionism and its murderous goals. Here is a book review of one of Israel's top academics whose research says exactly this:

Book Review: The Invention of the Jewish People


Sherlock

Food for thought - 3 million years ago

Apelike being

By three million years ago, the world of Lucy and Australopithecus afarensis had vanished. Hidden forces were transforming the Earth's climate, with devastating consequences for the African landscape.

Temperatures in Africa plummeted and the air became stripped of moisture. Humid woodland shrivelled away, leaving wide belts of open terrain in its place.

Spinning around

The cause of this environmental upheaval was to be found in space. The Earth orbits the Sun at a slight tilt, known as the axis of rotation. This means that as our planet spins, it points towards the Sun at some times and away from it at others. This is the origin of the seasons on Earth. Three million years ago, this axis was changing so that the Earth pointed away from the Sun for longer periods. This caused an overall cooling of the Earth, locking away moisture in ice at the North and South Poles. It also made the climate more seasonal.

Comment: The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis is a much better explanation for how humans got that way: Human. The hypothesis proposes that the physical characteristics that distinguish us from our nearest cousin apes - standing and moving bipedally, being hairless on our bodies and sweating, our swimming and diving abilities, subcutaneous fat, fat babies, big brains and language - all of these and others are best explained as adaptations to a prolonged period of our evolutionary history being spent in and around the seashore and lake margins, not on the hot dry savannah or in the forest with the other apes. The accumulating evidence of recent years seems to be tipping the mainstream towards assimilating many of the AAH proposals. There is also biological evidence suggesting that water-birthing was a very early human evolutionary adaptation.


Magnify

UK's 'oldest' open-air cemetery discovered in Somerset

Old open air cemetery

The skulls date from around 8,300 BC, the Mesolithic era

Somerset was the site of the UK's oldest open-air cemetery, the county council says.

Recent radiocarbon dating of two skulls found at a sand quarry in Greylake nature reserve near Middlezoy in 1928 revealed them to be 10,000 years old.

The council said the find was made under its Lost Islands of Somerset project by a team investigating the archaeology of the Somerset Levels.

Since their discovery, the skulls have been held at Bridgwater's Blake Museum.

The new findings show that by around 8,300 BC, hunter-gatherers were burying their dead on what was once an island amid the Levels.

Info

Devastating Fire, War Destroyed Ancient Peruvian Society

Ancient Peruvian Site
© Charles Stanish
An excavation of two ancient Peruvian sites suggests the people of Pukara set fire to and waged war on the established ancient state of Taraco more than 2,000 years ago.

A war and inferno that apparently destroyed one ancient society while dramatically elevating another in Peru is now shedding light on how states emerge in the world.

Scientists investigated ruins in the Titicaca basin in southern Peru, home to a number of thriving ancient societies more than 2 millennia ago. They focused on two prominent states in the region - Taraco, based along the Ramis River, and Pukara, in the grassland pampas. At its height, Taraco was about 250 acres (1 square kilometer) in size with approximately 5,000 people, give or take 2,000, while Pukara peaked at about 500 acres (2 sq. km.) and had about 10,000 people, give or take 2,000.

Their results suggest Pukara waged a violent war against Taraco, possibly killing hundreds with their weapons before burning the state to the ground.

"In the century that Pukara peaked, the site of Taraco was attacked, and [it] ceased to be a political power in the region," researcher Charles Stanish, director of UCLA's Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, told LiveScience. "The inference that Pukara was responsible for the raid is extremely strong."

Cow Skull

Wales, UK: Carving found in Gower cave could be oldest rock art

Image
© National Museum of Wales
The location of the wall carving is being kept secret for the time being
An archaeologist believes a wall carving in a south Wales cave could be Britain's oldest example of rock art.

The faint scratchings of a speared reindeer are believed to have been carved by a hunter-gatherer in the Ice Age more than 14,000 years ago.

The archaeologist who found the carving on the Gower peninsula, Dr George Nash, called it "very, very exciting."

Experts are working to verify the discovery, although its exact location is being kept secret for now.

Dr Nash, a part-time academic for Bristol University, made the discovery while at the caves in September 2010.

He told BBC Wales: "It was a strange moment of being in the right place at the right time with the right kit.

Family

Respect for the Elders: How the evolution of grandparents was 'key to the success of the human race'

Countless generations have relied on grandparents for childcare, emotional support and a helping hand.

Now a theory claims that the older generation may have played a key role in the evolution of mankind.

Fossil experts say the number of grandparents shot up dramatically 30,000 years ago as people started to live longer.

Image
© The Gallery Collection / Corbis
Survival: Grandparents passed on skills such as tool-making and water supplies allowing their offspring to survive for longer
With older people able to look after children, pass on knowledge and share in food gathering, our ancestors were able to spread around the world and develop farming, tools and civilisation.

Comment: Also read The Golden Age, Psychopathy and the Sixth Extinction to learn more about the Golden Age of our civilization. A time after Cro-Magnon man arrived in Europe, and when the region apparently achieved a sort of nirvana civilization that was apparently peaceful and stable for over 25,000 years.


Attention

100th Anniversary of Machu Picchu Discovery

Image
© unknown
July 25, marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the "Lost City" of Machu Picchu.

Hiram Bingham III (1875-1956), historian, explorer, treasure hunter and politician "discovered" the city that the Incas had abandoned 400 years before and which the Spanish conquistadors were never able to find. (He was the inspiration behind Hollywood's Indiana Jones character.) About 1,000 people were living there at the time.

Although other explorers had "found" Machu Picchu years before, Bingham was the first to scientifically explore and publicize the place that had been covered in an overgrowth of jungle trees and vines. The entire April 1913 issue of National Geographic was devoted to his work there. Bingham also wrote about it, notably Inca Land: Explorations in the Highlands of Peru (1922) and Lost City of the Incas, a 1948 best-seller.

Machu Picchu was revered as a sacred place at a time quite a bit before the Incas "adopted" it as their own. The five-square-mile complex of palaces, baths, temples, storage rooms and about 150 houses arranged around a central plaza was completely self-contained. It was surrounded by agricultural terraces and watered by natural springs that could accommodate the population that lived there. Here is an example of the stone cuttings that were fitted together without mortar. Their construction was well-suited for earthquakes because they could sustain tremors without collapsing.

There is great speculation about why the Incas built Machu Picchu. Some say it was an estate and retreat site for Pachacuti and his royal court to relax, hunt and entertain guests.