Secret HistoryS

Better Earth

'We have provided everything possible for their freedom': How the USSR helped France's most important colony stick it to Paris

FILE PHOTO. Algerian President Houari Boumediene (2nd R) and Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin (L) during a visit of an Algerian factory during Kosygin's official visit to Algeria on October 5, 1971.
© AFPFILE PHOTO. Algerian President Houari Boumediene (2nd R) and Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin (L) during a visit of an Algerian factory during Kosygin's official visit to Algeria on October 5, 1971.
Demining, energy cooperation, irrigation, metallurgy, children's summer camps made the history of the friendship between Algeria and the Soviet Union

In early 2024, Moscow announced that it intended to establish a Russian House in Algeria, where both expatriates and local residents will be able to study the country's language and culture. In recent years, the need for such a cultural center has grown, since thousands of Russians reside in Algeria (many of them have lived there since Soviet times) and Algerian young people are showing increasing interest in the culture.

During the Soviet period, the communist state educated many Algerian politicians, trained its military personnel, and armed the country's air force and navy. The Algerian Army owes much of its professional success to Soviet and Russian military schools and academies, where more than 60,000 of its servicemen were trained between 1961 and 2023.

Comment: See also this article from the same author with more focus on the earlier history of Algeria: La Colonisation: French history of death, torture and indescribable violence in the pearl of its evil empire

See also:
Indigenous democracy: Why Africa should reject the Western way
The triumph of Adwa: An epic story of African victory over European colonizers
West looks panicky over Africa shift East
US trying to block Chinese access to African resources - FT
That's so Chad: Another African country looking to ditch Paris for Moscow
Adieu, colonizer: France's malign influence still hangs over Africa, and that needs to change
NATO knock-out: A new African alliance is starting a revolution in the continent's geopolitics
Russia strikes African military cooperation agreement with Niger
Africa's Che Guevara: How France pulled off the 'dirtiest trick' to assassinate a popular reformer

From the same source:
22 Apr, 2024 10:07
North African states to form new regional bloc
Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya have begun talks without Morocco and Mauritania, the other founding members of the former Maghreb union

The leaders of Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya will reportedly discuss the revival of the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), a regional political and economic bloc at an upcoming summit. The AMU has been largely dormant for more than a decade due to diplomatic tensions between some member states.

‎Tunisian President Kais Saied announced the move in a statement on X (formerly Twitter) on Saturday, saying he will host his Algerian counterpart, Abdelmadjid Tebboune, and Libya's Presidential Council leader, Mohamed Younes Menfi, for the first summit of the "three sister countries."

Local media reported the meeting would take place on Monday in the Tunisian capital, Tunis.

Last month, on the sidelines of a gas-exporting countries summit in Algeria, officials from the three North African countries agreed to hold talks every three months.

The AMU initiative has been criticized for excluding Morocco and Mauritania, which have also been bloc members since its formation in 1989. Moroccan media has accused Algeria of attempting to form a new regional alliance without Rabat, claiming that the move reflects Algiers' waning influence on the regional or continental front.

Algerian President Tebboune rejected the allegations in an interview with state broadcaster Alg24 News, declaring that the "bloc is not directed against any other state, and the door is open to countries in the region."

The five-member AMU grouping has faced several setbacks over the years, including a political and diplomatic rift between Algeria and Morocco that has resulted in a boycott of high-level talks since 2008.

Bad Guys

1052: The Magic Box with the Red Eye

Comment: Through A Glass Darkly is Cynthia's substack. Just below the opening sentences, Cynthia adds three quotes, two from Col. Fletcher Prouty's The Secret Team and one from Douglas Valentine's The Phoenix Program.

On their own, both books are recommended reads.

For another look, see The Truth Perspective: Interview with Douglas Valentine: The CIA As Organized Crime

HAL 9000
The following is a short story written by Col. Fletcher Prouty describing true events that occurred in Vietnam during the war that sound like something out of a sci-fi dystopic movie. This is extremely useful for anyone who wishes to understand the techniques that are presently being waged against the American people and the west more broadly.

This story serves as an addendum to my paper "How the CIA and US Special Forces Manufactured a Migrant Crisis and Orwellian Police State in Vietnam Before Going to the Americas," which also discusses in detail the origin of the "smart city" prisons that are being built throughout the world today.
"Anyone who doubts that this nation building and police activity has not become real and very effective right here in the United States need only visit the area around Fort Bragg to find one of these early paramilitary CIA-oriented specialist, General Tolson, sending his American soldiers out into the countryside with nation-building programs for the citizens of the United States. If such tactics continue, it is possible that an enlargement of such a program could lead to a pacification program of areas of the United States, such as the CIA and the US Army have carried out in Indochina."

- Col. Fletcher Prouty "The Secret Team" (1972). Prouty served as a liaison officer between the Pentagon and the CIA between 1955 and 1963.

Comment: Last thoughts go out to Douglas Valentine in terms of our latter years in the ponerized West:
"Only five percent of the people need to be organized in this fashion to install a fascist dictator in the United States. That is the ultimate objective of the greatest covert operation ever, the one in which the oligarchs steal everything you own."
― Douglas Valentine, The CIA as Organized Crime: How Illegal Operations Corrupt America and the World


DNA from ancient graves reveals the culture of a mysterious nomadic people

Hundreds of genomes shed light on the marriage habits and social norms of the Avar people of central Europe.
Ancient Graves
© Institute of Archaeological Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University Múzeum, Budapest, HungaryScientists sampled genomic data from 279 graves at a cemetery in Rákóczifalva, Hungary, where people of the medieval Avar culture were buried.
Most people know about the Huns, if only because of their infamous warrior-ruler Attila. But the Avars, another nomadic people who subsequently occupied roughly the same region of eastern and central Europe, have remained obscure despite having assembled a sprawling empire that lasted from the late sixth century to the early ninth century. Even archaeologists have struggled to piece together their history and culture, relying on spotty and potentially biased contemporaneous chronicles that, in many cases, were authored by the Avars' adversaries.

A deep dive into 424 genomes collected from hundreds of Avar graves is filling in crucial gaps in this story, revealing a wealth of insights into the Avars' social structure and culture1. "These people basically didn't have a voice in history, and we are kind of looking into them this way — through their bodies," says Zuzana Hofmanová, an archaeogeneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and one of the study's lead authors.

The work was published today in Nature.


'Extraordinary': George Washington's 250-year-old cherries, full wine bottles, found buried at Mount Vernon , USA

george washington
© Mount Vernon Ladies’ AssociationThe bottles were originally uncovered in November 2023, but weren't fully excavated until March 22, 2024.
The forgotten cherries were supposed to be served on George Washington's dinner table, but became a time capsule instead, sitting untouched since at least 1776

Archaeologists found something incredibly rare in the cellar of George Washington's home at Mount Vernon: Two intact jars of cherries buried in the basement of the first U.S. president's house.

Nick Beard, project archeologist at Mount Vernon, told USA TODAY on Tuesday that he had been excavating the basement "for quite a while" when he saw the lip of one of the jars in November.

When the bottle started to peek out from the earth, he proceeded carefully but said he didn't think it would turn out to be anything out of the ordinary, adding that it's common to find wine bottles and glasses at the site about 15 miles south of Washington, D.C.


Study suggests human occupation in Patagonia prior to the Younger Dryas period

Notable lithic artefacts
© Antonio Pérez-BalarezoNotable lithic artefacts from Pilauco site layers PB-8 and PB-7, including choppers/cores (a–e) and flakes with multiple edges (b–d, f–h). Cutting edges are outlined in red. From PB-8 layer: a, b. From PB-7: c, d, e, f, g, h. (Sources: Pino et al. Reference Pino, Chávez-Hoffmeister, Navarro-Harris and Labarca2013; Navarro-Harris et al. Reference Navarro-Harris, Pino, Guzmán-Marín, Pino and Astorga2020) (figure by Antonio Pérez-Balarezo).
Archaeologists have conducted a study of lithic material from the Pilauco and Los Notros sites in north-western Patagonia, revealing evidence of human occupation in the region prior to the Younger Dryas period.

The Younger Dryas, which occurred circa 12,900 to 11,700 years BP), was a cooling event which marked a return to glacial conditions, temporarily reversing the climatic warming of the preceding Late Glacial Interstadial.

The period in which humans arrived in South America, in particular, north-western Patagonia, has been the subject of an ongoing debate by academics for many years.

Previous archaeological evidence and palaeogenetic studies have suggested human presence between 16 600 and 15 100 cal BP, however, a new study published in the journal Antiquity is providing new evidence of pre-Holocene human activity during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition.


What Happened to America's Anti-Fascist Traditions?

© unknownStephan Bandera
Americans once took great pride in the defeat of the Nazi scourge that threatened to run roughshod over the 20th century and beyond. Under the leadership of Franklin Roosevelt, America mobilized not only to heal from the devastation of the Great Depression, but also became a global leader of industrial power supplying the Allies with the tools they needed to fight the war before entering the fight herself in 1941.

Coming out of that scarring experience, there was great hope that the world would finally be raised out of the fires of imperialism, poverty and war. The UN charter enshrined Roosevelt's Four Freedoms, respect for sovereignty and a mandate for economic cooperation into law giving hope that a new age of brotherhood was upon us.

Despite certain pushbacks by US Statesmen to the Anglo-American special relationship, and military industrial complex that began to take on a life of its own, FDR's vision for world peace continued to die throughout the Cold War.

Perhaps it was allowing RAND Corp computer modellers to shape international policy, or perhaps it was the FBI-McCarthyite witch hunts and constant threat of global nuclear annihilation that caused once-courageous Americans to become gullible and fearful. Whatever the cause had been, the fact that major components of Hitler's intelligence apparatus and unapologetic fascists were repurposed after the war to be used to combat Communism throughout the Cold War did not help.


The history of the Oak Island Money Pit

Oak Island
© Public DomainOak Island.
Oak Island, located in Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia, is a small 140-acre island which has been the subject of an ongoing treasure hunt since 1795.

The earliest human occupation of the region dates back several thousand years to the ancestors of the Mi'kmaq, an indigenous First Nations people of Canada's Atlantic Provinces.

Europeans established permanent settlements in the area during the mid-18th century through the Shorham grant, an edict which offered free land grants to attract settlers and generate population growth.

At the time, Oak Island was known locally as "Smith's Island" (named for Edward Smith, an early settler), but was renamed to "Gloucester Isle" in 1778, and shortly after to "Oak Island" supposedly because of the red oaks growing on the island.

The following account is neither exact nor complete, but is a rough summary of the reports and materials published in sequence.

The history of the Oak Island treasure hunt begun in 1795, when a young Daniel McInnes discovered evidence of tree felling on the island's interior and a clearing with a shallow saucer-shaped depression.

McInnes likely envisioned stumbling across a pirate cache, as the Novia Scotia region was known to be a hide-out for pirates in the 17th and 18th centuries during the Golden Age of Piracy.

The most infamous pirate to be associated with the Oak Island legend is Captain Kidd, however, there is little supporting evidence other than hearsay, and any association is merely speculative.

McInnes returned to the island with John (Jack) Smith and Anthony Vaughan, and begun excavating the depression until they discovered a layer of flagstones sourced from the Gold River several miles to the north.

Upon removing the flagstones, it is claimed that the trio found a shaft made by human hands (evidenced by pick marks in the hard clay walls), and continued to excavate the shaft interior to reveal several platforms of wooden logs at a depth of every 10 feet.

This shaft would later become known as the "Money Pit".


Moon 'may have influenced Stonehenge builders'

Stonehenge and the Moon 1
© Andre Pattenden/English HeritageA team of experts are investigating the possibility that Stonehenge aligns with the positions of the Moon, as well as the Sun.
The possibility that Stonehenge aligns with the positions of the Moon - as well as the Sun - is being investigated by a team of experts and organisations including the Royal Astronomical Society.

Archaeoastronomers led by English Heritage will study the connection between the ancient monument and a 'major lunar standstill' — a rare astronomical phenomenon which happens every 18.6 years.

It refers to the point when Moonrise and Moonset reach their furthest points along the horizon and is next taking place from this year into next.

Academics from Oxford, Leicester and Bournemouth universities believe these once-in-a-generation lunar movements may have been noticed in the early phase of Stonehenge, and therefore influenced its later design.

Their research into the theory will begin this spring and last until the middle of 2025.

Professor Clive Ruggles, emeritus professor of archaeoastronomy at Leicester University, said: "Stonehenge's architectural connection to the Sun is well known, but its link with the Moon is less well understood.

"The four Station Stones align with the Moon's extreme positions, and researchers have debated for years whether this was deliberate, and - if so - how this was achieved and what might have been its purpose."


Mysterious circular monument discovered in France

The mysterious monument site appears to have been occupied across multiple historical periods.
unusual circular monument
© Jérôme Berthet, INRAP)An aerial view of the unusual circular monument.
Archaeologists have discovered an unusual horseshoe-shaped monument and a collection of weapons and ornaments spanning multiple historical periods at a site in France.

Located in Marliens, a commune in eastern France, the site has a large bowtie-shaped structure, whose middle sports a circular construction measuring 36 feet (11 meters) in diameter. This center circlet is interconnected by a 26-foot-long (8 m) horseshoe-shaped structure on one side and a jug-handle-shaped feature on the other, according to a translated statement from the French National Institute of Preventive Archaeological Research (INRAP), which carried out the excavations.

Researchers described the finding as "unprecedented," as there are no other known sites with similar shaped constructions.

Based on the plethora of artifacts found there — including a bundle containing seven flint arrowheads, two protective armbands worn by archers, a flint lighter and a copper-alloy dagger — archaeologists determined that the site was occupied during different time periods.


'Unusual' burned remains of Maya royalty marked the rise of a new, 'foreign' military leader, study reveals

© C. Halperin/Courtesy AntiquityBurned grave goods found in a Maya pyramid with the royal bones included a carved pendant plaque of a human head.
In an ancient Maya temple-pyramid in Guatemala, archaeologists recently discovered the scorched bones of at least four adults who were likely members of a royal lineage. The burning signaled a deliberate and potentially public desecration of their remains, according to new research.

The bones offer a rare glimpse of intentional corpse destruction in Maya culture to commemorate dramatic political change.

All of the remains belonged to adults, and scientists identified three of the individuals as male. Two were between 21 and 35 years old, and one was between 40 and 60 years old, researchers reported Thursday in the journal Antiquity. Among the bones were thousands of burned objects — whole and in pieces — including body adornments made of greenstone (green minerals, including jade), pendants made from mammal teeth, shell beads, mosaics and weapons. Their richness and abundance hinted at the royal status of the people in the tomb.

Comment: See also: