Secret HistoryS


Vader

Best of the Web: Declassified: BBC and MI6 Kosovo War Propaganda Blitz

A KLA fighter
© kitklarenberg.comA KLA fighter
On March 24th, this journalist exposed how London was at the forefront of efforts to launch a ground invasion of Yugoslavia, during NATO's illegal March - May 1999 bombing campaign. Mercifully, that noxious project never came to pass, but declassified files show there was a further, secret component of Britain's war effort in Kosovo. MI6 covertly sought to manipulate public opinion at home and within Belgrade via wide-ranging propaganda campaigns, manufacturing consent for President Slobodan Milosevic's indictment for war crimes, removal from office, and more.

NATO's criminal bombing of Yugoslavia was launched, and sustained, upon atrocity propaganda. Claims Belgrade's forces were perpetrating a modern day Holocaust abounded throughout, despite the alliance's air assault ostensibly being launched to prevent such carnage. Western officials' calculations of civilians slaughtered by the Yugoslav army grew ever-wilder. At one stage, a NATO spokesperson asserted 100,000 were dead. When Yugoslav officials were prosecuted over the conflict by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), this total was revised down to a vague "hundreds".

Comment: See Also:


Archaeology

Pompeii archaeologists uncover incredibly rare blue room with stunning frescoes of female figures

pompeii blue room rare
© Associated PressThe rare blue room recently unveiled in Pompeii
Experts believe the 8-square metre room can be interpreted as a shrine, or a space dedicated to ritual activities and the storage of sacred objects.

A new room with painted blue walls, a very rare colour in Pompeian spaces, has emerged in Pompeii during recent excavations in the central area of the ancient city.

The stunning blue-ground walls are decorated with female figures representing the four seasons and allegorical representations of agriculture and pastoralism, according to experts.

Attention

Largest known prehistoric rock engravings discovered in South America

Rock engravings recorded by researchers from Bournemouth University (UK), University College London (UK) and Universidad de los Andes (Colombia) are thought to be the largest prehistoric rock art in the world.

Found carved into rock faces along the Upper and Middle Orinoco River in Venezuela and Colombia, the engravings feature a range of imagery - including depictions of giant snakes, human figures, and giant Amazonian centipedes.

Some of the engravings are tens of metres long - with the largest measuring more than 40m in length. The team believe this is the largest single rock engraving recorded anywhere in the world.
Rock Art
© Phil Riris/Jose OliverOne of the monumental rock engravings, depicting a giant snake.
While some of the sites were already known, the team have discovered several more and mapped 14 sites of monumental rock engravings - defined as those which are more than four metres wide or high - through working with local guides and using drone photography.

While it is difficult to date rock engravings, similar motifs used on pottery found in the area indicate that they were created anywhere up to 2,000 years ago, although possibly much older.

Many of the largest engravings are of snakes, believed to be boa constrictors or anacondas, which played an important role in the myths and beliefs of the local Indigenous population.

Blue Planet

Largest group of 'unique' neolithic earthworks discovered in Ireland yet

Baltinglass
© James O’Driscoll/Antiquity Publications LtdA view of the Baltinglass landscape in County Wicklow, Ireland. An archaeological survey of the region has revealed various previously unknown monuments.
Archaeological studies of a landscape in eastern Ireland have turned up the greatest number yet of ancient structures that remain rare in that country, and may cast light on the beliefs and burial practices of early farming communities in the region as far back as the Neolithic period. These so-called cursus monuments exist throughout England, but this is the largest number yet discovered in the Baltinglass region of Ireland, in County Wicklow.

These enigmatic monuments, consisting of either elongated earthworks or lines of wooden posts that sometimes stretch as far as six miles in length, have been found as part of some of the best-known prehistoric sites, including Stonehenge.

The new cluster of monuments, numbering as many as five, was discovered using LIDAR technology. It's the largest cluster yet found in Ireland, where not even 20 examples are known throughout the country.

Comment: Despite these regions having low populations in our own time, there's lots of evidence showing that in the past they were quite the hive of activity, and sophistication:


Info

The 4,500-year-old Wisconsin canoe was built around the same time that Stonehenge was being constructed

Submerged Canoe
© Wisconsin Historical SocietyThe boats are known as dugout canoes because each was constructed out of a single tree. After cutting the tree and sculpting the canoe, natives would burn the seating area and scrape out the charcoal with stone tools to create a softer feel on the inside.
Historians from Wisconsin have reported the amazing finding of at least eleven prehistoric canoes in Lake Mendota, which is close to Madison. Among the important discoveries is a canoe from 2500 BC. The findings were announced in a press release by the Wisconsin Historical Society on May 23.

Two historic canoes were discovered in a lakeside cache in 2021 and 2022, according to the Wisconsin Historical Society. Since then, at least eleven more ancient canoes have since discovered by historians along what they believe to be an ancient shoreline that gradually submerged.

All the canoes varied in age, with the youngest one dating back to 1250 AD. The archaeologists explained that the canoes "may have been intentionally cached in the water during the winter months, a standard practice to keep canoes safe from freezing and warping."

The oldest canoe was discovered through radiocarbon dating to be from 2500 B.C., which suggests it was constructed around the same time as Stonehenge. The canoe was built more than 1,700 years before the first inhabitants of Ancient Rome arrived and 2,500 years before Jesus was born.

The canoes were also discovered along a shoreline that has since been submerged, suggesting a previously unknown civilization once thrived in the area.

Dr Amy Rosebrough, State Archaeologist for the Wisconsin Historical Society mentioned that divers also found stone tools in the water, suggesting the presence of an ancient village site, which has yet to be located. "Even without finding the village, the discovery of these canoes and the tools found within the first canoe reminds us that people have lived and worked alongside the lake for thousands of years,".

Archaeology

'Archaeological sensation': Winemaker discovers hundreds of mammoth bones while renovating his cellar

archaeologist
© OeAW-OeAI/Th. EinwögererArchaeologist Hannah Parow-Souchon (right) explains the mammoth bone discovery to Councillor Sonja Fragner (center) and wine cellar owner Andreas Pernerstorfer (left).
A winemaker in Austria has discovered hundreds of mammoth bones underneath his wine cellar.

Andreas Pernerstorfer came across the bones in March while renovating his cellar in the village of Gobelsburg, northwest of Vienna, CNN reported. At first, he mistook a bone for wood.

"I thought it was just a piece of wood left by my grandfather," Pernerstorfer told the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation (ORF), according to BBC News. "But then I dug it out a bit, and then I remembered that in the past, my grandfather said he had found teeth. And then I immediately thought it was a mammoth."

Pharoah

Ramesses II's sarcophagus finally identified thanks to overlooked hieroglyphics

Archaeologists determined that a fragment of a sarcophagus hidden beneath a Coptic building's floor once belonged to Ramesses II.
sarcophagus fragment
© Kevin CahailThe sarcophagus fragment was found under the floor of a Coptic building in Egypt.
A sarcophagus fragment discovered beneath the floor of a religious center belongs to Ramesses II, one of the best-known ancient Egyptian pharaohs, according to a new study.

Archaeologists unearthed the granite artifact in 2009 inside a Coptic building in Abydos, an ancient city in east-central Egypt. The team, led by archaeologists Ayman Damrani and Kevin Cahail, had determined that the sarcophagus had carried two individuals at different times. However, they could identify only the latter — Menkheperre, a "high priest of the 21st dynasty," who lived in roughly 1000 B.C., according to a translated statement from France's National Center for Scientific Research.

The initial owner of the sarcophagus — a container that is covered in carved decorations and texts — had remained a mystery. But archaeologists knew it had belonged to a "very high-ranking figure of the Egyptian New Kingdom," according to the statement.

Further sleuthing enabled Egyptologist Frédéric Payraudeau, a teacher and researcher at Sorbonne University in France, to connect Ramesses II (also spelled Ramses II) to the sarcophagus. To do so, they deciphered an overlooked cartouche, an oval-shaped engraving that represents the name of a pharaoh, "of Ramses II himself," according to the statement.

Dollars

Flashback Anglo-American money masters as the organizers of the Second World War

Anglo-American flag
© Unknown
The initiative to start the Second World War did not belong to the "possessed Fuhrer", who supposedly by chance found himself at the helm of power in Germany. The Second World War is a project of the global financial oligarchy, the Anglo-American masters of money. It was they, relying on institutions such as the US Federal Reserve System and the Bank of England, who immediately after the end of the First World War began preparing for the next armed conflict on a global scale. And the plan for a new war was directed against the USSR.

Important milestones in this preparation were the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan, the creation of the Bank for International Settlements, Germany's announcement of the cessation of reparation payments under the Paris Peace Treaty and the tacit consent of Russia's former allies with this decision, powerful infusions of foreign investment and loans into the economy of the Third Reich, the militarization of the German economy in violation of the terms of the Paris Peace Treaty.

Comment:
1) The article has one link, but was published in two articles with different links:
03.05.2015 Англо-американские хозяева денег как организаторы Второй мировой войны (I)
04.05.2015 Англо-американские хозяева денег как организаторы Второй мировой войны (II)

2) The recent article Downfall: the empire's destiny includes a few paragraphs that can connect to this article, What happened preparation for WWII is a pattern that has been tried before.
During the 19th century, US economy endured three major financial crashes: in 1837, 1857, and in 1873. Each crash triggered major economic depressions with mass-scale culling of smaller banks and other businesses. The collapse enabled the ruling oligarchy to consolidate monopolies over all the key industries.
It would appear that the sequence of booms and busts followed by major wars is a feature of Western-style "free market capitalist economy." How and why this happens is never properly explained nor understood, but somehow, it's become our normal. Where explanations should be sought and offered we get shrugs and blank stares: "It's complicated..."

Sure. It's complicated, so let's not try too hard to understand it. Keep calm and carry on: get into debt, mortgage your property, enjoy some temporary prosperity, then struggle and go bankrupt. Then you may get to send your sons off to war. They'll tell you which enemy to hate and you may resign yourself to the unfolding dystopia. We've always been at war with Eurasia. What could you possibly do?
3) More confirmation can sometimes be gleaned from studying the Wikies of some of the main characters mentioned in the article.

American bankers
Gates McGarrah
Thomas Harrington McKittrick
Leon Fraser (Wikispooks) says that committed suicide, under odd circumstances, in April 1945. This announcement in the New York Times from February 16, 1935, "QUITS WORLD BANK FOR FIRST NATIONAL; Leon Fraser, 45, Head of International Body, Elected to Vice Presidency Here." So Fraser was the head for two years. The Wikispooks entry has a reference, which leads to a digital copy of Drew Pearson on The Washington Merry-Go-Round (April 13, 1945)
Drew Pearson
Drew Pearson on Leon Fraser
Would the views, and the testimony of Leon Fraser have been an impediment to the promotion of the Post World War II narrative?

British banker, British politicians
Montagu Norman, 1st Baron Norman
Neville Chamberlain
John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon

German Bankers
Kurt Freiherr von Schröder (German Wiki)
Emil Puhl (German Wiki, there is an English Wiki, but the German is more informative.)
Walther Funk
Hjalmar Schacht but the German Wiki has other details
The Wiki portrays him as a more nuanced character than the author of the article, for instance it is not mentioned that he was sent to a concentration camp, if translated, there is:
He was Reichsbank President from 1923 to 1930 and from March 1933 to January 1939 and Reich Minister of Economic Affairs from 1934 to 1937. He later fell out of favor with the regime and was deported to concentration camps because of his contact with the resistance against National Socialism.

Schacht was one of the 24 leaders of the National Socialist regime accused in the Nuremberg trial of the main war criminals before the International Military Tribunal. He was acquitted of all charges on October 1, 1946.
German banks and companies
Reichsbank, Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Donat Bank (Probably: Danat Bank),
IG Farben (German company formed in 1925:
It was seized by the Allies after World War II and split into its constituent companies; parts in East Germany were nationalized.[a]

IG Farben was once the largest company in Europe and the largest chemical and pharmaceutical company in the world.[4] IG Farben scientists made fundamental contributions to all areas of chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry.
Central banks, private banks, plans and institutions
Bank of England, Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Dawes Plan, Young Plan
Bank of International Settlements
Bretton Woods system this entry connects to the situation that was established after WWII and which paved the ground for US hegemony.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial relations among the United States, Canada, Western European countries, and Australia as well as 44 other countries[1] after the 1944 Bretton Woods Agreement. The Bretton Woods system was the first example of a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern monetary relations among independent states. The Bretton Woods system required countries to guarantee convertibility of their currencies into U.S. dollars to within 1% of fixed parity rates, with the dollar convertible to gold bullion for foreign governments and central banks at US$35 per troy ounce of fine gold (or 0.88867 gram fine gold per dollar). It also envisioned greater cooperation among countries in order to prevent future competitive devaluations, and thus established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to monitor exchange rates and lend reserve currencies to nations with balance of payments deficits.[2]

Preparing to rebuild the international economic system while World War II was still being fought, 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations gathered at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, also known as the Bretton Woods Conference. The delegates deliberated from 1 to 22 July 1944, and signed the Bretton Woods agreement on its final day. Setting up a system of rules, institutions, and procedures to regulate the international monetary system, these accords established the IMF and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which today is part of the World Bank Group. The United States, which controlled two-thirds of the world's gold, insisted that the Bretton Woods system rest on both gold and the US dollar. Soviet representatives attended the conference but later declined to ratify the final agreements, charging that the institutions they had created were "branches of Wall Street".[3] These organizations became operational in 1945 after a sufficient number of countries had ratified the agreement. According to Barry Eichengreen, the Bretton Woods system operated successfully due to three factors: "low international capital mobility, tight financial regulation, and the dominant economic and financial position of the United States and the dollar."[4]

On 15 August 1971, the United States "temporarily" suspended the convertibility of the US dollar to gold, effectively bringing the Bretton Woods system to an end and rendering the dollar a fiat currency.[5] Shortly thereafter, many fixed currencies (such as the pound sterling) also became free-floating,[6] and the subsequent era has been characterized by floating exchange rates.[7] The end of Bretton Woods was formally ratified by the Jamaica Accords in 1976.

In 1973, Nixon and secretary of state Henry Kissinger made a secret deal with Saudi Arabia to trade oil only in US dollars, thus pegging the US dollar to oil and birthing the petrodollar.[8]
It was said above that the Soviet Union is mention, its position was that 'the institutions they had created were "branches of Wall Street"' however,American Bankers also played role in the Russian Revolution:
SOTT Focus: MindMatters: Wall Street and the Russian Revolution, with Richard B. Spence
On SOTT, there are a few articles about the Bretton Woods agreement and its consequences, though more could be found if one refines the search to include summary and text. Here are four of five title with "Bretton Woods": Elements in the pre WWII situation can also be found today.

4) There is much missing from a short retelling that reduces history to economics and money owners, though it is part of the picture. There is another side, introduced in this article and the associated video:
Hyperdimensional Realities: The Most Dangerous Idea in the World, Explained by Laura Knight-Jadczyk
"If you think the government is hiding things about aliens, you're only scratching the surface of the mystery."

"We're not dealing with little green men or flying saucers. We're dealing with phenomena that challenge our very notions of reality." - Laura Knight-Jadczyk



Better Earth

Orkney promontory may be a neolithic artificial island, known as a crannog

crannog orkney
© Tom O’BrienThe Wasdale promontory from above.
Postgraduate students were back in Firth, Orkney, recently to carry out test-pitting on a promontory at the northern end of the Wasdale loch.

Previous visits were for walkover survey practical sessions, but this time the focus was on seeing what, if any, archaeology survives and whether it could clarify the nature of the feature.

Although it's possible to cross dry-shod these days, it appears as an islet on the 1882 Ordnance Survey map. Little is known about the site, but the fact the shoreside edges appear to show the remains of walling led to the suggestion it may be a crannog.

Comment: Recent finds point to the region as being quite the hub of activity in the neolithic.

The crannogs themselves are intriguing and the following snippets may provide clues as to why they were constructed: Crannogs: Neolithic artificial islands in Scotland stump archeologists
[...] many of Scotland's lochs hide the remains of a dozen crannogs or more, most of them dating to the same eras - around either the 5th or 2nd Centuries BC.

Building that kind of dwelling requires a high level of skill.

It also needs abundant resources.In that sense, the crannogs may be a little like the mysterious hill forts of Wales, which appeared around the same period.

But if this idea is true, it raises the question of why people began paying more attention to defence or status at this specific time.

In part, this may have stemmed from the same reason that caused a boom in Welsh hill forts in the same period: climactic deterioration.



Arrow Down

Federal government used bribery to end relationships with Native American tribes

Book by David Beck
© Courtesy David BeckThe federal government used bribery to try to end its legal and political relationships with Native American tribes in the first half of the 20th century, says University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign history professor David Beck. In his new book, “Bribed With Our Own Money,” Beck describes how the government coerced tribal nations to accept termination by threatening to withhold money owed them.
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Federal policy toward Native American tribal nations in the first half of the 20th century sought to end the government's legal and political relationship with tribes. A new book by University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign history professor David Beck looks at one aspect of termination policy — bribery.

Bribed With Our Own Money: Federal Abuse of American Indian Funds in the Termination Era examines how officials coerced tribal nations to accept termination by threatening to withhold money owed them by the federal government. Beck found that such coercion was a government policy, with both Congress and the interior department advocating using the money owed to tribes to force the end of the government's relationship with them.

For example, in 1954, Congress appropriated money owed to the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin, which it won in a lawsuit over timber mismanagement after the federal government clear-cut tribal forests. Congress forced the tribe to accept termination of its federal trust relationship with the government as a condition of being paid the money it won in the lawsuit.

"Termination was foisted onto the tribes as a quid pro quo for the payments that were due to them," Beck wrote of such tactics.

Federal Indian policy established a trust or fiduciary relationship with tribes under which the government is to provide protection and ensure the survival of the tribal nations. Among the government's responsibilities are overseeing the governance of reservation lands and managing resources such as forests, minerals and game.

"It's a legal as well as a moral responsibility. Almost from the very beginning, the federal government has been trying to get out from under that responsibility," Beck said.