Study has identified three types of perfectionists, who set high standards and like to be organised and precise - 'self-orientated', 'socially-prescribed' and 'other-orientated'.
Having a perfectionist on your team at work might well be considered a positive when you're striving to do a good job.

But beware - they could have a dark side.

Researchers have found that the type of perfectionist who sets impossibly high standards for others also tends to be narcissistic, antisocial, and more likely to make jokes at the expense of others.

These people, described by psychologists as 'other-oriented' perfectionists, care little about social norms and also struggle with intimacy, the study of 229 people by the University of Kent found.

As well as 'other-oriented' perfectionists, psychologists recognise two other types: 'self-orientated' and socially-prescribed'.

Self-orientated perfectionists do care about social norms, and prefer humour that enhances relationships, shying away from aggressive jokes.

Even though they focus on themselves, they show an interest in others.

Socially-prescribed perfectionists, on the other hand, make self-deprecating jokes, have low self-esteem and a low self-regard, and often feel inferior.

They do not respond well to positive feedback.

Both types are highly critical of themselves, rather than others.

However, other-oriented have quite an aggressive sense of humour, which is used at the expense of others, the researchers said.

They have a sense of superiority and do not easily fit into a bigger social circle, making them quite antisocial, they found.

'Other-oriented perfectionism is a 'dark' form of perfectionism positively associated with narcissistic, antisocial and uncaring personality characteristics,' concluded study author Joachim Stoeber in the Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment.


Meanwhile the 'other-oriented' group were found to have quite an aggressive sense of humour, which is used at the expense of others, the researchers said.
In a separate study earlier this year, researchers from the University of Montreal discovered that people who suffer with repetitive behaviour habits, such as nail-biting, skin-picking and hair-pulling. are more likely to be perfectionists.

A group of participants took part in stressful, relaxing, frustrating, and boring tests.

Individuals who had reported a history of repetitive behaviours were found to have a greater urge to engage in these habits during the boredom and frustration sections.

The study said this proves these behaviours aren't associated with nerves and there is a strong link between this action and perfectionist beliefs.