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Do camels prove that the Bible is inaccurate? Archaeologists reveal mammals were domesticated in 900BC - centuries after Biblical characters rode them


Archaeologists have found that camels were not domesticated in Israel until centuries after famous figures such as Abraham were said to have ridden them. An engraving from The Dore Bible showing Abraham journeying into the Land of Canaan, by Gustave Dore, is pictured
  • Archaeologists from the University of Tel Aviv, Israel, found that camels were not domesticated in Israel until the 9th century BC
  • They claim this shows that Biblical text was compiled long after the events described in it and challenges the Bible as a historical document
  • Researchers analysed the oldest known domesticated camel bones, found in the Aravah Valley in the southern Levant, to inform their research
Camels are mentioned in Biblical stories involving Abraham, Joseph and Jacob as well as other famous characters.

But archaeologists have found that the mammals were not domesticated in Israel until centuries after famous figures were said to have ridden them.


They claim this shows that text in the Bible was compiled long after the events described in it and challenges the holy book as a historical document.
Question

Is this underwater isthmus - Adam's Bridge - connecting India and Sri Lanka man-made? Examining the legend of Rama Setu

Is the legend of Rama Setu real? Is the shallow isthmus that appears to connect Sri Lanka and India, when viewed from space, actually the remnants of an ancient man-made structure? If so, how old is 'Adam's Bridge'?

The following video takes a look at some evidence:


Comment: Astronomical positions are unreliable because of cyclic catastrophes - the passage of a comet close-by, for example, could alter the planet's tilt.

Then inserting them into historical timelines makes these dates even more unreliable because history is repeatedly rewritten post-cataclysm so that survivors can re-establish power.

Note at 2'35, the presenter says "no archaeological evidence has been uncovered on land thus far because this 'Rama civilization' existed so long ago"... this hardly constitutes scientific evidence for its historical existence!

At 5', the narrator speculates that "IF we shovel under the sand, we are sure to see this land bridge they built" 7.5k years ago! This is in no way a scientific examination of the known facts, nevertheless we publish this video because 'Rama's bridge' is a unique feature - as can be seen from the satellite images - and because of the possibility that it was man-made.

Without taking into account cyclic catastrophism, any examination of ancient history is always going to be sorely lacking. Nevertheless, there could be some historical basis to this myth. What if, for example, India and Sri Lanka were originally joined by a natural isthmus, one that was supplemented by man-made structures, and once the land-bridge was destroyed during a period of upheaval, it then passed into folk-legend as 'Rama's bridge'? As recently as the 15th century, it was possible to walk across until, it is said, the water-level of the channel was deepened during a cyclone in AD 1480.

It should also be pointed out that the Government of India, in an affidavit in the Supreme Court of India, said that "there is no historical proof of the bridge being built by 'Rama' or any other mythological or historical figures", and that this legend of the structure being man-made "has become an object of worship only recently."

Map

Family of rabbits uncover 8,000-year-old archaeological 'gold mine' near Land's End, UK


Bunnies found about 20 arrowheads, scrapers and flint tools dating back 8,000 years to the Mesolithic and Neolithic period.
A family of rabbits are believed to be responsible for unearthing an 8,000-year-old archaeological 'gold mine' near Land's End.

A haul of Stone Age arrow heads and flint tools found in a freshly dug network of rabbit warrens less than 200 yards from the Cornish landmark has led archaeologists to plan a full excavation of the site.

Although a formal dig of the 150-acre area is yet to begin, initial analysis suggests there could be a large Neolithic cemetery, Bronze Age burial mounds and an Iron Age hill fort buried there.

Land's End has long been considered an area of historical interest as the spectacular views have led to a disproportionately large number of important people being buried there over several thousand years.

Although there are a number of important archeological sites in the local area, the latest Land's End dig will almost certainly be the first prompted by a family of rabbits.

The excavation of the site will be managed by a team from Wirral-based archaeologists Big Heritage.

Team leader Dean Paton, 30, told the Mirror: 'It seems important people have been buried here for thousands of years - probably because of the stunning views. [But] it's a million-to-one chance rabbits should make such an astounding find.'
Pyramid

4,600-year-old step pyramid uncovered in Egypt

Step Pyramid
© Tell Edfu Project at the University of Chicago’s Oriental Institute
Archaeologists working near the ancient settlement of Edfu in southern Egypt have uncovered a step pyramid that dates back about 4,600 years.
Toronto - Archaeologists working near the ancient settlement of Edfu, in southern Egypt, have uncovered a step pyramid that dates back about 4,600 years, predating the Great Pyramid of Giza by at least a few decades.

The step pyramid, which once stood as high as 43 feet (13 meters), is one of seven so-called "provincial" pyramids built by either the pharaoh Huni (reign ca. 2635-2610 B.C.) or Snefru (reign ca. 2610-2590 B.C.). Over time, the step pyramid's stone blocks were pillaged, and the monument was exposed to weathering, so today, it's only about 16 feet (5 m) tall.

Scattered throughout central and southern Egypt, the provincial pyramids are located near major settlements, have no internal chambers and were not intended for burial. Six of the seven pyramids have almost identical dimensions, including the newly uncovered one at Edfu, which is about 60 x 61 feet (18.4 x 18.6 m).

The purpose of these seven pyramids is a mystery. They may have been used as symbolic monuments dedicated to the royal cult that affirmed the power of the king in the southern provinces.

"The similarities from one pyramid to the other are really amazing, and there is definitely a common plan," said Gregory Marouard, a research associate at the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute who led the work at the Edfu pyramid. On the east side of the newly uncovered pyramid, his team found the remains of an installation where food offerings appear to have been made - a discovery that is important for understanding this kind of pyramid since it provides clues as to what they were used for.

The team also found hieroglyphic graffiti incised on the outer faces of the pyramid. The inscriptions are located beside the remains of babies and children who were buried at the foot of the pyramid. The researchers think the inscriptions and burials date to long after the pyramid was built and that the structure was not originally intended as a burial place.

Initial results of the excavation were presented at a symposium held in Toronto recently by the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities.
Pyramid

Ruins of bustling port unearthed at Egypt's Giza pyramids

© AERA
Archaeologists working at the Giza Pyramids have made several new discoveries that shed light on life at the time the pyramids were built. Among the discoveries is a basin that may have been part of a thriving harbor and a "silo building complex," where researchers have found numerous bones from the forelimbs of cattle, offerings in ancient Egypt, suggesting royal cult priests perhaps venerating the pharaoh Khafre occupied the complex.
The remains of a bustling port and barracks for sailors or military troops have been discovered near the Giza Pyramids. They were in use while the pyramids were being built about 4,500 years ago.

The archaeologists have been excavating a city near the Giza Pyramids that dates mainly to the reign of the pharaoh Menkaure, who built the last pyramid at Giza. Also near the pyramids they have been excavating a town, located close to a monument dedicated to Queen Khentkawes, possibly a daughter of Menkaure. The barracks are located at the city, while a newly discovered basin, that may be part of a harbor, is located by the Khentkawes town.

Several discoveries at the city and Khentkawes town suggest Giza was a thriving port, said archaeologist Mark Lehner, the director of Ancient Egypt Research Associates. For instance, Lehner's team discovered a basin beside the Khentkawes town just 1 kilometer (0.62 miles) from the nearest Nile River channel.

This basin may be "an extension of a harbor or waterfront," Lehner said at a recent symposium held here by the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities. Lehner said his team also found at Giza charcoal remains of cedar, juniper, pine and oak, all trees that grew in a part of the eastern Mediterranean called the Levant, along with more than 50 examples of combed ware jars, a style of pottery from that region. Additionally, large amounts of granite from Aswan, located on ancient Egypt's southern border, have long been known to be at Giza, and these could have been brought down the Nile River to Giza's port.
Comet

Two of history's deadliest plagues were linked, with implications for another outbreak: Scientists discover link between Justinian plague and Black Death

© Bettmann/Corbis
An illustration of a physician wearing specialized clothing to protect against the plague.
Two of history's deadliest plagues, which swept across Europe hundreds of years apart, were caused by different strains of the same deadly microbe, scientists say.

The finding raises the possibility that a new strain of plague could infect humanity again in the future.

The Justinian plague struck in the sixth century and is estimated to have killed between 30 and 50 million people - about half the world's population at that time - as it spread across Asia, North Africa, Arabia, and Europe.

The Black Death struck some 800 years later, killing 50 million Europeans between 1347 and 1351 alone.

Comment: Famous last words, especially since according to the research, both plagues were caused by a virus and not bacteria. More so, unjustified overuse of antibiotics during the last century led to an antibiotic tolerance, and as a result we hear more and more about cases of 'super-infection'. The odds are, unfortunately, against us, especially when our immune systems are being gravely compromised by the consumption of grains.

Ice Cube

When winter really was winter: the last of the London Frost Fairs

Cold? Fed up with the weather? It could be worse. Cahal Milmo looks back to the day, exactly 200 years ago, when the river Thames froze solid

"Father Frost and Sister Snow have boneyed my borders, formed an idol of ice upon my bosom, and all the lads of London come to make merry."

"Father Frost and Sister Snow have boneyed my borders, formed an idol of ice upon my bosom, and all the lads of London come to make merry."

Two centuries ago today, this was how one poetic soul announced for the last time an event unlikely to be seen again - the freezing of the Thames.

On 1 February 1814, Londoners awoke to find that after weeks of bitter chill, drifting snow and a fog which resembled "darkness that might be felt", the Thames had ground to an icy halt over a 1,000m stretch between Blackfriars and London Bridge.

The capital's inhabitants responded by settling down to a raucous and bibulous mid-winter party in the shape of a five-day Frost Fair.

In a meteorological event which seems unthinkable from the vantage point of the relentlessly soggy winter of 2014, London and much of England was gripped by temperatures which fell to -13C, bringing chaos as roads became blocked with snow to depths of 6ft. Tales were legion of mail coaches becoming trapped in drifts and the poor, unable to afford coal, freezing in their homes.

But in the midst of wintry misery, a brief respite was afforded as the flow of the Thames in central London slowed, ice floes formed and finally on the morning of 1 February the principal means of transportation for the wealth of the emerging British Empire became a frozen pleasure gardens. Within hours, boatmen deprived of their normal living derived from ferrying passengers across the river had set up signs declaring it was safe to walk across the ice.

Comment: On the contrary, all the real world, empirical evidence points to fact that it's very likely to happen once more.

Magic Wand

Magic mirrors in ancient Japanese rituals

© Noboru Tomura
When sunlight reflects off the surface of the replica of a Sankakubuchi Shinjukyo mirror, patterns engraved on the back are projected on a wall at the Kyoto National Museum on Jan. 29.
Rulers of ancient Japan may have used a "magic mirror" to conjure up images of mountain wizards and divine beasts for sun-worshipping rituals.

The Kyoto National Museum said Jan. 29 patterns engraved on the back of a type of bronze mirror associated with ancient queen Himiko are projected on a wall when sunlight reflects off the front.

Ryu Murakami, head of the museum's curatorial board, said the discovery could provide valuable clues in studying how bronze mirrors were used in ancient Japan.

"Someone apparently noticed the phenomenon and intentionally shaped mirrors in this way," he said. "I believe they have something to do with sun worship."

Using a 3-D printer, Murakami, an expert in historical materials science, produced replicas of two Sankakubuchi Shinjukyo mirrors from materials used in the originals, such as copper and tin powder.
Hardhat

Oldest Roman temple unearthed

© Sant'Omobono Project
The foundation of the temple of Fortuna, visible for only three days during excavations.
Archaeologists digging in the heart of Rome unearthed what may be the oldest temple to be built in the Eternal City, but don't get your hopes up about visiting the ancient structure. Its foundation sits well below the water line and was only visible for three days. Archaeologists from the University of Michigan teamed up with local archaeology officials to excavate the site, near the Sant'Omobono church, which is close to where the Tiber River once created a natural harbor for merchant ships. The temple, likely dedicated to the goddess Fortuna and constructed sometime in or after the 7th century BC, would have acted as "a free trade zone and the goddess is supposed to guarantee the fairness of the trade," the co-director of the project told NPR.

It would have been one of the first things traders from Cyprus, Lebanon, and Egypt saw when they pulled into Rome's harbor, but getting to it in the present day wasn't so easy - in fact, it was "mission impossible," according to one archaeologist. The team had to drill a hole 15 feet deep and hold back the wet soil with sheets of metal. "You're in a very deep hole, and although you know in theory that the sheeting is going to hold everything up, there is a primal part of your brain that tells you to get out of there, if the walls come closing in there's not going to be any way out for you," the co-director said. Though the foundation-revealing hole had to be closed up for security reasons after 3 days, archaeologists say the find helps unwrap Rome's many layers of history.
Hourglass

The Mohenjo Daro "massacre"


... (it was) a single projectile
Charged with all the power of the Universe.
An incandescent column of smoke and flame
As bright as the thousand suns
Rose in all its splendor...

...it was an unknown weapon,
An iron thunderbolt,
A gigantic messenger of death,
Which reduced to ashes
The entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas.
-Mahabharata, Indian Epic
In the 1920s, the discovery of ancient cities at Mohenjo Daro and Harappa in Pakistan gave the first clue to the existence more than 4,000 years ago of a civilization in the Indus Valley to rival those known in Egypt and Mesopotamia. These cities demonstrated an exceptional level of civic planning and amenities. The houses were furnished with brick-built bathrooms and many had toilets. Wastewater from these was led into well-built brick sewers that ran along the centre of the streets, covered with bricks or stone slabs. Cisterns and wells finely constructed of wedge-shaped bricks held public supplies of drinking water. Mohenjo Daro also boasted a Great Bath on the high mound (citadel) overlooking the residential area of the city. Built of layers of carefully fitted bricks, gypsum mortar and waterproof bitumen, this basin is generally thought to have been used for ritual purification.

However, in contrast to the well-appointed houses and clean streets, the uppermost levels at Mohenjo Daro contained squalid makeshift dwellings, a careless intermingling of residential and industrial activity and, most significantly, a series of more than 40 sprawled skeletons lying scattered in streets and houses. Paul Bahn (2002) describes the scene:
In a room with a public well in one area of the city were found the skeletons of two individuals who appeared desperately to have been using their last scraps of energy to crawl up the stair leading from the room to the street; the tumbled remains of two others lay nearby. Elsewhere in the area the 'strangely contorted' and incomplete remains of nine individuals were found, possibly thrown into a rough pit. In a lane between two houses in another area, another six skeletons were loosely covered with earth.
Numerous other skeletons were found within layers of rubble, ash and debris, or lying in streets in contorted positions that suggested the agonies of violent death.

Comment: For more clues see Electric Universe: Mohenjo Daro and Laura Knight-Jadczy's Comets and the Horns of Moses (The Secret History of the World)

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