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Ancient Pre-Inca Tomb Found in Northern Peru

Ancient Tomb
© AFP/BRUNING MUSEUM/File
Archeologists have discovered a tomb about 1,200 years old, from the pre-Inca Sican era, in northern Peru.
Lima - Archeologists said Friday they have discovered a tomb about 1,200 years old, from the pre-Inca Sican era, in northern Peru.

Human remains and jewelry were found July 4 along with the tomb, likely that of a member of the aristocracy of the Sican or Lambayeque elite, head researcher Carlos Wester La Torre told AFP.

A gold earflap, a silver-plated crown, and some 120 silver and copper ornaments that served as emblems of power, along with 116 pieces of pottery and seashells were found in the tomb.

The tomb was located in a burial chamber some six meters (20 feet) deep in the Chotuna-Chornancap sanctuary near Chiclayo, at the same location where the remains of a Sican priestess were found in October.

"This discovery is very important because we now know one of the elite classes of Lambayeque culture," said Wester La Torre, speaking from Chiclayo, capital of the Lambayeque region.

The Sican culture, also referred to as the Lambayeque culture, worshipped the Sican Lord. It emerged between 700 and 750 AD, remaining in force until 1375, reaching its high point between 900 and 1100.

At that time, there were about seven to eight "Sican lords" representing heavenly powers on Earth, complete with masked face, upturned eyes and pointed ears.
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Early Human Ancestor, Australopithecus Sediba, Fossils Discovered in Rock

© University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
This is the tooth of a hominid embedded in a rock containing significant parts of a skeleton of an early human ancestor. The skeleton is believed to be the remains of "Karabo", the type skeleton of Australopithecus sediba, discovered at the Malapa Site in the Cradle of Humankind in 2009.
Scientists from the Wits Institute for Human Evolution based at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg have just announced the discovery of a large rock containing significant parts of a skeleton of an early human ancestor. The skeleton is believed to be the remains of 'Karabo', the type skeleton of Australopithecus sediba, discovered at the Malapa Site in the Cradle of Humankind in 2009.

Professor Lee Berger, a Reader in Palaeoanthropology and the Public Understanding of Science at the Wits Institute for Human Evolution, will make the announcement at the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum in Shanghai, China on 13 July 2012.

"We have discovered parts of a jaw and critical aspects of the body including what appear to be a complete femur (thigh bone), ribs, vertebrae and other important limb elements, some never before seen in such completeness in the human fossil record," says Berger. "This discovery will almost certainly make Karabo the most complete early human ancestor skeleton ever discovered. We are obviously quite excited as it appears that we now have some of the most critical and complete remains of the skeleton, albeit encased in solid rock. It's a big day for us as a team and for our field as a whole."
Info

Identity of First Americans Questioned

Ancient Tools
© Jim Barlow
Displayed in the hand of University of Oregon archaeologist Dennis Jenkins are three bases for Western Stemmed projectiles from the Paisley Caves in Oregon. The bases date to some 13,000 years ago.
Ancient stone projectile points discovered in a Central Oregon cave complex have cast new light on the identity of the first Americans.

While scientists agree they crossed the Bering Strait during an ice age, no one knows the identity of the first people to spread across the North American continent.

For some time, these first Americans were believed to have belong to a single group, called the Clovis culture, named for the New Mexican site where their distinctive, 13,000-year-old projectile points were first found.

However, some have questioned this theory, and these newly discovered projectile points, the sort of stone tips added to spears, appear to add weight to these questions.

These stone points, a type known as Western Stemmed points, are narrower and lack the distinctive flute, or shallow groove, found on Clovis points. Researchers believe the two types of points represent different technologies, produced by different cultures.

"This brings into focus the concept that other people or perhaps even multiple waves of people bringing other technologies were certainly involved in the first colonization [of the Americas]," said researcher Dennis Jenkins, an archaeologist at the University of Oregon, in a podcast issued by the journal Science, where the work is published.
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Study: Native Americans Came to the New World in Three Waves

Immigration
© Nature
Native Americans arrived in Americas in three waves of Ice Age migration, suggests a new genetic study in the journal Nature.
Native Americans streamed into the New World in at least three waves of migration starting more than 15,000 years ago, a gene study released Wednesday suggests.

North and South America were totally empty of people until the first arrivals from Siberia crossed a land bridge into Alaska, spreading in a few thousand years to the tip of South America.

The genetic study may help settle a debate between a long-held view that the peopling of the continents came as one event instead of the more recently supported notion, backed by this study in the journal Nature, that the migration happened in three distinct waves. .

"Our study makes clear that mixing of these three ancient populations is the story of Native American arrival," says geneticist David Reich of Harvard Medical School, lead author of the study.

It finds a "First American" wave starting more than 15,000 years ago that first moved into North and then South America from Asia. Migration halted by Ice Age glaciers resumed after that time from Siberia, with two surges: one that we know today as the Eskimo-Inuit population and the other a group that today represents the Canadian "Na-Dené" language-speakers, Reich says. ."

The study looked at genetic data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups collected over the last 30 years and screened against populations from elsewhere.
Sherlock

Lake Ontario - Ancient 'New York City' of Canada Discovered

Today New York City is the Big Apple of the Northeast but new research reveals that 500 years ago, at a time when Europeans were just beginning to visit the New World, a settlement on the north shore of Lake Ontario, in Canada, was the biggest, most complex, cosmopolitan place in the region.
© Unknown
A model of a longhouse at the Royal Ontario Museum.
Occupied between roughly A.D. 1500 and 1530, the so-called Mantle site was settled by the Wendat (Huron). Excavations at the site, between 2003 and 2005, have uncovered its 98 longhouses, a palisade of three rows (a fence made of heavy wooden stakes and used for defense) and about 200,000 artifacts. Dozens of examples of art have been unearthed showing haunting human faces and depictions of animals, with analysis ongoing.
Igloo

Tree-rings prove climate was warmer in Roman and Medieval times than it is now - and world has been cooling for 2,000 years

© Unknown
The annual growth rings in trees are the most important witnesses over the past 1,000 to 2,000 years as they indicate how warm and cool past climate conditions were.
Rings in fossilised pine trees have proven that the world was much warmer than previously thought - and the earth has been slowly COOLING for 2,000 years. Measurements stretching back to 138BC prove that the Earth is slowly cooling due to changes in the distance between the Earth and the sun. The finding may force scientists to rethink current theories of the impact of global warming.

It is the first time that researchers have been able to accurately measure trends in global temperature over the last two millennia.

Over that time, the world has been getting cooler - and previous estimates, used as the basis for current climate science, are wrong.

Their findings demonstrate that this trend involves a cooling of -0.3°C per millennium due to gradual changes to the position of the sun and an increase in the distance between the Earth and the sun.

'This figure we calculated may not seem particularly significant,' says Esper, 'however, it is also not negligible when compared to global warming, which up to now has been less than 1°C.

Comment: Here is a fascinating read on the subject of climate change: Fire and Ice: The Day After Tomorrow

Sherlock

19th Century Shipwreck Becomes A Buried Time Capsule

Australian archaeologists have transformed the wreck of a 16 meter colonial ship - the Clarence - into a buried 'time capsule'.

© Heritage Victoria
Divers on the Clarence shipwreck
According to the University of Western Australia (UWA), the Clarence sank in five meters of water and was declared a protected zone in 1985, prohibiting access by divers and anglers. The site remained popular with local anglers whose anchors and fishing equipment had been damaging the site for decades.

"Constructed of native timbers in New South Wales in 1841, Clarence is one of the best examples of small early colonial-built vessels," said Prof Peter Veth of UWA, who led the conservation and reburial of the wreck.
Sherlock

Powerful Scanning Equipment Helps Reveal Secrets of Roman Coins

British archaeologists and engineers have collaborated to examine buried Roman coins using the latest X-ray imaging technology. Originally designed for the analysis of substantial engineering parts, such as jet turbine blades, the powerful scanning equipment at the University of Southampton's µ-VIS Center for Computed Tomography is being used to examine Roman coins buried in three archaeological artifacts from three hoards in the United Kingdom.

© University of Southampton
Computer rendered image of the coins extracted from the CT data scan of the complete pot from the Selby Area Hoard
The equipment can scan inside objects - rotating 360 degrees whilst taking thousands of 2D images, which are then used to build detailed 3D images.

In the case of the coins, the exceptionally high energy/high resolution combination of the Southampton facilities allows them to be examined in intricate detail without the need for physical excavation or cleaning. For those recently scanned at Southampton, it has been possible to use 3D computer visualization capabilities to read inscriptions and identify depictions of emperors on the faces of the coins - for example on some, the heads of Claudius II and Tetricus I have been revealed.
Blackbox

'Rightful king of England' dies: Aussie forklift truck driver's ancestors were 'cheated out of crown'

Rightful King of England

The king and I: Michael Hastings posing in front of a portrait of a relative in his home town of Jerilderie
Mike Hastings became a household name after TV researchers revealed his family was cheated out of the crown in the 15th century.

An Aussie forklift driver believed by some historians to be the rightful King of England has died, aged 71.

Mike Hastings became a household name after TV researchers revealed his family was cheated out of the crown in the 15th century.

A Channel 4 team found documents suggesting Edward IV was illegitimate, so his younger brother George, the Duke of Clarence and Mike's ancestor, should have been king.

It said that Edward's father Richard of York was fighting the French at Pontoise when he was conceived, while his mother Cecily was 125 miles away at Rouen, allegedly in the amorous arms of an English archer.

If true, the crown should have passed on to Edward's younger brother George, the duke of Clarence, who was a direct ancestor to Hastings.
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Ancient Mosaic Depicting Fiery Bible Story Discovered

© Jim Haberman
A mosaic inscription about rewards for those who do good deeds.
A glittering mosaic of colored stones once decorated an ancient synagogue floor with scenes of the Biblical hero Samson getting revenge on the Philistines.

This newly excavated discovery in the ancient Jewish village of Huqoq not only depicts an unusual scene - Samson tying torches to foxes' tails in order to burn his enemies' crops - it's also remarkably high-quality, said dig archaeologist Jodi Magness of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

In a mosaic, "the smaller the cubes, the finer the work," Magness told LiveScience. "Our cubes are very small and fine."

The mosaic decorates part of a synagogue dating back to about A.D. 400 to 500. So far, Magness and her team have excavated only part of the eastern wall of the structure, so they don't yet know how big the synagogue was. But the building appears to be made of large, "beautifully cut" blocks of stone, Magness said, suggesting an expansive structure.
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