Science & Technology
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Telescope

First evidence for water ice clouds found outside our solar system

© NASA/JPL-Caltech/Penn State University
This artist's conception shows the object named WISE J085510.83-071442.5.
A team of scientists led by Carnegie's Jacqueline Faherty has discovered the first evidence of water ice clouds on an object outside of our own Solar System. Water ice clouds exist on our own gas giant planets -- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune -- but have not been seen outside of the planets orbiting our Sun until now.

Their findings are published today by The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

At the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, Faherty, along with a team including Carnegie's Andrew Monson, used the FourStar near infrared camera to detect the coldest brown dwarf ever characterized. Their findings are the result of 151 images taken over three nights and combined. The object, named WISE J085510.83-071442.5, or W0855, was first seen by NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Explorer mission and published earlier this year. But it was not known if it could be detected by Earth-based facilities.

"This was a battle at the telescope to get the detection," said Faherty.

Chris Tinney, an Astronomer at the Australian Centre for Astrobiology, UNSW Australia and co-author on the result stated: "This is a great result. This object is so faint and it's exciting to be the first people to detect it with a telescope on the ground."
Apple Green

Endless war in the Fertile Crescent threatens ancient food supply

Fertile crescent
© www.dailymail.co.uk
Fertile Crescent, an essential food-production region, may be in jeopardy.
With climate change and rise in industrial monoculture farming, scientists and farmers increasingly dependent on wild crop species for sustainable crop development.

The ongoing conflicts raging across the Middle East are putting the Earth's essential food stocks at dire risk, a group of researchers from England's University of Birmingham announced Monday.

The scientists, presenting their findings at the British Science Festival in Birmingham, say they have identified key global 'hotspots' for wild crop species - known as crop wild relatives (CWRs) - which are distantly related to domesticated crops. According to the group, these species are most concentrated in the area of the Middle East known as the 'Fertile Crescent,' which arcs around the Arabian desert in Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey and ending in Iraq and Iran.

"The Middle East is where the basis of our future food security is located," Dr. Nigel Maxted of the University of Birmingham's School of Biosciences told the Independent. "Wheat is not a native UK species. It was brought from the Fertile Crescent centuries ago."

Globally, the highest concentration of CWR per unit area is found within the borders of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel, the scientists report. Ongoing conflicts in this region have increasingly threatened the conservation of these vital plants, as both access and protection are limited.

Comment: As agriculture and grazing lands produce less and less due to human manipulation, stripping soil viability and mineral content, GMO frankenstrains and increasingly unstable weather patterns, it seems the fertile Middle East may inherit another reason for conflict besides empirical land grabs and oil greed...global food shortages. Will humanity plan ahead and rise admirably to this crisis or will we create WMEs: weapons of mass extinction in order to have food for the few?
BTW, Please don't tell Monsanto about the CWRs.

Map

Switzerland braces for Alpine lake tsunami

© Prisma Bildagentur AG/Alamy
The area surrounding Lake Lucerne in Switzerland experiences a magnitude-6 earthquake about once every 1,000 years.
The land of chocolate and clocks could soon be known for something quite different: tsunamis. Authorities in Nidwalden, a canton in landlocked Switzerland, are factoring the risk of a tsunami in Lake Lucerne into their hazard plans. It is the first official acknowledgement of such a threat in Europe's Alpine region - and comes in step with findings that the risk of tsunamis in the area, which is home to around 13 million people, is much higher than previously thought.

Most tsunamis occur in the ocean but they can also occur in enclosed bodies of water, when underwater sediments shift as a result of an earthquake, falling rocks or underlying instability. The hazard that such events pose is outsized. "The same source placed inside a lake can have a bigger impact than along the coast of an open ocean," says Hermann Fritz, who studies tsunamis at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. A tsunami at Lake Yanawayin in Peru in 1971 is thought to have killed 400 - 600 people.

Although not as seismically active as Peru or Japan, the Alps do experience earthquakes from time to time: one as strong as magnitude 6 occurs roughly every millennium around Lake Lucerne, for instance.

The issue of tsunamis in Alpine lakes grabbed the spotlight two years ago when limn­ogeologist Katrina Kremer, then at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and her colleagues reported evidence for a major tsunami in Lake Geneva in ad 563 that had wiped out communities living on its shores1.
Bulb

Miller-Urey experiment revisited: Electricity as the initiator of life as we know it

© Unknown
The famous spark discharge experiment was designed to mimic lightning and the atmosphere of early Earth.
For the first time, researchers have reproduced the results of the Miller-Urey experiment in a computer simulation, yielding new insight into the effect of electricity on the formation of life's building blocks at the quantum level.

In 1953, American chemist Stanley Miller had famously electrified a mixture of simple gas and water to simulate lightning and the atmosphere of early Earth. The revolutionary experiment - which yielded a brownish soup of amino acids - offered a simple potential scenario for the origin of life's building blocks. Miller's work gave birth to modern research on pre-biotic chemistry and the origins of life.

For the past 60 years, scientists have investigated other possible energy sources for the formation of life's building blocks, including ultra violet light, meteorite impacts, and deep sea hydrothermal vents.

Comment: Check out Pierre Lescaudron's book which draws on the 'Electric Universe' concept, information theory, astronomy, paleogeology - and much more - to present an expanded cosmology linking so-called 'climate change' and 'Earth changes' with mankind's role in the greater cosmic environment.

Bomb

Higgs Boson could spell the end of the universe - Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking
© Reuters/Mike Hutchings
Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking
Higgs' elementary particle underpins existence in our universe might become unstable, warns renowned physicist Stephen Hawking. The energy potential of the 'God particle' is so vital for the entire universe it could make the cosmos collide, he concludes.

In a preface to a new book he contributed to, which is essentially a collection of lectures gives by famous scientists and astronomers called 'Starmus', Hawking shared his concerns regarding the Higgs Boson, that Hawkins suspects of being unstable and potentially capable of decay.

"The Higgs potential has the worrisome feature that it might become metastable at energies above 100bn gigaelectronvolts (GeV)," Hawking wrote.

The imminent danger of that power potential is that it could end time any time soon!

"This could mean that the universe could undergo catastrophic vacuum decay, with a bubble of the true vacuum expanding at the speed of light. This could happen at any time and we wouldn't see it coming," Hawking explained, acidly noting that "A particle accelerator that reaches 100bn GeV would be larger than Earth, and is unlikely to be funded in the present economic climate."

Stephen Hawking knows so much he cannot be an optimist by definition. Having spooked the audience once with cruel aliens that could kill us all and with artificial intelligence going the Skynet way one day, and now he is promising the end of the universe. All due to the Higgs Boson elementary particle, which was recently discovered by physicists at CERN's Large Hadron Collider during staged experiments to find this long-ago predicted key element of the Standard Model of particle physics.

The field created by the Higgs Boson is believed to give mass to other particles by slowing their movement through the space vacuum. The existence of such particle was first predicted in the 1960s by British theoretical physicist, Peter Higgs, and six other scientists. However, the hypothesis was only confirmed at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN near Geneva in 2012.

Hawking's bitter attitude towards the Higgs Boson is understandable, the CNET media outlet recalls. The famous physicist lost a $100 bet that the Higgs particle could be unearthed, plus he made a statement after the Higgs particle was finally identified, that for him physics had become less interesting. After all, as the scientist shared earlier, he believes mankind only has 1,000 years left to leave Earth, anyway.
Blue Planet

Giant mountain discovered beneath Pacific Ocean

© Unknown
Credit: University of New Hampshire Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center.
Scientists have uncovered a giant mountain in the Pacific Ocean, with the summit of the seamount rising 1,100 meters from the 5,100-meter-deep ocean floor. The discovery was made around 2,600 kilometers south of Hawaii.

It was uncovered in mid-August by a research team, which was led by NOAA and University of New Hampshire scientist, James Gardner. The team was aiming to try and map the outer limits of the US continental shelf.

Gardner was surveying one of least known parts of the central Pacific Ocean, which was around 300 kilometers south east of uninhabited Jarvis Island. However, the seamount, which has yet to be named, appeared "out of the blue."
Star

New study supports binary star system hypothesis!


The Kepler field of view, located between two bright stars in the summer triangle, rising over the WIYN telescope in southern Arizona.
(Phys.org) - Imagine living on an exoplanet with two suns. One, you orbit and the other is a very bright, nearby neighbor looming large in your sky. With this "second sun" in the sky, nightfall might be a rare event, perhaps only coming seasonally to your planet. A new study suggests that this could be far more common than we realized.

The NASA Kepler Space Telescope has confirmed about 1000 exoplanets, as well as thousands more stars considered "Kepler objects of interest", dubbed KOIs - stars that could possibly host planets.

Until now, there has been an unanswered question about exoplanet host stars; how many host stars are binaries? Binary stars have long been known to be commonplace - about half the stars in the sky are believed to consist of two stars orbiting each other. So, are stars with planets equally likely to have a companion star, or do companion stars affect the formation of planets?

A team of astronomers, led by Dr. Elliott Horch, Southern Connecticut State University, have shown that stars with exoplanets are just as likely to have a binary companion: that is, 40% to 50% of the host stars are actually binary stars. As Dr. Horch said, "It's interesting and exciting that exoplanet systems with stellar companions turn out to be much more common than was believed even just a few years ago."


Comment: Actually, based on data from NASA's Chandra X-ray observatory, it's estimated that over 80% of all stars may be either binary or multiple-star systems. If our own solar system was part of such a binary star system, it could account for many of the 'anomalies' exhibited by the conventional single-star hypothesis. So perhaps our own sun has a 'dark companion' - Nemesis?

For further information read Earth Changes and the Human Cosmic Connection


Comment: Perhaps 'something wicked this way comes?'



Robot

Skynet Rising? International Space Station launches mini-satellites, on its own

© Unknown
The International Space Station has a cannon that launches tiny CubeSat microsatellites into orbit. Most of the time, those launches are triggered by human scientists on board or back on Earth. But this week, the ISS launched two CubeSats entirely on its own. This is how the uprising begins.

Yes, on Thursday night, ISS commander Steve Swanson was loading blood samples into a freezer when he noticed the doors of the CubeSat launcher were open. Swanson alerted mission control in Houston, which confirmed that two CubeSats had been inadvertently released.

It's not the first time this has happened: A NASA status report shows that two other CubeSats were unintentionally released on August 23rd. That means that, of the 12 CubeSats launched into orbit so far, one-third of them got impatient waiting for permission, and just launched themselves.

The CubeSats, made by Planet Labs, are tiny devices roughly the size of a well-stuffed foot-long cheesesteak. The plan is to launch 100 of the baby satellites into orbit to gather detailed, real-time imagery of the Earth below and make it available to anyone on the internet. You can read tons more about Planet Labs' tiny satellite program here.
Cell Phone

Mysterious fake mobile phone towers discovered across USA

fake cell tower
© sovereignfm.com
Fake towers...what do they do and why?
Fake masts are discovered by people using a heavily customised Android device - but it's unclear who owns them. Mysterious fake mobile phone towers discovered across America could be listening in on unsuspecting callers.

A report by Popular Science says the towers have been discovered across the country, and have the ability to attack mobile phones through eavesdropping and installing spyware.

They were discovered by people using a heavily customised Android device called the CryptoPhone 500. It uses a secure version of the software which can tell if the phone is being subjected to what is known as a baseband attack. It is then possible to trace the location of the offending tower.

The fake cell towers were detected in July, but the report states there could be more.

rogue cell towers
© nworeport.me
Rogue cell towers identified by the firewall on CryptoPhones in August.
Les Goldsmith, chief executive of security firm ESD America, told the magazine: "Interceptor use in the US is much higher than people had anticipated. One of our customers took a road trip from Florida to North Carolina and he found eight different interceptors on that trip. We even found one at a casino in Las Vegas."

He said several of the masts were situated near US military bases.

"What we find suspicious is that a lot of these interceptors are right on top of US military bases," he said. "So we begin to wonder - are some of them US government interceptors? Or are some of them Chinese interceptors?

"Whose interceptor is it? Who are they, that's listening to calls around military bases? Is it just the US military, or are they foreign governments doing it? The point is: we don't really know whose they are."

Comment: The public has been put on the defensive. In order to avoid personal calls and the information stored in your phone being intercepted and manipulated, a custom firewall has to be installed to alert the user when activation occurs or when rogue cell towers force the use of a less secure network to make the intercept easier - and only if it is a CryptoPhone - and only for government customers with multiple installations. There is no installation or app for single customers (yet, if ever).

IMSI catchers, stingrays or GSM interceptors as they're also called, force a phone to connect to them by emitting a stronger signal than the legitimate towers around them. Once connected, pings from the phone can help the rogue tower identify a phone in the vicinity and track the phone's location and movement while passing the phone signals on to a legitimate tower so the user still receives service. Some of the IMSI software and devices also intercept and decrypt calls and can be used to push malware to vulnerable phones, and also be used to locate air cards used with computers. The systems are designed to be portable so they can be operated from a van or on foot to track a phone as it moves. But some can be stationary and operate from a military base or an embassy. The reach of a rogue tower can be up to a mile away, forcing thousands of phones in a region to connect to it without anyone knowing. It can remote-operate your phone camera and make undisclosed connections. You also might be one of 1,000 or 10,000 people having calls being listened to.

Comforting thoughts, eh? One more thing we are not supposed to know about.

Document

Death of the traditional family: "Different is the new normal," report author claims

Traditional Family
© Thinkstock
The days of a traditional 1950s family where Dad goes off to be the breadwinner and Mom stays home to take care of the kids is long gone, replaced by a "peacock's tail" of various family unit structures, University of Maryland sociologist Philip Cohen claims in a new report prepared for the Council on Contemporary Families (CCF).

In his paper "Family Diversity is the New Normal for America's Children," Cohen reports that only 22 percent of children currently live in a married male-breadwinner family, while 23 percent are cared for by a single mother. Seven out of every 100 live with a parent cohabitating with an unmarried partner, while six live with either a single father or grandparents.

The single largest group of children (34 percent) lives with dual-earner married parents, the study said, but that group represents just slightly over one-third of the whole. That is a far cry from six decades ago, when 65 percent of all kids under the age of 15 were living with a family of married parents where only the father was part of the workforce.

"Different is the new normal. There hasn't been the collapse of one dominant family structure and the rise of another. It's really a fanning out into all kinds of family structures," Cohen told Brigid Schulte of The Washington Post on Thursday. "The big story, really, is the decline of marriage. That's what's really changed."
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